Joseph Mähler portrait of Ludwig van Beethoven (1804-1805)

Posted by: Candace Elizabeth Brooks (a.k.a. Ariadne Phoenix Levinson), Uptown Dallas Art Collective Editor in Chief


This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
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Beethoven’s Letters Volume I and II

Posted by: Candace Elizabeth Brooks (a.k.a. Ariadne Phoenix Levinson), Uptown Dallas Art Collective Editor in Chief

The Project Gutenberg EBook of Beethoven’s Letters 1790-1826, Vol 1 of 2
by Lady Wallace

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

Title: Beethoven’s Letters 1790-1826, Volume 1 of 2

Author: Lady Wallace

Release Date: July 31, 2004 [EBook #13065]

Language: English


Produced by Juliet Sutherland, John Williams and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team.














Since undertaking the translation of Dr. Ludwig Nohl’s valuable edition of
“Beethoven’s Letters,” an additional collection has been published by Dr.
Ludwig Ritter von Köchel, consisting of many interesting letters addressed
by Beethoven to his illustrious pupil, H.R.H. the Archduke Rudolph,
Cardinal-Archbishop of Olmütz. These I have inserted in chronological
order, and marked with the letter K., in order to distinguish them from the
correspondence edited by Dr. Nohl. I have only omitted a few brief notes,
consisting merely of apologies for non-attendance on the Archduke.

The artistic value of these newly discovered treasures will no doubt be as
highly appreciated in this country as in the great _maestro’s_ Father-land.

I must also express my gratitude to Dr. Th.G. v. Karajan, for permitting an
engraving to be made expressly for this work, from an original Beethoven
portrait in his possession, now for the first time given to the public. The
grand and thoughtful countenance forms a fitting introduction to letters so
truly depicting the brilliant, fitful genius of the sublime master, as well
as the touching sadness and gloom pervading his life, which his devotion to
Art alone brightened, through many bitter trials and harassing cares.

The love of Beethoven’s music is now become so universal in England, that I
make no doubt his Letters will receive a hearty welcome from all those
whose spirits have been elevated and soothed by the genius of this
illustrious man.


AINDERBY HALL, March 28, 1866.





In accompanying the present edition of the Letters of Ludwig van Beethoven
with a few introductory remarks, I at once acknowledge that the compilation
of these letters has cost me no slight sacrifices. I must also, however,
mention that an unexpected Christmas donation, generously bestowed on me
with a view to further my efforts to promote the science of music, enabled
me to undertake one of the journeys necessary for my purpose, and also to
complete the revision of the Letters and of the press, in the milder air
and repose of a country residence, long since recommended to me for the
restoration of my health, undermined by overwork.

That, in spite of every effort, I have not succeeded in seeing the original
of each letter, or even discovering the place where it exists, may well be
excused, taking into consideration the slender capabilities of an
individual, and the astonishing manner in which Beethoven’s Letters are
dispersed all over the world. At the same time, I must state that not only
have the hitherto inaccessible treasures of Anton Schindler’s “Beethoven’s
Nachlass” been placed at my disposal, but also other letters from private
sources, owing to various happy chances, and the kindness and complaisance
of collectors of autographs. I know better, however, than most
people–being in a position to do so–that in the present work there can be
no pretension to any thing approaching to a complete collection of
Beethoven’s Letters. The master, so fond of writing, though he often rather
amusingly accuses himself of being a lazy correspondent, may very probably
have sent forth at least double the amount of the letters here given, and
there is no doubt whatever that a much larger number are still extant in
the originals. The only thing that can be done at this moment, however, is
to make the attempt to bring to light, at all events, the letters that
could be discovered in Germany. The mass of those which I gradually
accumulated, and now offer to the public (with the exception of some
insignificant notes), appeared to me sufficiently numerous and important to
interest the world, and also to form a substantial nucleus for any letters
that may hereafter be discovered. On the other hand, as many of Beethoven’s
Letters slumber in foreign lands, especially in the unapproachable cabinets
of curiosities belonging to various close-fisted English collectors, an
entire edition of the correspondence could only be effected by a most
disproportionate outlay of time and expense.

When revising the text of the Letters, it seemed to me needless perpetually
to impair the pleasure of the reader by retaining the mistakes in
orthography; but enough of the style of writing of that day is adhered to,
to prevent its peculiar charm being entirely destroyed. Distorted and
incorrect as Beethoven’s mode of expression sometimes is, I have not
presumed to alter his grammar, or rather syntax, in the smallest degree:
who would presume to do so with an individuality which, even amid startling
clumsiness of style, displays those inherent intellectual powers that often
did violence to language as well as to his fellow-men? Cyclopean masses of
rock are here hurled with Cyclopean force; but hard and massive as they
are, the man is not to be envied whose heart is not touched by these
glowing fragments, flung apparently at random right and left, like meteors,
by a mighty intellectual being, however perverse the treatment language may
have received from him.

The great peculiarity, however, in this strange mode of expression is, that
even such incongruous language faithfully reflects the mind of the man
whose nature was of prophetic depth and heroic force; and who that knows
anything of the creative genius of a Beethoven can deny him these

The antique dignity pervading the whole man, the ethical contemplation of
life forming the basis of his nature, prevented even a momentary wish on my
part to efface a single word of the oft-recurring expressions so painfully
harsh, bordering on the unaesthetic, and even on the repulsive, provoked by
his wrath against the meanness of men. In the last part of these genuine
documents, we learn with a feeling of sadness, and with almost a tragic
sensation, how low was the standard of moral worth, or rather how great was
the positive unworthiness, of the intimate society surrounding the master,
and with what difficulty he could maintain the purity of the nobler part of
his being in such an atmosphere. The manner, indeed, in which he strives to
do so, fluctuating between explosions of harshness and almost weak
yieldingness, while striving to master the base thoughts and conduct of
these men, though never entirely succeeding in doing so, is often more a
diverting than an offensive spectacle. In my opinion, nevertheless, even
this less pleasing aspect of the Letters ought not to be in the slightest
degree softened (which it has hitherto been, owing to false views of
propriety and morality), for it is no moral deformity here displayed.
Indeed, even when the irritable master has recourse to expressions
repugnant to our sense of conventionality, and which may well be called
harsh and rough, still the wrath that seizes on our hero is a just and
righteous wrath, and we disregard it, just as in Nature, whose grandeur
constantly elevates us above the inevitable stains of an earthly soil. The
coarseness and ill-breeding, which would claim toleration because this
great man now and then showed such feelings, must beware of doing so, being
certain to make shipwreck when coming in contact with the massive rock of
true morality on which, with all his faults and deficiencies, Beethoven’s
being was surely grounded. Often, indeed, when absorbed in the
unsophisticated and genuine utterances of this great man, it seems as if
these peculiarities and strange asperities were the results of some
mysterious law of Nature, so that we are inclined to adopt the paradox by
which a wit once described the singular groundwork of our nature,–“The
faults of man are the night in which he rests from his virtues.”

Indeed, I think that the lofty morality of such natures is not fully
evident until we are obliged to confess with regret, that even the great
ones of the earth must pay their tribute to humanity, and really do pay it
(which is the distinction between them and base and petty characters),
without being ever entirely hurled from their pedestal of dignity and
virtue. The soul of that man cannot fail to be elevated, who can seize the
real spirit of the scattered pages that a happy chance has preserved for
us. If not fettered by petty feelings, he will quickly surmount the casual
obstacles and stumbling-blocks which the first perusal of these Letters may
seem to present, and quickly feel himself transported at a single stride
into a stream, where a strange roaring and rushing is heard, but above
which loftier tones resound with magic and exciting power. For a peculiar
life breathes in these lines; an under-current runs through their
apparently unconnected import, uniting them as with an electric chain, and
with firmer links than any mere coherence of subjects could have effected.
I experienced this myself, to the most remarkable degree, when I first made
the attempt to arrange, in accordance with their period and substance, the
hundreds of individual pages bearing neither date nor address, and I was
soon convinced that a connecting text (such as Mozart’s Letters have, and
ought to have) would be here entirely superfluous, as even the best
biographical commentary would be very dry work, interrupting the electric
current of the whole, and thus destroying its peculiar effect.

And now, what is this spirit which, for an intelligent mind, binds together
these scattered fragments into a whole, and what is its actual power? I
cannot tell; but I feel to this day just as I felt to the innermost depths
of my heart in the days of my youth when I first heard a symphony of
Beethoven’s,–that a spirit breathes from it bearing us aloft with giant
power out of the oppressive atmosphere of sense, stirring to its inmost
recesses the heart of man, bringing him to the full consciousness of his
loftier being, and of the undying within him. And even more distinctly than
when a new world was thus disclosed to his youthful feelings is the _man_
fully conscious that not only was this a new world to him, but a new world
of feeling in itself, revealing to the spirit phases of its own, which,
till Beethoven appeared, had never before been fathomed. Call it by what
name you will, when one of the great works of the sublime master is heard,
whether indicative of proud self-consciousness, freedom, spring, love,
storm, or battle, it grasps the soul with singular force, and enlarges the
laboring breast. Whether a man understands music or not, every one who has
a heart beating within his breast will feel with enchantment that here is
concentrated the utmost promised to us by the most imaginative of our
poets, in bright visions of happiness and freedom. Even the only great hero
of action, who in those memorable days is worthy to stand beside the great
master of harmony, having diffused among mankind new and priceless earthly
treasures, sinks in the scale when we compare these with the celestial
treasures of a purified and deeper feeling, and a more free, enlarged, and
sublime view of the world, struggling gradually and distinctly upwards out
of the mere frivolity of an art devoid of words to express itself, and
impressing its stamp on the spirit of the age. They convey, too, the
knowledge of this brightest victory of genuine German intellect to those
for whom the sweet Muse of Music is as a book with seven seals, and reveal,
likewise, a more profound sense of Beethoven’s being to many who already,
through the sweet tones they have imbibed, enjoy some dawning conviction of
the master’s grandeur, and who now more and more eagerly lend a listening
ear to the intellectual clearly worded strains so skilfully interwoven,
thus soon to arrive at the full and blissful comprehension of those grand
outpourings of the spirit, and finally to add another bright delight to the
enjoyment of those who already know and love Beethoven. All these may be
regarded as the objects I had in view when I undertook to edit his Letters,
which have also bestowed on myself the best recompense of my labors, in the
humble conviction that by this means I may have vividly reawakened in the
remembrance of many the mighty mission which our age is called on to
perform for the development of our race, even in the realm of
harmony,–more especially in our Father-land.


March, 1865.




1. To the Elector of Cologne, Frederick Maximilian.
2. To Dr. Schade, Augsburg
3. To the Elector Maximilian Francis
4. To Eleonore von Breuning, Bonn
5. To the Same
6. To Herr Schenk
7. To Dr. Wegeler, Vienna
8. To the Same
9. Lines written in the Album of L. von Breuning
10. To Baron Zmeskall von Domanowecz
11. Ukase to Zmeskall, Schuppanzigh, and Lichnowsky
12. To Pastor Amenda, Courland
13. To the Same
14. To Wegeler
15. To Countess Giulietta Guicciardi
16. To Matthisson
17. To Frau Frank, Vienna
18. To Wegeler
19. To Kapellmeister Hofmeister, Leipzig
20. To the Same
21. To the Same
22. To the Same
23. Dedication to Dr. Schmidt
24. To Ferdinand Ries
25. To Herr Hofmeister, Leipzig
26. To Carl and Johann Beethoven
27. Notice
28. To Ferdinand Ries
29. To Herr Hofmeister, Leipzig
30. Caution
31. To Ries
32. To the Same
33. To the Same
34. To the Same
35. To the Composer Leidesdorf, Vienna
36. To Ries
37. To the Same
38. To the Same
39. To Messrs. Artaria & Co.
40. To Princess Liechtenstein
41. To Herr Meyer
42. Testimonial for C. Czerny
43. To Herr Röckel
44. To Herr Collin, Court Secretary and Poet
45. To Herr Gleichenstein
46. To the Directors of the Court Theatre
47. To Count Franz von Oppersdorf
48. Notice of a Memorial to the Archduke Rudolph, Prince Kinsky,
and Prince Lobkowitz
49. Memorial to the Same
50. To Zmeskall
51. To Ferdinand Ries
52. To Zmeskall
53. To the Same
54. To the Same
55. To the Same
56. To the Same
57. To the Same
58. To the Same
59. To Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall
60. To the Same
61. To Baroness von Drossdick
62. To Mdlle. de Gerardi
63. To Zmeskall
64. To Wegeler
65. To Zmeskall
66. To Bettina Brentano
67. To the Same
68. To Zmeskall
69. To the Same
70. To the Archduke Rudolph
71. To a Dear Friend
72. To the Dramatic Poet Treitschke
73. To Zmeskall
74. To the Same
75. To the Same
76. To the Same
77. To the Same
78. To the Same
79. To the Same
80. To Kammerprocurator Varenna, Gratz
81. To Zmeskall
82. To the Same
83. To Varenna, Gratz
84. To Zmeskall
85. To Varenna
86. To Archduke Rudolph
87. To the Same
88. To Varenna, Gratz
89. To Joseph Freiherr von Schweiger
90. To Varenna, Gratz
91. Lines written in the Album of Mdme. Auguste Sebald
92. To Archduke Rudolph
93. To Bettina von Arnim
94. To Princess Kinsky
95. To Archduke Rudolph
96. To the Same
97. To the Same
98. To Princess Kinsky
99. To the Same
100. To Zmeskall
101. To Herr Joseph Varenna, Gratz
102. To the Same
103. To Zmeskall
104. To the Same
105. To the Same
106. To the Same
107. To the Same
108. To the Same
109. To the Same
110. To Archduke Rudolph
111. To the Same
112. To the Same
113. To Freiherr Josef von Schweiger
114. To Herr von Baumeister
115. To Zmeskall
116. Letter of Thanks
117. To the Archduke Rudolph
118. To the Same
119. To the Same
120. To Treitschke
121. To the Same
122. To the Same
123. To Count Lichnowsky.
124. To the Same
125. To the Archduke Rudolph
126. To the Same
127. Deposition
128. To Dr. Kauka, Prague.
129. Address and Appeal to London Artists
130. To Dr. Kauka
131. To Count Moritz Lichnowsky
132. To the Archduke Rudolph
133. To the Same
134. To the Same
135. To the Same
136. To the Same
137. To the Same
138. To the Same
139. To the Same
140. To Dr. Kauka
141. To the Same
142. To the Same
143. To the Members of the Landrecht
144. To Baron von Pasqualati
145. To Dr. Kauka
146. To the Archduke Rudolph



147. Music written in Spohr’s Album
148. To Dr. Kauka
149. To the Same
150. To the Same
151. To Mr. Salomon, London
152. To the Archduke Rudolph
153. To the Same
154. To the Same
155. To the Same
156. To the Same
157. To the Same
158. To Mr. Birchall, Music Publisher, London
159. To Zmeskall
160. To the Archduke Rudolph
161. To Messrs. Birchall, London
162. To Herr Ries
163. To Zmeskall
164. To Mdlle. Milder-Hauptmann
165. To Ries
166. To Mr. Birchall, London
167. To Czerny
168. To the Same
169. To Ries, London
170. To Giannatasio del Rio, Vienna
171. To the Same
172. To the Same
173. To the Same
174. To Ferdinand Ries, London
175. To the Same
176. Power of Attorney
177. To Ferdinand Ries
178. To Giannatasio del Rio
179. To the Same
180. To the Archduke Rudolph
181. To Mr. Birchall London
182. To the Same
183. To Giannatasio del Rio
184. To the Same
185. To Zmeskall
186. To Dr. Kauka
187. Query
188. To Giannatasio del Rio
189. To the Same
190. To Wegeler
191. To Mr. Birchall, London
192. To Zmeskall
193. To the Archduke Rudolph
194. To Freiherr von Schweiger
195. To Giannatasio del Rio
196. To the Same
197. To the Same
198. To the Same
199. To Herr Tschischka
200. To Mr. Birchall
201. To Zmeskall
202. To Frau von Streicher
203. To the Same
204. To the Same
205. To the Same
206. To the Same
207. To the Archduke Rudolph
208. To Giannatasio del Rio
209. To the Same
210. To the Same
211. To Hofrath von Mosel
212. To S.A. Steiner, Music Publisher, Vienna
213. To the Same
214. To the Same
215. To Zmeskall


1783 TO 1815.






Music from my fourth year has ever been my favorite pursuit. Thus early
introduced to the sweet Muse, who attuned my soul to pure harmony, I loved
her, and sometimes ventured to think that I was beloved by her in return. I
have now attained my eleventh year, and my Muse often whispered to me in
hours of inspiration,–Try to write down the harmonies in your soul. Only
eleven years old! thought I; does the character of an author befit me? and
what would more mature artists say? I felt some trepidation; but my Muse
willed it–so I obeyed, and wrote.

May I now, therefore, Illustrious Prince, presume to lay the first-fruits
of my juvenile labors at the foot of your throne? and may I hope that you
will condescend to cast an encouraging and kindly glance on them? You will;
for Art and Science have ever found in you a judicious protector and a
generous patron, and rising talent has always prospered under your
fostering and fatherly care. Encouraged by this cheering conviction, I
venture to approach you with these my youthful efforts. Accept them as the
pure offering of childlike reverence, and graciously vouchsafe to regard
with indulgence them and their youthful composer,


[Footnote 1: The dedication affixed to this work, “Three Sonatas for the
Piano, dedicated to my illustrious master, Maximilian Friedrich, Archbishop
and Elector of Cologne, by Ludwig van Beethoven in his eleventh year,” is
probably not written by the boy himself, but is given here as an amusing
contrast to his subsequent ideas with regard to the homage due to rank.]



Bonn, 1787. Autumn.


I can easily imagine what you must think of me, and I cannot deny that you
have too good grounds for an unfavorable opinion. I shall not, however,
attempt to justify myself, until I have explained to you the reasons why my
apologies should be accepted. I must tell you that from the time I left
Augsburg[1] my cheerfulness, as well as my health, began to decline; the
nearer I came to my native city, the more frequent were the letters from my
father, urging me to travel with all possible speed, as my mother’s health
was in a most precarious condition. I therefore hurried forwards as fast as
I could, although myself far from well. My longing once more to see my
dying mother overcame every obstacle, and assisted me in surmounting the
greatest difficulties. I found my mother indeed still alive, but in the
most deplorable state; her disease was consumption, and about seven weeks
ago, after much pain and suffering, she died [July 17]. She was indeed a
kind, loving mother to me, and my best friend. Ah! who was happier than I,
when I could still utter the sweet name of mother, and it was heard? But to
whom can I now say it? Only to the silent form resembling her, evoked by
the power of imagination. I have passed very few pleasant hours since my
arrival here, having during the whole time been suffering from asthma,
which may, I fear, eventually turn to consumption; to this is added
melancholy,–almost as great an evil as my malady itself. Imagine yourself
in my place, and then I shall hope to receive your forgiveness for my long
silence. You showed me extreme kindness and friendship by lending me three
Carolins in Augsburg, but I must entreat your indulgence for a time. My
journey cost me a great deal, and I have not the smallest hopes of earning
anything here. Fate is not propitious to me in Bonn. Pardon my intruding on
you so long with my affairs, but all that I have said was necessary for my
own justification.

I do entreat you not to deprive me of your valuable friendship; nothing do
I wish so much as in any degree to become worthy of your regard. I am, with
all esteem, your obedient servant and friend,


_Cologne Court Organist._

[Footnote 1: On his return from Vienna, whither Max Franz had sent him for
the further cultivation of his talents.]





Some years ago your Highness was pleased to grant a pension to my father,
the Court tenor Van Beethoven, and further graciously to decree that 100 R.
Thalers of his salary should be allotted to me, for the purpose of
maintaining, clothing, and educating my two younger brothers, and also
defraying the debts incurred by our father. It was my intention to present
this decree to your Highness’s treasurer, but my father earnestly implored
me to desist from doing so, that he might not be thus publicly proclaimed
incapable himself of supporting his family, adding that he would engage to
pay me the 25 R.T. quarterly, which he punctually did. After his death,
however (in December last), wishing to reap the benefit of your Highness’s
gracious boon, by presenting the decree, I was startled to find that my
father had destroyed it.

I therefore, with all dutiful respect, entreat your Highness to renew this
decree, and to order the paymaster of your Highness’s treasury to grant me
the last quarter of this benevolent addition to my salary (due the
beginning of February). I have the honor to remain,

Your Highness’s most obedient and faithful servant,


_Court Organist._

[Footnote 1: An electoral decree was issued in compliance with this request
on May 3, 1793.]



Vienna, Nov. 2, 1793.


A year of my stay in this capital has nearly elapsed before you receive a
letter from me, and yet the most vivid remembrance of you is ever present
with me. I have often conversed in thought with you and your dear family,
though not always in the happy mood I could have wished, for that fatal
misunderstanding still hovered before me, and my conduct at that time is
now hateful in my sight. But so it was, and how much would I give to have
the power wholly to obliterate from my life a mode of acting so degrading
to myself, and so contrary to the usual tenor of my character!

Many circumstances, indeed, contributed to estrange us, and I suspect that
those tale-bearers who repeated alternately to you and to me our mutual
expressions were the chief obstacles to any good understanding between us.
Each believed that what was said proceeded from deliberate conviction,
whereas it arose only from anger, fanned by others; so we were both
mistaken. Your good and noble disposition, my dear friend, is sufficient
security that you have long since forgiven me. We are told that the best
proof of sincere contrition is to acknowledge our faults; and this is what
I wish to do. Let us now draw a veil over the whole affair, learning one
lesson from it,–that when friends are at variance, it is always better to
employ no mediator, but to communicate directly with each other.

With this you will receive a dedication from me [the variations on “Se vuol
ballare”]. My sole wish is that the work were greater and more worthy of
you. I was applied to here to publish this little work, and I take
advantage of the opportunity, my beloved Eleonore, to give you a proof of
my regard and friendship for yourself, and also a token of my enduring
remembrance of your family. Pray then accept this trifle, and do not forget
that it is offered by a devoted friend. Oh! if it only gives you pleasure,
my wishes will be fulfilled. May it in some degree recall the time when I
passed so many happy hours in your house! Perhaps it may serve to remind
you of me till I return, though this is indeed a distant prospect. Oh! how
we shall then rejoice together, my dear Eleonore! You will, I trust, find
your friend a happier man, all former forbidding, careworn furrows smoothed
away by time and better fortune.

When you see B. Koch [subsequently Countess Belderbusch], pray say that it
is unkind in her never once to have written to me. I wrote to her twice,
and three times to Malchus (afterwards Westphalian Minister of Finance),
but no answer. Tell her that if she does not choose to write herself, I beg
that she will at least urge Malchus to do so. At the close of my letter I
venture to make one more request–I am anxious to be so fortunate as again
to possess an Angola waistcoat knitted by your own hand, my dear friend.
Forgive my indiscreet request; it proceeds from my great love for all that
comes from you; and I may privately admit that a little vanity is connected
with it, namely, that I may say I possess something from the best and most
admired young lady in Bonn. I still have the one you were so good as to
give me in Bonn; but change of fashion has made it look so antiquated, that
I can only treasure it in my wardrobe as your gift, and thus still very
dear to me. You would make me very happy by soon writing me a kind letter.
If mine cause you any pleasure, I promise you to do as you wish, and write
as often as it lies in my power; indeed everything is acceptable to me that
can serve to show you how truly I am your admiring and sincere friend,


P.S. The variations are rather difficult to play, especially the shake in
the _Coda_; but do not be alarmed at this, being so contrived that you only
require to play the shake, and leave out the other notes, which also occur
in the violin part. I never would have written it in this way, had I not
occasionally observed that there was a certain individual in Vienna who,
when I extemporized the previous evening, not unfrequently wrote down next
day many of the peculiarities of my music, adopting them as his own [for
instance, the Abbé Gelinek]. Concluding, therefore, that some of these
things would soon appear, I resolved to anticipate this. Another reason
also was to puzzle some of the pianoforte teachers here, many of whom are
my mortal foes; so I wished to revenge myself on them in this way, knowing
that they would occasionally be asked to play the variations, when these
gentlemen would not appear to much advantage.




The beautiful neckcloth, embroidered by your own hand, was the greatest
possible surprise to me; yet, welcome as the gift was, it awakened within
me feelings of sadness. Its effect was to recall former days, and to put me
to shame by your noble conduct to me. I, indeed, little thought that you
still considered me worthy of your remembrance.

Oh! if you could have witnessed my emotions yesterday when this incident
occurred, you would not think that I exaggerate in saying that such a token
of your recollection brought tears to my eyes, and made me feel very sad.
Little as I may deserve favor in your eyes, believe me, my dear _friend_,
(let me still call you so,) I have suffered, and still suffer severely from
the privation of your friendship. Never can I forget you and your dear
mother. You were so kind to me that your loss neither can nor will be
easily replaced. I know what I have forfeited, and what you were to me, but
in order to fill up this blank I must recur to scenes equally painful for
you to hear and for me to detail.

As a slight requital of your kind _souvenir_, I take the liberty to send
you some variations, and a Rondo with violin accompaniment. I have a great
deal to do, or I would long since have transcribed the Sonata I promised
you. It is as yet a mere sketch in manuscript, and to copy it would be a
difficult task even for the clever and practised Paraquin [counter-bass in
the Electoral orchestra]. You can have the Rondo copied, and return the
score. What I now send is the only one of my works at all suitable for you;
besides, as you are going to Kerpen [where an uncle of the family lived], I
thought these trifles might cause you pleasure.

Farewell, my friend; for it is impossible for me to give you any other
name. However indifferent I may be to you, believe me, I shall ever
continue to revere you and your mother as I have always done. If I can in
any way contribute to the fulfilment of a wish of yours, do not fail to let
me know, for I have no other means of testifying my gratitude for past

I wish you an agreeable journey, and that your dear mother may return
entirely restored to health! Think sometimes of your affectionate friend,




June, 1794.


I did not know that I was to set off to-day to Eisenstadt. I should like to
have talked to you again. In the mean time rest assured of my gratitude for
your obliging services. I shall endeavor, so far as it lies in my power, to
requite them. I hope soon to see you, and once more to enjoy the pleasure
of your society. Farewell, and do not entirely forget your


[Footnote 1: Schenk, afterwards celebrated as the composer of the “Dorf
Barbier,” was for some time Beethoven’s teacher in composition. This note
appears to have been written in June, 1794, and first printed in the
“Freischütz,” No. 183, about 1836, at the time of Schenk’s death, when his
connection with Beethoven was mentioned.]



… In what an odious light have you exhibited me to myself! Oh! I
acknowledge it, I do not deserve your friendship. It was no intentional or
deliberate malice that induced me to act towards you as I did, but
inexcusable thoughtlessness alone.

I say no more. I am coming to throw myself into your arms, and to entreat
you to restore me my lost friend; and you will give him back to me, to your
penitent, loving, and ever-grateful


[Footnote 1: Dr. Wegeler, in answer to my request that he would send me the
entire letter, replied that “the passages omitted in the letter consisted
chiefly in eulogiums of his father, and enthusiastic expressions of
friendship, which did not seem to him to be of any value; but besides this,
the same reasons that induced his father to give only a portion of the
letter were imperative with him also.” I do not wish to contest the point
with the possessor of the letter; still I may remark that all the
utterances and letters of a great man belong to the world at large, and
that in a case like the present, the conscientious biographer, who strives
faithfully to portray such a man, is alone entitled to decide what portion
of these communications is fitted for publication, and what is not. Any
considerations of a personal character seem to me very trivial.]



Vienna, May 1797.

God speed you, my dear friend! I owe you a letter which you shall shortly
have, and my newest music besides, _I am going on well; indeed, I may say
every day better._ Greet those to whom it will give pleasure from me.
Farewell, and do not forget your




Vienna, Oct. 1, 1797.

Truth for the wise,
Beauty for a feeling heart,
And both for each other.


Never can I forget the time I passed with you, not only in Bonn, but here.
Continue your friendship towards me, for you shall always find me the same
true friend,





[Music: Alto, Tenor, Bass clefs, C Major, 4/4 time, Grave.
ALTO. Ba-ron.
TENORE. Ba-ron.
BASSO. Ba-ron. Ba-ron. Ba-ron.]


Desire the guitar-player to come to me to-day. Amenda (instead of an
_amende_ [fine], which he sometimes deserves for not observing his rests
properly) must persuade this popular guitarist to visit me, and if possible
to come at five o’clock this evening; if not then, at five or six o’clock
to-morrow morning; but he must not waken me if I chance to be still asleep.
_Adieu, mon ami à bon marché._ Perhaps we may meet at the “Swan”?

[Footnote 1: As it appears from the following letters that Amenda was again
at home in 1800, the date of this note is thus ascertained. It is
undoubtedly addressed to Baron Zmeskall von Domanowecz, Royal Court
Secretary, a good violoncello-player, and one of Beethoven’s earliest
friends in Vienna. The “guitarist” was probably the celebrated Giuliani,
who lived in Vienna.]


The musical Count is from this day forth _cashiered_ with infamy. The first
violin [Schuppanzigh] ruthlessly transported to _Siberia_. The Baron [see
No. 10] for a whole month _strictly interdicted from asking questions_; no
longer to be so hasty, and to devote himself exclusively to his _ipse


[Footnote 1: Written in gigantic characters in pencil on a large sheet of
paper. The “musical Count” is probably Count Moritz Lichnowsky, brother of
Prince Carl Lichnowsky, in whose house were held those musical performances
in which Beethoven’s works were first produced. Even at that time he
behaved in a very dictatorial manner to those gentlemen when his
compositions were badly executed. Thence the name given him by Haydn of
“The Great Mogul.”]



Does Amenda think that I can ever forget him, because I do not write? in
fact, never have written to him?–as if the memory of our friends could
only thus be preserved! The _best man I ever knew_ has a thousand times
recurred to my thoughts! Two persons alone once possessed my whole love,
one of whom still lives, and you are now the third. How can my remembrance
of you ever fade? You will shortly receive a long letter about my present
circumstances and all that can interest you. Farewell, beloved, good, and
noble friend! Ever continue your love and friendship towards me, just as I
shall ever be your faithful






I received and read your last letter with deep emotion, and with mingled
pain and pleasure. To what can I compare your fidelity and devotion to me?
Ah! it is indeed delightful that you still continue to love me so well. I
know how to prize you, and to distinguish you from all others; you are not
like my Vienna friends. No! you are one of those whom the soil of my
fatherland is wont to bring forth; how often I wish that you were with me,
for your Beethoven is very unhappy. You must know that one of my most
precious faculties, that of hearing, is become very defective; even while
you were still with me I felt indications of this, though I said nothing;
but it is now much worse. Whether I shall ever be cured remains yet to be
seen; it is supposed to proceed from the state of my digestive organs, but
I am almost entirely recovered in that respect. I hope indeed that my
hearing may improve, but I scarcely think so, for attacks of this kind are
the most incurable of all. How sad my life must now be!–forced to shun all
that is most dear and precious to me, and to live with such miserable
egotists as —-, &c. I can with truth say that of all my friends
Lichnowsky [Prince Carl] is the most genuine. He last year settled 600
florins on me, which, together with the good sale of my works, enables me
to live free from care as to my maintenance. All that I now write I can
dispose of five times over, and be well paid into the bargain. I have been
writing a good deal latterly, and as I hear that you have ordered some
pianos from —-, I will send you some of my compositions in the
packing-case of one of these instruments, by which means they will not cost
you so much.

To my great comfort, a person has returned here with whom I can enjoy the
pleasures of society and disinterested friendship,–one of the friends of
my youth [Stephan von Breuning]. I have often spoken to him of you, and
told him that since I left my fatherland, you are one of those to whom my
heart specially clings. Z. [Zmeskall?] does not seem quite to please him;
he is, and always will be, too weak for true friendship, and I look on him
and —- as mere instruments on which I play as I please, but never can
they bear noble testimony to my inner and outward energies, or feel true
sympathy with me; I value them only in so far as their services deserve.
Oh! how happy should I now be, had I my full sense of hearing; I would then
hasten to you; whereas, as it is, I must withdraw from everything. My best
years will thus pass away, without effecting what my talents and powers
might have enabled me to perform. How melancholy is the resignation in
which I must take refuge! I had determined to rise superior to all this,
but how is it possible? If in the course of six months my malady be
pronounced incurable then, Amenda! I shall appeal to you to leave all else
and come to me, when I intend to travel (my affliction is less distressing
when playing and composing, and most so in intercourse with others), and
you must be my companion. I have a conviction that good fortune will not
forsake me, for to what may I not at present aspire? Since you were here I
have written everything except operas and church music. You will not, I
know, refuse my petition; you will help your friend to bear his burden and
his calamity. I have also very much perfected my pianoforte playing, and I
hope that a journey of this kind may possibly contribute to your own
success in life, and you would thenceforth always remain with me. I duly
received all your letters, and though I did not reply to them, you were
constantly present with me, and my heart beats as tenderly as ever for you.
I beg you will keep the fact of my deafness a profound secret, and not
confide it to any human being. Write to me frequently; your letters,
however short, console and cheer me; so I shall soon hope to hear from you.

Do not give your quartet to any one [in F, Op. 18, No. 1], as I have
altered it very much, having only now succeeded in writing quartets
properly; this you will at once perceive when you receive it. Now,
farewell, my dear kind friend! If by any chance I can serve you here, I
need not say that you have only to command me.

Your faithful and truly attached




Vienna, June 29, 1800.


How much I thank you for your remembrance of me, little as I deserve it, or
have sought to deserve it; and yet you are so kind that you allow nothing,
not even my unpardonable neglect, to discourage you, always remaining the
same true, good, and faithful friend. That I can ever forget you or yours,
once so dear and precious to me, do not for a moment believe. There are
times when I find myself longing to see you again, and wishing that I could
go to stay with you. My father-land, that lovely region where I first saw
the light, is still as distinct and beauteous in my eyes as when I quitted
you; in short, I shall esteem the time when I once more see you, and again
greet Father Rhine, as one of the happiest periods of my life. When this
may be I cannot yet tell; but at all events I may say that you shall not
see me again till I have become eminent, not only as an artist, but better
and more perfect as a man; and if the condition of our father-land be then
more prosperous, my art shall be entirely devoted to the benefit of the
poor. Oh, blissful moment!–how happy do I esteem myself that I can
expedite it and bring it to pass!

You desire to know something of my position; well! it is by no means bad.
However incredible it may appear, I must tell you that Lichnowsky has been,
and still is, my warmest friend (slight dissensions occurred occasionally
between us, and yet they only served to strengthen our friendship). He
settled on me last year the sum of 600 florins, for which I am to draw on
him till I can procure some suitable situation. My compositions are very
profitable, and I may really say that I have almost more commissions than
it is possible for me to execute. I can have six or seven publishers or
more for every piece, if I choose; they no longer bargain with me–I
demand, and they pay–so you see this is a very good thing. For instance, I
have a friend in distress, and my purse does not admit of my assisting him
at once; but I have only to sit down and write, and in a short time he is
relieved. I am also become more economical than formerly. If I finally
settle here, I don’t doubt I shall be able to secure a particular day every
year for a concert, of which I have already given several. That malicious
demon, however, bad health, has been a stumbling-block in my path; my
hearing during the last three years has become gradually worse. The chief
cause of this infirmity proceeds from the state of my digestive organs,
which, as you know, were formerly bad enough, but have latterly become much
worse, and being constantly afflicted with diarrhoea, has brought on
extreme weakness. Frank [Director of the General Hospital] strove to
restore the tone of my digestion by tonics, and my hearing by oil of
almonds; but alas! these did me no good whatever; my hearing became worse,
and my digestion continued in its former plight. This went on till the
autumn of last year, when I was often reduced to utter despair. Then some
medical _asinus_ recommended me cold baths, but a more judicious doctor the
tepid ones of the Danube, which did wonders for me; my digestion improved,
but my hearing remained the same, or in fact rather got worse. I did indeed
pass a miserable winter; I suffered from most dreadful spasms, and sank
back into my former condition. Thus it went on till about a month ago, when
I consulted Vering [an army surgeon], under the belief that my maladies
required surgical advice; besides, I had every confidence in him. He
succeeded in almost entirely checking the violent diarrhoea, and ordered me
the tepid baths of the Danube, into which I pour some strengthening
mixture. He gave me no medicine, except some digestive pills four days ago,
and a lotion for my ears. I certainly do feel better and stronger, but my
ears are buzzing and ringing perpetually, day and night. I can with truth
say that my life is very wretched; for nearly two years past I have avoided
all society, because I find it impossible to say to people, _I am deaf!_ In
any other profession this might be more tolerable, but in mine such a
condition is truly frightful. Besides, what would my enemies say to
this?–and they are not few in number.

To give you some idea of my extraordinary deafness, I must tell you that in
the theatre I am obliged to lean close up against the orchestra in order to
understand the actors, and when a little way off I hear none of the high
notes of instruments or singers. It is most astonishing that in
conversation some people never seem to observe this; being subject to fits
of absence, they attribute it to that cause. I often can scarcely hear a
person if speaking low; I can distinguish the tones, but not the words, and
yet I feel it intolerable if any one shouts to me. Heaven alone knows how
it is to end! Vering declares that I shall certainly improve, even if I be
not entirely restored. How often have I cursed my existence! Plutarch led
me to resignation. I shall strive if possible to set Fate at defiance,
although there must be moments in my life when I cannot fail to be the most
unhappy of God’s creatures. I entreat you to say nothing of my affliction
to any one, not even to Lorchen [see Nos. 4 and 5]. I confide the secret to
you alone, and entreat you some day to correspond with Vering on the
subject. If I continue in the same state, I shall come to you in the
ensuing spring, when you must engage a house for me somewhere in the
country, amid beautiful scenery, and I shall then become a rustic for a
year, which may perhaps effect a change. Resignation!–what a miserable
refuge! and yet it is my sole remaining one. You will forgive my thus
appealing to your kindly sympathies at a time when your own position is sad
enough. Stephan Breuning is here, and we are together almost every day; it
does me so much good to revive old feelings! He has really become a capital
good fellow, not devoid of talent, and his heart, like that of us all,
pretty much in the right place. [See No. 13.]

I have very charming rooms at present, adjoining the Bastei [the ramparts],
and peculiarly valuable to me on account of my health [at Baron
Pasqualati’s]. I do really think I shall be able to arrange that Breuning
shall come to me. You shall have your Antiochus [a picture], and plenty of
my music besides–if, indeed, it will not cost you too much. Your love of
art does honestly rejoice me. Only say how it is to be done, and I will
send you all my works, which now amount to a considerable number, and are
daily increasing. I beg you will let me have my grandfather’s portrait as
soon as possible by the post, in return for which I send you that of his
grandson, your loving and attached Beethoven. It has been brought out here
by Artaria, who, as well as many other publishers, has often urged this on
me. I intend soon to write to Stoffeln [Christoph von Breuning], and
plainly admonish him about his surly humor. I mean to sound in his ears our
old friendship, and to insist on his promising me not to annoy you further
in your sad circumstances. I will also write to the amiable Lorchen. Never
have I forgotten one of you, my kind friends, though you did not hear from
me; but you know well that writing never was my _forte_, even my best
friends having received no letters from me for years. I live wholly in my
music, and scarcely is one work finished when another is begun; indeed, I
am now often at work on three or four things at the same time. Do write to
me frequently, and I will strive to find time to write to you also. Give my
remembrances to all, especially to the kind Frau Hofräthin [von Breuning],
and say to her that I am still subject to an occasional _raptus_. As for
K—-, I am not at all surprised at the change in her: Fortune rolls like a
ball, and does not always stop before the best and noblest. As to Ries
[Court musician in Bonn], to whom pray cordially remember me, I must say
one word. I will write to you more particularly about his son [Ferdinand],
although I believe that he would be more likely to succeed in Paris than in
Vienna, which is already overstocked, and where even those of the highest
merit find it a hard matter to maintain themselves. By next autumn or
winter, I shall be able to see what can be done for him, because then all
the world returns to town. Farewell, my kind, faithful Wegeler! Rest
assured of the love and friendship of your




Morning, July 6, 1800.


Only a few words to-day, written with a pencil (your own). My residence
cannot be settled till to-morrow. What a tiresome loss of time! Why this
deep grief when necessity compels?–can our love exist without sacrifices,
and by refraining from desiring all things? Can you alter the fact that you
are not wholly mine, nor I wholly yours? Ah! contemplate the beauties of
Nature, and reconcile your spirit to the inevitable. Love demands all, and
has a right to do so, and thus it is _I feel towards you_ and _you towards
me_; but you do not sufficiently remember that I must live both _for you_
and _for myself_. Were we wholly united, you would feel this sorrow as
little as I should. My journey was terrible. I did not arrive here till
four o’clock yesterday morning, as no horses were to be had. The drivers
chose another route; but what a dreadful one it was! At the last stage I
was warned not to travel through the night, and to beware of a certain
wood, but this only incited me to go forward, and I was wrong. The carriage
broke down, owing to the execrable roads, mere deep rough country lanes,
and had it not been for the postilions I must have been left by the
wayside. Esterhazy, travelling the usual road, had the same fate with eight
horses, whereas I had only four. Still I felt a certain degree of pleasure,
which I invariably do when I have happily surmounted any difficulty. But I
must now pass from the outer to the inner man. We shall, I trust, soon meet
again; to-day I cannot impart to you all the reflections I have made,
during the last few days, on my life; were our hearts closely united
forever, none of these would occur to me. My heart is overflowing with all
I have to say to you. Ah! there are moments when I find that speech is
actually nothing. Take courage! Continue to be ever my true and only love,
my all! as I am yours. The gods must ordain what is further to be and shall

Your faithful


Monday Evening, July 6.

You grieve! dearest of all beings! I have just heard that the letters must
be sent off very early. Mondays and Thursdays are the only days when the
post goes to K. from here. You grieve! Ah! where I am, there you are ever
with me; how earnestly shall I strive to pass my life with you, and what a
life will it be!!! Whereas now!! without you!! and persecuted by the
kindness of others, which I neither deserve nor try to deserve! The
servility of man towards his fellow-man pains me, and when I regard myself
as a component part of the universe, what am I, what is he who is called
the greatest?–and yet herein are displayed the godlike feelings of
humanity!–I weep in thinking that you will receive no intelligence from me
till probably Saturday. However dearly you may love me, I love you more
fondly still. Never conceal your feelings from me. Good-night! As a patient
at these baths, I must now go to rest [a few words are here effaced by
Beethoven himself]. Oh, heavens! so near, and yet so far! Is not our love a
truly celestial mansion, but firm as the vault of heaven itself?

July 7.


Even before I rise, my thoughts throng to you, my immortal
beloved!–sometimes full of joy, and yet again sad, waiting to see whether
Fate will hear us. I must live either wholly with you, or not at all.
Indeed I have resolved to wander far from you [see No. 13] till the moment
arrives when I can fly into your arms, and feel that they are my home, and
send forth my soul in unison with yours into the realm of spirits. Alas! it
must be so! You will take courage, for you know my fidelity. Never can
another possess my heart–never, never! Oh, heavens! Why must I fly from
her I so fondly love? and yet my existence in W. was as miserable as here.
Your love made me the most happy and yet the most unhappy of men. At my
age, life requires a uniform equality; can this be found in our mutual
relations? My angel! I have this moment heard that the post goes every day,
so I must conclude, that you may get this letter the sooner. Be calm! for
we can only attain our object of living together by the calm contemplation
of our existence. Continue to love me. Yesterday, to-day, what longings for
you, what tears for you! for you! for you! my life! my all! Farewell! Oh!
love me forever, and never doubt the faithful heart of your lover, L.

Ever thine.
Ever mine.
Ever each other’s.

[Footnote 1: These letters to his “immortal beloved,” to whom the C sharp
minor Sonata is dedicated, appear here for the first time in their
integrity, in accordance with the originals written in pencil on fine
notepaper, and given in Schindler’s _Beethoven’s Nachlass_. There has been
much discussion about the date. It is certified, in the first place, in the
church register which Alex. Thayer saw in Vienna, that Giulietta was
married to Count Gallenberg in 1801; and in the next place, the 6th of July
falls on a Monday in 1800. The other reasons which induce me decidedly to
fix this latter year as the date of the letter, I mean to give at full
length in the second volume of _Beethoven’s Biography_. I may also state
that Beethoven was at baths in Hungary at that time. Whether the K—- in
the second letter means Komorn, I cannot tell.]



Vienna, August 4, 1800.


You will receive with this one of my compositions published some years
since, and yet, to my shame, you probably have never heard of it. I cannot
attempt to excuse myself, or to explain why I dedicated a work to you which
came direct from my heart, but never acquainted you with its existence,
unless indeed in this way, that at first I did not know where you lived,
and partly also from diffidence, which led me to think I might have been
premature in dedicating a work to you before ascertaining that you approved
of it. Indeed, even now I send you “Adelaide” with a feeling of timidity.
You know yourself what changes the lapse of some years brings forth in an
artist who continues to make progress; the greater the advances we make in
art, the less are we satisfied with our works of an earlier date. My most
ardent wish will be fulfilled if you are not dissatisfied with the manner
in which I have set your heavenly “Adelaide” to music, and are incited by
it soon to compose a similar poem; and if you do not consider my request
too indiscreet, I would ask you to send it to me forthwith, that I may
exert all my energies to approach your lovely poetry in merit. Pray regard
the dedication as a token of the pleasure which your “Adelaide” conferred
on me, as well as of the appreciation and intense delight your poetry
always has inspired, and _always will inspire in me_.

When playing “Adelaide,” sometimes recall

Your sincere admirer,




October, 1800.


At the second announcement of our concert, you must remind your husband
that the public should be made acquainted with the names of those whose
talents are to contribute to this concert. Such is the custom here; and
indeed, were it not so, what is there to attract a larger audience? which
is after all our chief object. Punto [the celebrated horn-player, for whom
Beethoven wrote Sonata 17] is not a little indignant about the omission,
and I must say he has reason to be so; but even before seeing him it was my
intention to have reminded you of this, for I can only explain the mistake
by great haste or great forgetfulness. Be so good, then, dear lady, as to
attend to my hint; otherwise you will certainly expose yourself to _many
annoyances_. Being at last convinced in my own mind, and by others, that I
shall not be quite superfluous in this concert, I know that not only I, but
also Punto, Simoni [a tenorist], and Galvani will demand that the public
should be apprised of our zeal for this charitable object; otherwise we
must all conclude that we are not wanted.





Vienna, Nov. 16, 1800.


I thank you for this fresh proof of your interest in me, especially as I so
little deserve it. You wish to know how I am, and what remedies I use.
Unwilling as I always feel to discuss this subject, still I feel less
reluctant to do so with you than with any other person. For some months
past Vering has ordered me to apply blisters on both arms, of a particular
kind of bark, with which you are probably acquainted,–a disagreeable
remedy, independent of the pain, as it deprives me of the free use of my
arms for a couple of days at a time, till the blisters have drawn
sufficiently. The ringing and buzzing in my ears have certainly rather
decreased, particularly in the left ear, in which the malady first
commenced, but my hearing is not at all improved; in fact I fear that it is
become rather worse. My health is better, and after using the tepid baths
for a time, I feel pretty well for eight or ten days. I seldom take tonics,
but I have begun applications of herbs, according to your advice. Vering
will not hear of plunge baths, but I am much dissatisfied with him; he is
neither so attentive nor so indulgent as he ought to be to such a malady;
if I did not go to him, which is no easy matter, I should never see him at
all. What is your opinion of Schmidt [an army surgeon]? I am unwilling to
make any change, but it seems to me that Vering is too much of a
practitioner to acquire new ideas by reading. On this point Schmidt appears
to be a very different man, and would probably be less negligent with
regard to my case. I hear wonders of galvanism; what do you say to it? A
physician told me that he knew a deaf and dumb child whose hearing was
restored by it (in Berlin), and likewise a man who had been deaf for seven
years, and recovered his hearing. I am told that your friend Schmidt is at
this moment making experiments on the subject.

I am now leading a somewhat more agreeable life, as of late I have been
associating more with other people. You could scarcely believe what a sad
and dreary life mine has been for the last two years; my defective hearing
everywhere pursuing me like a spectre, making me fly from every one, and
appear a misanthrope; and yet no one is in reality less so! This change has
been wrought by a lovely fascinating girl [undoubtedly Giulietta], who
loves me and whom I love. I have once more had some blissful moments during
the last two years, and it is the first time I ever felt that marriage
could make me happy. Unluckily, she is not in my rank of life, and indeed
at this moment I can marry no one; I must first bestir myself actively in
the world. Had it not been for my deafness, I would have travelled half
round the globe ere now, and this I must still do. For me there is no
pleasure so great as to promote and to pursue my art.

Do not suppose that I could be happy with you. What indeed could make me
happier? Your very solicitude would distress me; I should read your
compassion every moment in your countenance, which would make me only still
more unhappy. What were my thoughts amid the glorious scenery of my
father-land? The hope alone of a happier future, which would have been mine
but for this affliction! Oh! I could span the world were I only free from
this! I feel that my youth is only now commencing. Have I not always been
an infirm creature? For some time past my bodily strength has been
increasing, and it is the same with my mental powers. I feel, though I
cannot describe it, that I daily approach the object I have in view, in
which alone can your Beethoven live. No rest for him!–I know of none but
in sleep, and I do grudge being obliged to sacrifice more time to it than
formerly.[1] Were I only half cured of my malady, then I would come to you,
and, as a more perfect and mature man, renew our old friendship.

You should then see me as happy as I am ever destined to be here below–not
unhappy. No! that I could not endure; I will boldly meet my fate, never
shall it succeed in crushing me. Oh! it is so glorious to live one’s life a
thousand times over! I feel that I am no longer made for a quiet existence.
You will write to me as soon as possible? Pray try to prevail on Steffen
[von Breuning] to seek an appointment from the Teutonic Order somewhere.
Life here is too harassing for his health; besides, he is so isolated that
I do not see how he is ever to get on. You know the kind of existence here.
I do not take it upon myself to say that society would dispel his
lassitude, but he cannot be persuaded to go anywhere. A short time since, I
had some music in my house, but our friend Steffen stayed away. Do
recommend him to be more calm and self-possessed, which I have in vain
tried to effect; otherwise he can neither enjoy health nor happiness. Tell
me in your next letter whether you care about my sending you a large
selection of music; you can indeed dispose of what you do not want, and
thus repay the expense of the carriage, and have my portrait into the
bargain. Say all that is kind and amiable from me to Lorchen, and also to
mamma and Christoph. You still have some regard for me? Always rely on the
love as well as the friendship of your


[Footnote 1: “Too much sleep is hurtful” is marked by a thick score in the
Odyssey (45, 393) by Beethoven’s hand. See Schindler’s _Beethoven’s



Vienna, Dec. 15, 1800.


I have often intended to answer your proposals, but am frightfully lazy
about all correspondence; so it is usually a good while before I can make
up my mind to write dry letters instead of music. I have, however, at last
forced myself to answer your application. _Pro primo_, I must tell you how
much I regret that you, my much-loved brother in the science of music, did
not give me some hint, so that I might have offered you my quartets, as
well as many other things that I have now disposed of. But if you are as
conscientious, my dear brother, as many other publishers, who grind to
death us poor composers, you will know pretty well how to derive ample
profit when the works appear. I now briefly state what you can have from
me. 1st. A Septet, _per il violino, viola, violoncello, contra-basso,
clarinetto, corno, fagotto;–tutti obbligati_ (I can write nothing that is
not _obbligato_, having come into the world with an _obbligato_
accompaniment!) This Septet pleases very much. For more general use it
might be arranged for one more _violino, viola_, and _violoncello_, instead
of the three wind-instruments, _fagotto, clarinetto_, and _corno_.[2] 2d. A
Grand Symphony with full orchestra [the 1st]. 3rd. A pianoforte Concerto
[Op. 19], which I by no means assert to be one of my best, any more than
the one Mollo is to publish here [Op. 15], (this is for the benefit of the
Leipzig critics!) because _I reserve the best for myself_ till I set off on
my travels; still the work will not disgrace you to publish. 4th. A Grand
Solo Sonata [Op. 22]. These are all I can part with at this moment; a
little later you can have a quintet for stringed instruments, and probably
some quartets also, and other pieces that I have not at present beside me.
In your answer you can yourself fix the prices; and as you are neither an
_Italian_ nor a _Jew_, nor am I either, we shall no doubt quickly agree.
Farewell, and rest assured,

My dear brother in art, of the esteem of your


[Footnote 1: The letters to Hofmeister, formerly of Vienna, who conducted
the correspondence with Beethoven in the name of the firm of “Hofmeister &
Kühnel, Bureau de Musique,” are given here as they first appeared in 1837
in the _Neue Zeitschrift für Musik_. On applying to the present
representative of that firm, I was told that those who now possess these
letters decline giving them out of their own hands, and that no copyist can
be found able to decipher or transcribe them correctly.]

[Footnote 2: This last phrase is not in the copy before me, but in Marx’s
_Biography_, who appears to have seen the original.]



Vienna, Jan. 15 (or thereabouts), 1801.

I read your letter, dear brother and friend, with much pleasure, and I
thank you for your good opinion of me and of my works, and hope I may
continue to deserve it. I also beg you to present all due thanks to Herr K.
[Kühnel] for his politeness and friendship towards me. I, on my part,
rejoice in your undertakings, and am glad that when works of art do turn
out profitable, they fall to the share of true artists, rather than to that
of mere tradesmen.

Your intention to publish Sebastian Bach’s works really gladdens my heart,
which beats with devotion for the lofty and grand productions of this our
father of the science of harmony, and I trust I shall soon see them appear.
I hope when golden peace is proclaimed, and your subscription list opened,
to procure you many subscribers here.[1]

With regard to our own transactions, as you wish to know my proposals, they
are as follows. I offer you at present the following works:–The Septet
(which I already wrote to you about), 20 ducats; Symphony, 20 ducats;
Concerto, 10 ducats; Grand Solo Sonata, _allegro, adagio, minuetto, rondo_,
20 ducats. This Sonata [Op. 22] is well up to the mark, my dear brother!

Now for explanations. You may perhaps be surprised that I make no
difference of price between the sonata, septet, and symphony. I do so
because I find that a septet or a symphony has not so great a sale as a
sonata, though a symphony ought unquestionably to be of the most value.
(N.B. The septet consists of a short introductory _adagio_, an _allegro,
adagio, minuetto, andante_, with variations, _minuetto_, and another short
_adagio_ preceding a _presto_.) I only ask ten ducats for the concerto,
for, as I already wrote to you, I do not consider it one of my best. I
cannot think that, taken as a whole, you will consider these prices
exorbitant; at least, I have endeavored to make them as moderate as
possible for you.

With regard to the banker’s draft, as you give me my choice, I beg you will
make it payable by Germüller or Schüller. The entire sum for the four works
will amount to 70 ducats; I understand no currency but Vienna ducats, so
how many dollars in gold they make in your money is no affair of mine, for
really I am a very bad man of business and accountant. Now this
_troublesome_ business is concluded;–I call it so, heartily wishing that
it could be otherwise here below! There ought to be only one grand _dépôt_
of art in the world, to which the artist might repair with his works, and
on presenting them receive what he required; but as it now is, one must be
half a tradesman besides–and how is this to be endured? Good heavens! I
may well call it _troublesome_!

As for the Leipzig oxen,[2] let them talk!–they certainly will make no man
immortal by their prating, and as little can they deprive of immortality
those whom Apollo destines to attain it.

Now may Heaven preserve you and your colleagues! I have been unwell for
some time; so it is rather difficult for me at present to write even music,
much more letters. I trust we shall have frequent opportunities to assure
each other how truly you are my friend, and I yours.

I hope for a speedy answer. Adieu!


[Footnote 1: I have at this moment in my hands this edition of Bach, bound
in one thick volume, together with the first part of Nägeli’s edition of
the _Wohltemperirtes Clavier_, also three books of exercises (D, G, and C
minor), the _Toccata in D Minor_, and _Twice Fifteen Inventions_.]

[Footnote 2: It is thus that Schindler supplies the gap. It is probably an
allusion to the _Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung_, founded about three
years previously.]



Vienna, April 22, 1801.

You have indeed too good cause to complain not a little of me. My excuse is
that I have been ill, and in addition had so much to do, that I could
scarcely even think of what I was to send you. Moreover, the only thing in
me that resembles a genius is, that my papers are never in very good order,
and yet no one but myself can succeed in arranging them. For instance, in
the score of the concerto, the piano part, according to my usual custom,
was not yet written down; so, owing to my hurry, you will receive it in my
own very illegible writing. In order that the works may follow as nearly as
possible in their proper order, I have marked the numbers to be placed on
each, as follows:–

Solo Sonata, Op. 22.
Symphony, Op. 21.
Septet, Op. 20.
Concerto, Op. 19.

I will send you their various titles shortly.

Put me down as a subscriber to Sebastian Bach’s works [see Letter 20], and
also Prince Lichnowsky. The arrangement of Mozart’s Sonatas as quartets
will do you much credit, and no doubt be profitable also. I wish I could
contribute more to the promotion of such an undertaking, but I am an
irregular man, and too apt, even with the best intentions, to forget
everything; I have, however, mentioned the matter to various people, and I
everywhere find them well disposed towards it. It would be a good thing if
you would arrange the septet you are about to publish as a quintet, with a
flute part, for instance; this would be an advantage to amateurs of the
flute, who have already importuned me on the subject, and who would swarm
round it like insects and banquet on it.

Now to tell you something of myself. I have written a ballet
[“Prometheus”], in which the ballet-master has not done his part so well as
might be. The F—- von L—- has also bestowed on us a production which by
no means corresponds with the ideas of his genius conveyed by the newspaper
reports. F—- seems to have taken Herr M—- (Wenzel Müller?) as his ideal
at the Kusperle, yet without even rising to his level. Such are the fine
prospects before us poor people who strive to struggle upwards! My dear
friend, pray lose no time in bringing the work before the notice of the
public, and write to me soon, that I may know whether by my delay I have
entirely forfeited your confidence for the future. Say all that is civil
and kind to your partner, Kühnel. Everything shall henceforth be sent
finished, and in quick succession. So now farewell, and continue your
regards for

Your friend and brother,




Vienna, June, 1801.

I am rather surprised at the communication you have desired your business
agent here to make to me; I may well feel offended at your believing me
capable of so mean a trick. It would have been a very different thing had I
sold my works to rapacious shopkeepers, and then secretly made another good
speculation; but, from _one artist to another_, it is rather a strong
measure to suspect me of such a proceeding! The whole thing seems to be
either a device to put me to the test, or a mere suspicion. In any event I
may tell you that before you received the septet from me I had sent it to
Mr. Salomon in London (to be played at his own concert, which I did solely
from friendship), with the express injunction to beware of its getting into
other hands, as it was my intention to have it engraved in Germany, and, if
you choose, you can apply to him for the confirmation of this. But to give
you a further proof of my integrity, “I herewith give you the faithful
assurance that I have neither sold the septet, the symphony, the concerto,
nor the sonata to any one but to Messrs. Hofmeister and Kühnel, and that
they may consider them to be their own exclusive property. And to this I
pledge my honor.” You may make what use you please of this guarantee.

Moreover, I believe Salomon to be as incapable of the baseness of engraving
the septet as I am of selling it to him. I was so scrupulous in the matter,
that when applied to by various publishers to sanction a pianoforte
arrangement of the septet, I at once declined, though I do not even know
whether you proposed making use of it in this way. Here follow the
long-promised titles of the works. There will no doubt be a good deal to
alter and to amend in them; but this I leave to you. I shall soon expect a
letter from you, and, I hope, the works likewise, which I wish to see
engraved, as others have appeared, and are about to appear, in connection
with these numbers. I look on your statement as founded on mere rumors,
which you have believed with too much facility, or based entirely on
supposition, induced by having perchance heard that I had sent the work to
Salomon; I cannot, therefore, but feel some coolness towards such a
credulous friend, though I still subscribe myself

Your friend,






Je sens parfaitement bien, que la Celebrité de Votre nom ainsi que l’amitié
dont Vous m’honorez, exigeroient de moi la dédicace d’un bien plus
important ouvrage. La seule chose qui a pu me déterminer à Vous offrir
celui-ci de préférence, c’est qu’il me paroît d’une exécution plus facile
et par la même plus propre à contribuer à la Satisfaction dont Vous
jouissez dans l’aimable Cercle de Votre Famille.–C’est surtout, lorsque
les heureux talents d’une fille chérie se seront developpés davantage, que
je me flatte de voir ce but atteint. Heureux si j’y ai réussi et si dans
cette faible marque de ma haute estime et de ma gratitude Vous reconnoissez
toute la vivacité et la cordialité de mes sentiments.


[Footnote 1: Grand Trio, Op. 38.]





I send you herewith the four parts corrected by me; please compare the
others already written out with these. I also enclose a letter to Count
Browne. I have told him that he must make an advance to you of fifty
ducats, to enable you to get your outfit. This is absolutely necessary, so
it cannot offend him; for after being equipped, you are to go with him to
Baden on the Monday of the ensuing week. I must, however, reproach you for
not having had recourse to me long ago. Am I not your true friend? Why did
you conceal your necessities from me? No friend of mine shall ever be in
need, so long as I have anything myself. I would already have sent you a
small sum, did I not rely on Browne; if he fails us, then apply at once to


[Footnote 1: Ries names 1801 as the date of this letter, and it was no
doubt during that summer that Count Browne was in Baden. Ries’s father had
assisted the Beethoven family in every way in his power at the time of the
mother’s death.]



Vienna, April 8, 1802.

Do you mean to go post-haste to the devil, gentlemen, by proposing that I
should write _such_ a _sonata_? During the revolutionary fever, a thing of
the kind might have been appropriate, but now, when everything is falling
again into the beaten track, and Bonaparte has concluded a _Concordat_ with
the Pope–such a sonata as this? If it were a _missa pro Sancta Maria à tre
voci_, or a _vesper_, &c., then I would at once take up my pen and write a
_Credo in unum_, in gigantic semibreves. But, good heavens! such a sonata,
in this fresh dawning Christian epoch. No, no!–it won’t do, and I will
have none of it.

Now for my answer in quickest _tempo_. The lady can have a sonata from me,
and I am willing to adopt the general outlines of her plan in an
_aesthetical_ point of view, without adhering to the keys named. The price
to be five ducats; for this sum she can keep the work a year for her own
amusement, without either of us being entitled to publish it. After the
lapse of a year, the sonata to revert to me–that is, I can and will then
publish it, when, if she considers it any distinction, she may request me
to dedicate it to her.

I now, gentlemen, commend you to the grace of God. My Sonata [Op. 22] is
well engraved, but you have been a fine time about it! I hope you will
usher my Septet into the world a little quicker, as the P—- is waiting
for it, and you know the Empress has it; and when there are in this
imperial city people like —-, I cannot be answerable for the result; so
lose no time!

Herr —- [Mollo?] has lately published my Quartets [Op. 18] full of faults
and _errata_, both large and small, which swarm in them like fish in the
sea; that is, they are innumerable. _Questo è un piacere per un
autore_–this is what I call engraving [_stechen_, stinging] with a
vengeance.[1] In truth, my skin is a mass of punctures and scratches from
this fine edition of my Quartets! Now farewell, and think of me as I do of
you. Till death, your faithful


[Footnote 1: In reference to the musical piracy at that time very prevalent
in Austria.]



Heiligenstadt, Oct. 6, 1802.

Oh! ye who think or declare me to be hostile, morose, and misanthropical,
how unjust you are, and how little you know the secret cause of what
appears thus to you! My heart and mind were ever from childhood prone to
the most tender feelings of affection, and I was always disposed to
accomplish something great. But you must remember that six years ago I was
attacked by an incurable malady, aggravated by unskilful physicians,
deluded from year to year, too, by the hope of relief, and at length forced
to the conviction of a _lasting affliction_ (the cure of which may go on
for years, and perhaps after all prove impracticable).

Born with a passionate and excitable temperament, keenly susceptible to the
pleasures of society, I was yet obliged early in life to isolate myself,
and to pass my existence in solitude. If I at any time resolved to surmount
all this, oh! how cruelly was I again repelled by the experience, sadder
than ever, of my defective hearing!–and yet I found it impossible to say
to others: Speak louder; shout! for I am deaf! Alas! how could I proclaim
the deficiency of a sense which ought to have been more perfect with me
than with other men,–a sense which I once possessed in the highest
perfection, to an extent, indeed, that few of my profession ever enjoyed!
Alas, I cannot do this! Forgive me therefore when you see me withdraw from
you with whom I would so gladly mingle. My misfortune is doubly severe from
causing me to be misunderstood. No longer can I enjoy recreation in social
intercourse, refined conversation, or mutual outpourings of thought.
Completely isolated, I only enter society when compelled to do so. I must
live like an exile. In company I am assailed by the most painful
apprehensions, from the dread of being exposed to the risk of my condition
being observed. It was the same during the last six months I spent in the
country. My intelligent physician recommended me to spare my hearing as
much as possible, which was quite in accordance with my present
disposition, though sometimes, tempted by my natural inclination for
society, I allowed myself to be beguiled into it. But what humiliation when
any one beside me heard a flute in the far distance, while I heard
_nothing_, or when others heard _a shepherd singing_, and I still heard
_nothing_! Such things brought me to the verge of desperation, and wellnigh
caused me to put an end to my life. _Art! art_ alone, deterred me. Ah! how
could I possibly quit the world before bringing forth all that I felt it
was my vocation to produce?[2] And thus I spared this miserable life–so
utterly miserable that any sudden change may reduce me at any moment from
my best condition into the worst. It is decreed that I must now choose
_Patience_ for my guide! This I have done. I hope the resolve will not fail
me, steadfastly to persevere till it may please the inexorable Fates to cut
the thread of my life. Perhaps I may get better, perhaps not. I am prepared
for either. Constrained to become a philosopher in my twenty-eighth
year![3] This is no slight trial, and more severe on an artist than on any
one else. God looks into my heart, He searches it, and knows that love for
man and feelings of benevolence have their abode there! Oh! ye who may one
day read this, think that you have done me injustice, and let any one
similarly afflicted be consoled, by finding one like himself, who, in
defiance of all the obstacles of Nature, has done all in his power to be
included in the ranks of estimable artists and men. My brothers Carl and
Johann, as soon as I am no more, if Professor Schmidt [see Nos. 18 and 23]
be still alive, beg him in my name to describe my malady, and to add these
pages to the analysis of my disease, that at least, so far as possible, the
world may be reconciled to me after my death. I also hereby declare you
both heirs of my small fortune (if so it may be called). Share it fairly,
agree together and assist each other. You know that anything you did to
give me pain has been long forgiven. I thank you, my brother Carl in
particular, for the attachment you have shown me of late. My wish is that
you may enjoy a happier life, and one more free from care, than mine has
been. Recommend _Virtue_ to your children; that alone, and not wealth, can
ensure happiness. I speak from experience. It was _Virtue_ alone which
sustained me in my misery; I have to thank her and Art for not having ended
my life by suicide. Farewell! Love each other. I gratefully thank all my
friends, especially Prince Lichnowsky and Professor Schmidt. I wish one of
you to keep Prince L—-‘s instruments; but I trust this will give rise to
no dissension between you. If you think it more beneficial, however, you
have only to dispose of them. How much I shall rejoice if I can serve you
even in the grave! So be it then! I joyfully hasten to meet Death. If he
comes before I have had the opportunity of developing all my artistic
powers, then, notwithstanding my cruel fate, he will come too early for me,
and I should wish for him at a more distant period; but even then I shall
be content, for his advent will release me from a state of endless
suffering. Come when he may, I shall meet him with courage. Farewell! Do
not quite forget me, even in death; I deserve this from you, because during
my life I so often thought of you, and wished to make you happy. Amen!


(_Written on the Outside._)

Thus, then, I take leave of you, and with sadness too. The fond hope I
brought with me here, of being to a certain degree cured, now utterly
forsakes me. As autumn leaves fall and wither, so are my hopes blighted.
Almost as I came, I depart. Even the lofty courage that so often animated
me in the lovely days of summer is gone forever. O Providence! vouchsafe me
one day of pure felicity! How long have I been estranged from the glad echo
of true joy! When! O my God! when shall I again feel it in the temple of
Nature and of man?–never? Ah! that would be too hard!


To be read and fulfilled after my death by my brothers Carl and Johann.

[Footnote 1: This beautiful letter I regret not to have seen in the
original, it being in the possession of the violin _virtuoso_ Ernst, in
London. I have adhered to the version given in the Leipzig _Allgemeine
Musikalische Zeitung_, Oct. 1827.]

[Footnote 2: A large portion of the _Eroica_ was written in the course of
this summer, but not completed till August, 1804.]

[Footnote 3: Beethoven did not at that time know in what year he was born.
See the subsequent letter of May 2, 1810. He was then far advanced in his
thirty-third year.]



November, 1802.

I owe it to the public and to myself to state that the two quintets in C
and E flat major–one of these (arranged from a symphony of mine) published
by Herr Mollo in Vienna, and the other (taken from my Septet, Op. 20) by
Herr Hofmeister in Leipzig–are not original quintets, but only versions of
the aforesaid works given by the publishers. Arrangements in these days (so
fruitful in–arrangements) an author will find it vain to contend against;
but we may at least justly demand that the fact should be mentioned in the
title-page, neither to injure the reputation of the author nor to deceive
the public. This notice is given to prevent anything of the kind in future.
I also beg to announce that shortly a new original quintet of my
composition, in C major, Op. 29, will appear at Breitkopf & Härtel’s in




Summer of 1803.

You no doubt are aware that I am here. Go to Stein, and ask if he can send
me an instrument, on hire. I am afraid of bringing mine here. Come to me
this evening about seven o’clock. I lodge in Oberdöbling, on the left side
of the street, No. 4, going down the hill towards Heiligenstadt.



Vienna, Sept. 22, 1803.

I hereby declare all the works you have ordered to be your property. The
list of these shall be made out and sent to you with my signature, as the
proof of their being your own. I also agree to accept the sum of fifty
ducats for them. Are you satisfied?

Perhaps, instead of the variations with violoncello and violin,[1] I may
send you variations for the piano, arranged as a duet on a song of mine;
but Goethe’s poetry must also be engraved, as I wrote these variations in
an album, and consider them better than the others. Are you satisfied?

The arrangements are not by me, though I have revised and much improved
various passages; but I do not wish you to say that I have arranged them,
for it would be false, and I have neither time nor patience to do so. Are
you satisfied?

Now farewell! I sincerely wish that all may go well with you. I would
gladly make you a present of all my works, if I could do so and still get
on in the world; but–remember most people are provided for, and know what
they have to live on, while, good heavens! where can an appointment be
found at the Imperial Court for such a _parvum talentum com ego_?

Your friend,


[Footnote 1: These are the six variations in D, on the air _Ich denke Dein_
written in 1800 in the album of the Countesses Josephine Deym and Thérèse
of Brunswick.]



November, 1803.

Herr Carl Zulehner, a piratical engraver in Mayence, has announced an
edition of my collected works for the pianoforte and also stringed
instruments. I consider it my duty publicly to inform all friends of music
that I have no share whatever in this edition.

I would never have in any way authorized any collection of my works (which,
moreover, I consider premature) without previously consulting the
publishers of single pieces, and ensuring that correctness in which
editions of my individual works are so deficient. I must also observe that
this illegal edition cannot be complete, as several new works of mine are
shortly to appear in Paris, and these Herr Zulehner, being a French
subject, dare not pirate. I intend to take another opportunity of
enumerating the details of the collection of my works to be brought out
under my own auspices and careful revision.





Be so good as to make out a list of the mistakes and send it at once to
Simrock, and say that the work must appear as soon as possible. I will send
him the Sonata [Op. 47] and the Concerto the day after to-morrow.


[Footnote 1: Ries relates that the three following notes refer to the
pianoforte Sonata, Op. 31, No. 1, carefully engraved by Nägeli in Zurich,
which Beethoven consequently sent forthwith to Simrock in Bonn, desiring
him to bring out “_une édition très-correcte_” of the work. He also states
that Beethoven was residing in Heiligenstadt at the time the work was first
sent [see No. 26]. In Nottebohm’s _Skizzenbuch von Beethoven_, he says (p.
43) that the first notice of the appearance of this sonata was on May 21st,
1803; but Simrock writes to me that the date of the document making over
the sonata to him is 1804.]



I must again ask you to undertake the disagreeable task of making a fair
copy of the errors in the Zurich Sonata. I have got your list of _errata_
“_auf der Wieden_.”




The signs are wrongly marked, and many of the notes misplaced; so be
careful! or your labor will be vain. _Ch’ a detto l’ amato bene?_




May I beg you to be so obliging as to copy this _andante_ [in the Kreuzer
Sonata] for me, however indifferently? I must send it off to-morrow, and as
Heaven alone knows what its fate may then be, I wish to get it transcribed.
But I must have it back to-morrow about one o’clock. The cause of my
troubling you is that one of my copyists is already very much occupied with
various things of importance, and the other is ill.




Let the bearer of this, Herr Ries, have some easy duets, and, better still,
let him have them for nothing. Conduct yourself in accordance with the
reformed doctrines. Farewell!



[Footnote 1: Date unknown. Leidesdorf was also a music-seller.]



Baden, July 14, 1804.


If you can find me better lodgings, I shall be very glad. Tell my brothers
not to engage these at once; I have a great desire to get one in a
spacious, quiet square or on the Bastei. It it really inexcusable in my
brother not to have provided wine, as it is so beneficial and necessary to
me. I shall take care to be present at the rehearsal on Wednesday. I am not
pleased to hear that it is to be at Schuppanzigh’s. He may well be grateful
to me if my impertinences make him thinner! Farewell, dear Ries! We have
bad weather here, and I am not safe from visitors; so I must take flight in
order to be alone.

Your true friend,




Baden, July, 1804.


As Breuning [see Nos. 13, 14, and 18] by his conduct has not scrupled to
display my character to you and the house-steward as that of a mean, petty,
base man, I beg you will convey my reply at once in person to Breuning. I
answer only one point, the first in his letter, and I do so solely because
it is the only mode of justifying myself in your eyes. Say also to him that
I had no intention of reproaching him on account of the delay of the notice
to quit, and even if Breuning were really to blame for this, our harmonious
relations are so dear and precious in my sight, that, for the sake of a few
hundreds more or less, I would never subject any friend of mine to
vexation. You are aware, indeed, that I jestingly accused you as the cause
of the notice arriving too late. I am quite sure that you must remember
this. I had entirely forgotten the whole matter, but at dinner my brother
began to say that he thought Breuning was to blame in the affair, which I
at once denied, saying that you were in fault. I think this shows plainly
enough that I attributed no blame to Breuning; but on this he sprang up
like a madman, and insisted on sending for the house-steward. Such
behavior, in the presence of all those with whom I usually associate, and
to which I am wholly unaccustomed, caused me to lose all self-control; so I
also started up, upset my chair, left the room, and did not return. This
conduct induced Breuning to place me in a pretty light to you and the
house-steward, and also to send me a letter which I only answered by
silence. I have not another word to say to Breuning. His mode of thinking
and of acting, with regard to me, proves that there never ought to have
been such friendly intimacy between us, and assuredly it can never more be
restored. I wished to make you acquainted with this, as your version of the
occurrence degraded both my words and actions. I know that, had you been
aware of the real state of the affair, you would not have said what you
did, and with this I am satisfied.

I now beg of you, dear Ries, to go to my brother, the apothecary, as soon
as you receive this letter, and say to him that I mean to leave Baden in
the course of a few days, and that he is to engage the lodging in Döbling
as soon as you have given him this message. I had nearly left this to-day;
I detest being here–I am sick of it. For Heaven’s sake urge him to close
the bargain at once, for I want to take possession immediately. Neither
show nor speak to any one of what is written in the previous page of this
letter. I wish to prove to him in every respect that I am not so meanly
disposed as he is. Indeed I have written to him, although my resolve as to
the dissolution of our friendship remains firm and unchangeable.

Your friend,




Berlin, July 24, 1804.

… You were no doubt not a little surprised about the affair with
Breuning; believe me, my dear friend, that the ebullition on my part was
only an outbreak caused by many previous scenes of a disagreeable nature. I
have the gift of being able to conceal and to repress my susceptibility on
many occasions; but if attacked at a time when I chance to be peculiarly
irritable, I burst forth more violently than any one. Breuning certainly
possesses many admirable qualities, but he thinks himself quite faultless;
whereas the very defects that he discovers in others are those which he
possesses himself to the highest degree. From my childhood I have always
despised his petty mind. My powers of discrimination enabled me to foresee
the result with Breuning, for our modes of thinking, acting, and feeling
are entirely opposite; and yet I believed that these difficulties might be
overcome, but experience has disproved this. So now I want no more of his
friendship! I have only found two friends in the world with whom I never
had a misunderstanding; but what men these were! One is dead, the other
still lives. Although for nearly six years past we have seen nothing of
each other, yet I know that I still hold the first place in his heart, as
he does in mine [see No. 12]. The true basis of friendship is to be found
in sympathy of heart and soul. I only wish you could have read the letter I
wrote to Breuning, and his to me. No! never can he be restored to his
former place in my heart. The man who could attribute to his friend so base
a mode of thinking, and could himself have recourse to so base a mode of
acting towards him, is no longer worthy of my friendship.

Do not forget the affair of my apartments. Farewell! Do not be too much
addicted to tailoring,[1] remember me to the fairest of the fair, and send
me half a dozen needles.

I never could have believed that I could be so idle as I am here. If this
be followed by a fit of industry, something worth while may be produced.

_Vale!_ Your


[Footnote 1: Ries says, in Wegeler’s _Biographical Notices_:–“Beethoven
never visited me more frequently than when I lived in the house of a
tailor, with three very handsome but thoroughly respectable daughters.”]



Vienna, June 1, 1805.

I must inform you that the affair about the new quintet is settled between
Count Fries and myself.

The Count has just assured me that he intends to make you a present of it;
it is too late to-day for a written agreement on the subject, but one shall
be sent early in the ensuing week. This intelligence must suffice for the
present, and I think I at all events deserve your thanks for it.

Your obedient servant,


[Footnote 1: The quintet is probably not that in C, Op. 29, dedicated to
Count v. Fries, previously published in 1803 by Breitkopf & Härtel [see No.
27]. It is more likely that he alludes to a new quintet which the Count had
no doubt ordered.]



November, 1805.

Pray pardon me, illustrious Princess, if the bearer of this should cause
you an unpleasant surprise. Poor Ries, my scholar, is forced by this
unhappy war to shoulder a musket, and must moreover leave this in a few
days, being a foreigner. He has nothing, literally nothing, and is obliged
to take a long journey. All chance of a concert on his behalf is thus
entirely at an end, and he must have recourse to the benevolence of others.
I recommend him to you. I know you will forgive the step I have taken. A
noble-minded man would only have recourse to such measures in the most
utter extremity. Confident of this, I send the poor youth to you, in the
hope of somewhat improving his circumstances. He is forced to apply to all
who know him.

I am, with the deepest respect, yours,


[Footnote 1: Communicated by Ries himself, who, to Beethoven’s extreme
indignation, did not deliver the note. See Wegeler’s work, p. 134. The
following remark is added:–“Date unknown; written a few days before the
entrance of the French in 1805″ (which took place Nov. 13). Ries, a native
of Bonn, was now a French subject, and recalled under the laws of
conscription. The Sonata, Op. 27, No. 1, is dedicated to Princess





Pray try to persuade Herr v. Seyfried to direct my Opera, as I wish on this
occasion to see and hear it myself _from a distance_; in this way my
patience will at all events not be so severely tried as when I am close
enough to hear my music so bungled. I really do believe that it is done on
purpose to annoy me! I will say nothing of the wind-instruments; but all
_pp._’s, _cresc._, _discresc._, and all _f._’s and _ff._’s may as well be
struck out of my Opera, for no attention whatever is paid to them. I shall
lose all pleasure in composing anything in future, if I am to hear it given
thus. To-morrow or the day after I will come to fetch you to dinner. To-day
I am again unwell.

Your friend,


If the Opera is to be performed the day after to-morrow, there must be
another private rehearsal to-morrow, or _each time it will be given worse
and worse_.

[Footnote 1: Meyer, the husband of Mozart’s eldest sister-in-law, Josepha
(Hofer’s widow), sang the part of Pizarro at the first performance of
_Fidelio_, Nov. 20, 1805, and also at a later period. Seyfried was at that
time Kapellmeister at the Theatre “an der Wien.”]



Vienna, Dec. 7, 1805.

I, the undersigned, am glad to bear testimony to young Carl Czerny having
made the most extraordinary progress on the pianoforte, far beyond what
might be expected at the age of fourteen. I consider him deserving of all
possible assistance, not only from what I have already referred to, but
from his astonishing memory, and more especially from his parents having
spent all their means in cultivating the talent of their promising son.





Be sure that you arrange matters properly with Mdlle. Milder, and say to
her previously from me, that I hope she will not sing anywhere else. I
intend to call on her to-morrow, to kiss the hem of her garment. Do not
also forget Marconi, and forgive me for giving you so much trouble.

Yours wholly,


[Footnote 1: Röckel, in 1806 tenor at the Theatre “an der Wien,” sang the
part of Florestan in the spring of that year, when _Fidelio_ was revived.
Mdlle. Milder, afterwards Mdme. Hauptmann, played Leonore; Mdme. Marconi
was also prima donna.]




I hear that you are about to fulfil my greatest wish and your own purpose.
Much as I desire to express my delight to you in person, I cannot find time
to do so, having so much to occupy me. Pray do not then ascribe this to any
want of proper attention towards you. I send you the “Armida”; as soon as
you have entirely done with it, pray return it, as it does not belong to
me. I am, with sincere esteem,



[Footnote 1: Collin, Court Secretary, was the author of _Coriolanus_, a
tragedy for which Beethoven in 1807 wrote the celebrated Overture dedicated
to that poet. According to Reichardt, Collin offered the libretto of
_Bradamante_ to Beethoven in 1808, which Reichardt subsequently composed.
This note evidently refers to a _libretto_.]



I should like very much, my good Gleichenstein, to speak to you this
forenoon between one and two o’clock, or in the afternoon, and where you
please. To-day I am too busy to call early enough to find you at home. Give
me an answer, and don’t forget to appoint the place for us to meet.
Farewell, and continue your regard for your


[Footnote 1: Probably in reference to a conference with regard to a
contract for the publication of his works, Op. 58, 59, 60, 61, and 62, that
Beethoven had made on the 20th April, 1807, with Muzio Clementi, who had
established a large music firm in London; it was also signed by Baron

Beethoven’s first intention was to dedicate Op. 58 to him, which is evident
from a large page in Schindler’s work, on which is written in bold
characters, by the master’s own hand, “_Quatrième Concerto pour le Piano,
avec accompagnement, etc., dédié à son ami Gleichenstein_,” &c. The name of
the Archduke Rudolph had been previously written, and was eventually
adopted, and Gleichenstein afterwards received the dedication of the Grand
Sonata with violoncello, Op. 69.]



Vienna, December, 1807.

The undersigned has cause to flatter himself that during the period of his
stay in Vienna he has gained some favor and approbation from the highest
nobility, as well as from the public at large, his works having met with an
honorable reception both in this and other countries. Nevertheless he has
had difficulties of every kind to contend against, and has not hitherto
been so fortunate as to acquire a position that would enable him _to live
solely for art_, and to develop his talents to a still higher degree of
perfection, which ought to be the aim of every artist, thus ensuring future
independence instead of mere casual profits.

The mere wish _to gain a livelihood_ has never been the leading clew that
has hitherto guided the undersigned on his path. His great aim has been the
_interest of art_ and the ennobling of taste, while his genius, soaring to
a higher ideal and greater perfection, frequently compelled him to
sacrifice his talents and profits to the Muse. Still works of this kind won
for him a reputation in distant lands, securing him the most favorable
reception in various places of distinction, and a position befitting his
talents and acquirements.

The undersigned does not, however, hesitate to say that this city is above
all others the most precious and desirable in his eyes, owing to the number
of years he has lived here, the favor and approval he has enjoyed from both
high and low, and his wish fully to realize the expectations he has had the
good fortune to excite, but most of all, he may truly say, from his
_patriotism as a German_. Before, therefore, making up his mind to leave a
place so dear to him, he begs to refer to a hint which the reigning Prince
Lichnowsky was so kind as to give him, to the effect that the directors of
the theatre were disposed to engage the undersigned on reasonable
conditions in the service of their theatre, and to ensure his remaining in
Vienna by securing to him a permanent position, more propitious to the
further exercise of his talents. As this assurance is entirely in
accordance with the wishes of the undersigned, he takes the liberty, with
all due respect, to place before the directors his readiness to enter into
such an engagement, and begs to state the following conditions for their
gracious consideration.

1. The undersigned undertakes and pledges himself to compose each year at
least _one grand opera_, to be selected by the directors and himself; in
return for this he demands a _fixed salary_ of 2400 florins a year, and
also a free benefit at the third performance of each such opera.

2. He also agrees to supply the directors annually with a little _operetta_
or a _divertissement_, with choruses or occasional music of the kind, as
may be required, _gratis_; he feels confident that on the other hand the
directors will not refuse, in return for these various labors, to grant him
_a benefit concert_ at all events once a year in one of the theatres.
Surely the above conditions cannot be thought exorbitant or unreasonable,
when the expenditure of time and energy entailed by the production of an
_opera_ is taken into account, as it entirely excludes the possibility of
all other mental exertion; in other places, too, the author and his family
have a share in the profits of every individual performance, so that even
_one_ successful work at once ensures the future fortunes of the composer.
It must also be considered how prejudicial the present rate of exchange is
to artists here, and likewise the high price of the necessaries of life,
while a residence in foreign countries is open to them.

But in any event, whether the directors accede to or decline this present
proposal, the undersigned ventures to request that he may be permitted to
give a concert for his own benefit in one of the theatres. For if his
conditions be accepted, the undersigned must devote all his time and
talents to the composition of such an opera, and thus be prevented working
in any other way for profit. In case of the non-acceptance of these
proposals, as the concert he was authorized to give last year did not take
place owing to various obstacles, he would entreat, as a parting token of
the favor hitherto vouchsafed to him, that the promise of last year may now
be fulfilled. In the former case, he would beg to suggest _Annunciation
Day_ [March 25.] for his concert, and in the latter a day during the
ensuing Christmas vacation.


[_Manu propria._]

[Footnote 1: This application was fruitless. See Reichardt’s _Vertraute
Briefe_. “These two (Lobkowitz and Esterhazy) are the heads of the great
theatrical direction, which consists entirely of princes and counts, who
conduct all the large theatres on their own account and at their own risk.”
The close of this letter shows that it was written in December.]



Vienna, Nov. 1, 1808 [_sic!_].


I fear you will look on me with displeasure when I tell you that necessity
compelled me not only to dispose of the symphony I wrote for you, but to
transfer another also to some one else. Be assured, however, that you shall
soon receive the one I intend for you. I hope that both you and the
Countess, to whom I beg my kind regards, have been well since we met. I am
at this moment staying with Countess Erdödy in the apartments below those
of Prince Lichnowsky. I mention this in case you do me the honor to call on
me when you are in Vienna. My circumstances are improving, without having
recourse to the intervention of people _who treat their friends
insultingly_. I have also the offer of being made _Kapellmeister_ to the
King of Westphalia, and it is possible that I may accept the proposal.
Farewell, and sometimes think of your attached friend,


[Footnote 1: The fourth Symphony is dedicated to Count Oppersdorf.]


I fear I am too late for to-day, but I have only now been able to get back
your memorial from C—-, because H—- wished to add various items here
and there. I do beg of you to dwell chiefly on the great importance to me
of adequate opportunities to exercise my art; by so doing you will write
what is most in accordance with my head and my heart. The preamble must set
forth what I am to have in Westphalia–600 ducats in gold, 150 ducats for
travelling expenses; all I have to do in return for this sum being to
direct the King’s [Jerome’s] concerts, which are short and few in number. I
am not even bound to direct any opera I may write. So, thus freed from all
care, I shall be able to devote myself entirely to the most important
object of my art–to write great works. An orchestra is also to be placed
at my disposition.

N.B. As member of a theatrical association, the title need not be insisted
on, as it can produce nothing but annoyance. With regard to the _Imperial
service_, I think that point requires delicate handling, and not less so
the solicitation for the title of _Imperial Kapellmeister_. It must,
however, be made quite clear that I am to receive a sufficient salary from
the Court to enable me to renounce the annuity which I at present receive
from the gentlemen in question [the Archduke Rudolph, Prince Kinsky, and
Prince Lobkowitz], which I think will be most suitably expressed by my
stating that it is my hope, and has ever been my most ardent wish, to enter
the Imperial service, when I shall be ready to give up as much of the above
salary as the sum I am to receive from His Imperial Majesty amounts to.
(N.B. We must have it to-morrow at twelve o’clock, as we go to Kinsky then.
I hope to see you to-day.)

[Footnote 1: This note, now first published, refers to the call Beethoven
had received, mentioned in the previous No. The sketch of the memorial that
follows is not, however, in Beethoven’s writing, and perhaps not even
composed by him [see also No. 46]. It is well known that the Archduke
Rudolph, Prince Kinsky, and Prince Lobkowitz had secured to the _maestro_ a
salary of 4000 gulden.]


The aim and endeavor of every true artist must be to acquire a position in
which he can occupy himself exclusively with the accomplishment of great
works, undisturbed by other avocations or by considerations of economy. A
composer, therefore, can have no more ardent wish than to devote himself
wholly to the creation of works of importance, to be produced before the
public. He must also keep in view the prospect of old age, in order to make
a sufficient provision for that period.

The King of Westphalia has offered Beethoven a salary of 600 gold ducats
for life, and 150 ducats for travelling expenses, in return for which his
sole obligations are, occasionally to play before His Majesty, and to
conduct his chamber concerts, which are both few and short. This proposal
is of a most beneficial nature both to art and the artist.

Beethoven, however, much prefers a residence in this capital, feeling so
much gratitude for the many proofs of kindness he has received in it, and
so much patriotism for his adopted father-land, that he will never cease to
consider himself an Austrian artist, nor take up his abode elsewhere, if
anything approaching to the same advantages are conferred on him here.

As many persons of high, indeed of the very highest rank, have requested
him to name the conditions on which he would be disposed to remain here, in
compliance with their wish he states as follows:–

1. Beethoven must receive from some influential nobleman security for a
permanent salary for life: various persons of consideration might
contribute to make up the amount of this salary, which, at the present
increased price of all commodities, must not consist of less than 4000
florins _per annum_. Beethoven’s wish is that the donors of this sum should
be considered as cooperating in the production of his future great works,
by thus enabling him to devote himself entirely to these labors, and by
relieving him from all other occupations.

2. Beethoven must always retain the privilege of travelling in the
interests of art, for in this way alone can he make himself known, and
acquire some fortune.

3. His most ardent desire and eager wish is to be received into the
Imperial service, when such an appointment would enable him partly or
wholly to renounce the proposed salary. In the mean time the title of
_Imperial Kapellmeister_ would be very gratifying to him; and if this wish
could be realized, the value of his abode here would be much enhanced in
his eyes.

If his desire be fulfilled, and a salary granted by His Majesty to
Beethoven, he will renounce so much of the said 4000 florins as the
Imperial salary shall amount to; or if this appointment be 4000 florins, he
will give up the whole of the former sum.

4. As Beethoven wishes from time to time to produce before the public at
large his new great works, he desires an assurance from the present
directors of the theatre on their part, and that of their successors, that
they will authorize him to give a concert for his own benefit every year on
Palm Sunday, in the Theatre “an der Wien.” In return for which Beethoven
agrees to arrange and direct an annual concert for the benefit of the poor,
or, if this cannot be managed, at all events to furnish a new work of his
own for such a concert.



December, 1808.


All would go well now if we had only a curtain, without it the _Aria_ [“Ah!
Perfido”] _will be a failure_.[1] I only heard this to-day from S.
[Seyfried], and it vexes me much: a curtain of any kind will do, even a
bed-curtain, or merely a _kind of gauze screen_, which could be instantly
removed. There must be something; for the Aria is in the _dramatic style_,
and better adapted for the stage than for effect in a concert-room.
_Without a curtain, or something of the sort, the Aria will be devoid of
all meaning, and ruined! ruined! ruined!! Devil take it all!_ The Court
will probably be present. Baron Schweitzer [Chamberlain of the Archduke
Anton] requested me earnestly to make the application myself. Archduke Carl
granted me an audience and promised to come. The Empress _neither promised
nor refused_.

A hanging curtain!!!! or the Aria and I will both be hanged to-morrow.
Farewell! I embrace you as cordially on this new year as in the old one.
_With or without a curtain!_ Your


[Footnote 1: Reichardt, in his _Vertraute Briefe_ relates among other
things about the concert given by Beethoven in the Royal Theatre “an der
Wien,” Oct. 22, 1808, as follows:–“Poor Beethoven, who derived from this
concert the first and only net profits which accrued to him during the
whole year, met with great opposition and very slender support in arranging
and carrying it out. First came the _Pastoral Symphony; or, Reminiscences
of Rural Life_; then followed, as the sixth piece, a long Italian _scena_,
sung by Demoiselle Killitzky, a lovely Bohemian with a lovely voice.” The
above note [to Zmeskall?] certainly refers to this concert.]





Your friends have at any rate given you very bad advice; but I know all
about them: they are the very same to whom you sent that fine news about me
from Paris; the very same who inquired about my age–information that you
contrived to supply so correctly!–the very same who have often before
injured you in my opinion, but now permanently. Farewell!


[Footnote 1: Ries himself gives the date of this note as 1809, though he
cannot recall what gave rise to it. It is probably connected with a fact
mentioned by Wegeler, p. 95, that Reichardt, who was at that time in
Vienna, had advised Beethoven’s young pupil, Ries, to apply to the King of
Westphalia for the appointment of Kapellmeister, which he had recently
given up. This was reported to Beethoven, and roused his ire. Ries, too,
had written from Paris that the taste in music there was very indifferent;
that Beethoven’s works were little known or played in that city. Beethoven
was also very susceptible with regard to his age. At the request of some of
Beethoven’s friends, Ries, in 1806, obtained Beethoven’s baptismal
certificate, and sent it to Vienna. But the _maestro’s_ wrath on this
occasion passed away as quickly as usual.]



March 7, 1809.

It is just what I expected! As to the blows, that is rather far-fetched.
The story is at least three months’ old, and very different from what he
now makes it out to be. The whole stupid affair was caused by a female
huckster and a couple of low fellows. I lose very little. He no doubt was
corrupted in the very house where I am now living.

[Footnote 1: [See No. 10.] The notes to Zmeskall generally have the dates
written by himself. This one bears the date March 7, 1809. In all points
connected with domestic life, and especially in household matters and
discords, Zmeskall was always a kind and consolatory friend. Beethoven at
that time lived in the same house with Countess Erdödy. [See No. 74.]]



My most excellent, high, and well-born Herr v. Zmeskall, Court Secretary
and Member of the Society of the Single Blessed,–If I come to see you
to-day, ascribe it to the fact that a person wishes to speak to me at your
house whom I could not refuse to see. I come without any _card_ from you,
but I hope you will not on that account _discard_ me.

Yours truly–most truly,




It seems to me, dear Zmeskall, if war really does break out, when it comes
to an end you will be the very man for an appointment in the Peace
Legation. What a glorious office!!! I leave it entirely to you to do the
best you can about my servant, only henceforth Countess Erdödy must not
attempt to exercise the smallest influence over him. She says she made him
a present of twenty-five florins, and gave him five florins a month, solely
to induce him to stay with me. I cannot refuse to believe this trait of
generosity, but I do not choose that it should be repeated. Farewell! I
thank you for your friendship, and hope soon to see you.

Yours ever,




April 16, 1809.

If I cannot come to-day, dear Zmeskall which is very possible, ask Baroness
von —- [name illegible] to give you the pianoforte part of the Trios, and
be so good as to send them and the other parts to me to-day.

In haste, your


[Footnote 1: April 16, 1809. By the Terzetts he no doubt means the Trios,
Op. 70, dedicated to Countess Erdödy.]



April 17, 1809.


A suitable lodging has just been found out for me, but I need some one to
help me in the affair. I cannot employ my brother, because he only
recommends what costs least money. Let me know, therefore, if we can go
together to look at the house. It is in the Klepperstall.[1]

[Footnote 1: An der Mölker Bastei.]



April 25, 1809.

I shall be glad, right glad, to play. I send you the violoncello part; if
you find that you can manage it, play it yourself, or let old Kraft[1] do
so. I will tell you about the lodging when we meet.

Your friend,


[Footnote 1: Anton Kraft (and likewise his son, Nicolaus Kraft) was a most
admirable violoncello-player, with whom Beethoven from the earliest days of
his residence in Vienna had played a great deal at Prince Lichnowsky’s.
Kraft was at that time in Prince Lobkowitz’s band.]



May 14, 1809.


I think after all it would be advisable to let old Kraft play, as the trios
are to be heard for the first time (in society), and you can play them
afterwards; but I leave it all to your own option. If you meet with any
difficulties, one of which may possibly be that Kraft and S. [Schuppanzigh]
do not harmonize well together, then Herr v. Zmeskall must distinguish
himself, not as a mere musical Count, but as an energetic musician.

Your friend,


[Footnote 1: Kraft and Schuppanzigh were then each giving quartet




I feel almost ashamed of your complaisance and kindness in permitting me to
see the MS. of your as yet unknown literary treasures. Pray receive my
sincere thanks. I also beg to return both your operettas. Wholly engrossed
by my professional avocations, it is impossible for me to give an opinion,
especially with regard to the Indian Operetta; as soon as time permits, I
will call on you for the purpose of discussing this subject, and also the
Oratorio of “The Deluge.” Pray always include me among the warm admirers of
your great talents.

I am, sir, with sincere esteem, your obedient


[Footnote 1: I see in Schindler’s _Beethoven_, that he wished to have “an
Indian Chorus of a religious character” from this renowned Orientalist,
who, in sending his _Persian Operetta_, written “rather with an ideal than
a musical object,” and likewise an oratorio, _The Deluge_,
remarks:–“Should you not find these works in all respects executed quite
to your taste, still I feel convinced that through the genius of a
Beethoven alone can music portray the rising of the great flood and the
pacifying of the surging waters.”]




Forgive me, my dear H—-, for not having brought you the letter for Paris.
I have been, and still am, so much occupied, that day after day I am
obliged to delay writing it, but you shall have it to-morrow, even if I am
unable to come myself to see you, which I am most anxious to do.

There is another matter that I would most earnestly press on you; perhaps
you might succeed in doing something for a _poor unfortunate man_. I allude
to Herr Stoll, son of the celebrated physician. With many persons the
question is whether a man has been ruined by his own fault or by that of
others, but this is not so with either you or me; it is sufficient that
Stoll is unfortunate, and looks on a journey to Paris as his sole resource,
having last year made many influential acquaintances, who, when he goes
there, are to endeavor to procure him a professorship in Westphalia. Stoll
has therefore applied to Herr v. Neumann, in the State Chancery Office, to
send him with a government courier to Paris, but the latter refuses to take
him for less than twenty-five louis d’or. Now I request you, my dear
friend, to speak to Herr v. Neumann to arrange, if possible, that the
courier should either take Stoll _gratis_, or for a small sum. I am
persuaded that if there is nothing particular against it, you will be glad
to interest yourself in poor Stoll. I return to the country to-day, but
hope soon to be so fortunate as to enjoy an hour of your society. In the
mean time I send you my best wishes, and beg you will believe in the
sincere esteem of

Your obedient


[Footnote 1: Reichardt states that Stoll was in Vienna in the spring of
1809, which fixes the date of this letter. Napoleon bestowed a pension on
the young poet (who appears to have gone to Paris), mistaking him for his
father, the celebrated physician.]




You will receive with this what I promised. Had not many serious obstacles
intervened, I would have sent you more, in order to show you that where my
friends are concerned _I always perform more than I promise_. I hope, and
do not doubt, that you are agreeably occupied and enjoying society, but not
too much, I trust, to prevent your thinking of us. It would show too much
confidence in you, or too high an estimation of my own merits, were I to
attribute the sentiment to you, “That people are not together only when
present, but that the absent and the dead also live with us.” Who could
ascribe such a thought to the volatile Thérèse, who takes the world so
lightly? Among your various occupations, do not forget the piano, or
rather, music in general, for which you have so fine a talent: why not then
seriously cultivate it? You, who have so much feeling for the good and the
beautiful, should strive to recognize the perfections of so charming an
art, which in return always casts so bright a reflection on us.

I live in entire quiet and solitude, and even though occasional flashes of
light arouse me, still since you all left this I feel a hopeless void which
even my art, usually so faithful to me, has not yet triumphed over. Your
pianoforte is ordered, and you shall soon have it. What a difference you
must have discovered between the treatment of the theme I extemporized on
the other evening and the mode in which I have recently written it out for
you? You must explain this yourself, only do not find the solution in the
punch! How happy you are to get away so soon to the country! I cannot enjoy
this luxury till the 8th. I look forward to it with the delight of a child.
What happiness I shall feel in wandering among groves and woods, and among
trees, and plants, and rocks! No man on earth can love the country as I do!
Thickets, trees, and rocks supply the echo man longs for!

You shall soon receive some more of my compositions, which will not cause
you to complain so much of difficulties. Have you read Goethe’s “Wilhelm
Meister,” and Schlegel’s “Translations of Shakspeare”? People have so much
leisure in the country, that perhaps you would like me to send you these
works? It happens that I have an acquaintance in your neighborhood; so
perhaps you may see me some morning early for half an hour, after which I
must be off again. You will also observe that I intend to bore you for as
short a time as possible.[1]

Commend me to the regard of your father and mother, though I have as yet no
right to claim it. Remember me also to your cousin M. [Mathilde]. Farewell,
my esteemed Thérèse; I wish you all the good and charm that life can offer.
Think of me kindly, and forget my follies. Rest assured that no one would
more rejoice to hear of your happiness, even were you to feel no interest
in your devoted servant and friend,


N.B. It would be very amiable in you to write me a few lines, to say if I
can be of any use to you here.

[Footnote 1: Herr v. Malfatti Rohrenbach, nephew of the renowned physician
who was so prominent in Beethoven’s last illness, lately related to me in
Vienna as follows:–Beethoven went to pay a visit to young Frau Thérèse,
Baroness Drossdick, at Mödling, but not finding her at home, he tore a
sheet of music-paper out of a book, and wrote some music to a verse of
Matthisson’s, and on the other side, inscribed, in large letters, “To my
dear Thérèse.” The “Mathilde” mentioned farther on was, according to
Bärmann, a Baroness Gleichenstein. [See No. 45.]]




I cannot with truth deny that the verses you sent have considerably
embarrassed me. It causes a strange sensation to see and hear yourself
praised, and yet to be conscious of your own defects, as I am. I consider
such occurrences as mere incitements to strive to draw nearer the
unattainable goal set before us by Art and Nature, difficult as it may be.
These verses are truly beautiful, with the exception of one fault that we
often find in poets, which is, their being misled by Fancy to believe that
they really do see and hear _what they wish to see and hear_, and yet even
this is far below their ideal. You may well believe that I wish to become
acquainted with the poet or poetess; pray receive also yourself my thanks
for the kindly feeling you show towards your sincere friend,


[Footnote 1: Nothing has hitherto been ascertained respecting either the
date of this note, or the lady to whom it is addressed.]



January 23, 1810.

What are you about? My gayety yesterday, though only assumed, has not only
vexed but offended you. The _uninvited guests_ seemed so little to deserve
your ill-humor, that I endeavored to use all my friendly influence to
prevent your giving way to it, by my pretended flow of spirits. I am still
suffering from indigestion. Say whether you can meet me at the “Swan”

Your true friend,


[Footnote 1: The cause that gave rise to this note is not known.]



Vienna, May 2, 1810.


These lines may very possibly cause you some surprise, and yet, though you
have no written proof of it, I always retain the most lively remembrance of
you. Among my MSS. is one that has long been destined for you, and which
you shall certainly receive this summer. For the last two years my secluded
and quiet life has been at an end, and I have been forcibly drawn into the
vortex of the world; though as yet I have attained no good result from
this,–nay, perhaps rather the reverse,–but who has not been affected by
the storms around us? Still I should not only be happy, but the happiest of
men, if a demon had not taken up his settled abode in my ears. Had I not
somewhere read that man must not voluntarily put an end to his life while
he can still perform even one good deed, I should long since have been no
more, and by my own hand too! Ah! how fair is life; but for me it is
forever poisoned!

You will not refuse me one friendly service, which is to procure me my
baptismal certificate. As Steffen Breuning has an account with you, he can
pay any expenses you may incur, and I will repay him here. If you think it
worth while to make the inquiry in person, and choose to make a journey
from Coblenz to Bonn, you have only to charge it all to me. I must,
however, warn you that I had an _elder brother_ whose name was also Ludwig,
with the second name of _Maria_, who died. In order to know my precise age,
the date of my birth must be first ascertained, this circumstance having
already led others into error, and caused me to be thought older than I
really am. Unluckily, I lived for some time without myself knowing my age
[see Nos. 26 and 51]. I had a book containing all family incidents, but it
has been lost, Heaven knows how! So pardon my urgently requesting you to
try to discover _Ludwig Maria’s_ birth, as well as that of the present
Ludwig. The sooner you can send me the certificate of baptism the more
obliged shall I be.[1] I am told that you sing one of my songs in your
Freemason Lodge, probably the one in E major, which I have not myself got;
send it to me, and I promise to compensate you threefold and fourfold.[2]
Think of me with kindness, little as I apparently deserve it. Embrace your
dear wife and children, and all whom you love, in the name of your friend,


[Footnote 1: Wegeler says:–“I discovered the solution of the enigma (why
the baptismal certificate was so eagerly sought) from a letter written to
me three months afterwards by my brother-in-law, Stephan von Breuning, in
which he said: ‘Beethoven tells me at least once a week that he means to
write to you; but I believe his _intended marriage is broken off_; he
therefore feels no ardent inclination to thank you for having procured his
baptismal certificate.'”]

[Footnote 2: Beethoven was mistaken; Wegeler had only supplied other music
to the words of Matthisson’s _Opfer Lied_.]



July 9, 1810.


You are about to travel, and so am I on account of my health. In the mean
time all goes topsy-turvy with me. The _Herr_[1] wants to have me with him,
and Art is not less urgent in her claims. I am partly in Schönbrunn and
partly here; every day assailed by messages from strangers and new
acquaintances, and even as regards art I am often driven nearly distracted
by my undeserved fame. Fortune seeks me, and for that very reason I almost
dread some new calamity. As for your “Iphigénie,” the facts are these. I
have not seen it for the last two years and a half, and have no doubt lent
it to some one; but to whom?–that is the question. I have sent in all
directions, and have not yet discovered it, but hope still to find it. If
lost, you shall be indemnified. Farewell, my dear Z. I trust that when we
meet again you will find that my art has made some progress in the interim.

Ever remain my friend, as much as I am yours,


[Footnote 1: The “Herr” is his pupil, the Archduke Rudolph.]



Vienna, August 11, 1810.


Never was there a lovelier spring than this year; I say so, and feel it
too, because it was then I first knew you. You have yourself seen that in
society I am like a fish on the sand, which writhes and writhes, but cannot
get away till some benevolent Galatea casts it back into the mighty ocean.
I was indeed fairly stranded, dearest friend, when surprised by you at a
moment in which moroseness had entirely mastered me; but how quickly it
vanished at your aspect! I was at once conscious that you came from another
sphere than this absurd world, where, with the best inclinations, I cannot
open my ears. I am a wretched creature, and yet I complain of others!! You
will forgive this from the goodness of heart that beams in your eyes, and
the good sense manifested by your ears; at least they understand how to
flatter, by the mode in which they listen. My ears are, alas! a
partition-wall, through which I can with difficulty hold any intercourse
with my fellow-creatures. Otherwise, perhaps, I might have felt more
assured with you; but I was only conscious of the full, intelligent glance
from your eyes, which affected me so deeply that never can I forget it. My
dear friend! dearest girl!–Art! who comprehends it? with whom can I
discuss this mighty goddess? How precious to me were the few days when we
talked together, or, I should rather say, corresponded! I have carefully
preserved the little notes with your clever, charming, most charming
answers; so I have to thank my defective hearing for the greater part of
our fugitive intercourse being written down. Since you left this I have had
some unhappy hours,–hours of the deepest gloom, when I could do nothing.
I wandered for three hours in the Schönbrunn Allée after you left us, but
no _angel_ met me there to take possession of me as you did. Pray forgive,
my dear friend, this deviation from the original key, but I must have such
intervals as a relief to my heart. You have no doubt written to Goethe
about me? I would gladly bury my head in a sack, so that I might neither
see nor hear what goes on in the world, because I shall meet you there no
more; but I shall get a letter from you? Hope sustains me, as it does half
the world; through life she has been my close companion, or what would have
become of me? I send you “Kennst Du das Land,” written with my own hand, as
a remembrance of the hour when I first knew you; I send you also another
that I composed since I bade you farewell, my dearest, fairest sweetheart!

Herz, mein Herz, was soll das geben,
Was bedränget dich so sehr;
Welch ein neues fremdes Leben,
Ich erkenne dich nicht mehr.

Now answer me, my dearest friend, and say what is to become of me since my
heart has turned such a rebel. Write to your most faithful friend,


[Footnote 1: The celebrated letters to Bettina are given here exactly as
published in her book, _Ilius Pamphilius und die Ambrosia_ (Berlin, Arnim,
1857) in two volumes. I never myself had any doubts of their being genuine
(with the exception of perhaps some words in the middle of the third
letter), nor can any one now distrust them, especially after the
publication of _Beethoven’s Letters_. But for the sake of those for whom
the weight of innate conviction is not sufficient proof, I may here mention
that in December, 1864, Professor Moritz Carrière, in Munich, when
conversing with me about _Beethoven’s Letters_, expressly assured me that
these three letters were genuine, and that he had seen them in Berlin at
Bettina v. Arnim’s in 1839, and read them most attentively and with the
deepest interest. From their important contents, he urged their immediate
publication; and when this shortly after ensued, no change whatever struck
him as having been made in the original text; on the contrary, he still
perfectly remembered that the much-disputed phraseology (and especially the
incident with Goethe) was precisely the same as in the originals. This
testimony seems to me the more weighty, as M. Carrière must not in such
matters be looked on as a novice, but as a competent judge, who has
carefully studied all that concerns our literary heroes, and who would not
permit anything to be falsely imputed to Beethoven any more than to Goethe.
Beethoven’s biography is, however, the proper place to discuss more closely
such things, especially his character and his conduct in this particular
case. At present we only refer in general terms to the first chapter of
_Beethoven’s Jugend_, which gives all the facts connected with these
letters to Bettina and the following ones–a characteristic likeness of
Beethoven thus impressed itself on the mind of the biographer, and was
reproduced in a few bold outlines in his _Biography_. These letters could
not, however, possibly be given _in extenso_ in a general introduction to a
comprehensive biography.]



Vienna, Feb. 10, 1811.


I have now received two letters from you, while those to Tonie show that
you still remember me, and even too kindly. I carried your letter about
with me the whole summer, and it often made me feel very happy; though I do
not frequently write to you, and you never see me, still I write you
letters by thousands in my thoughts. I can easily imagine what you feel at
Berlin in witnessing all the noxious frivolity of the world’s rabble,[1]
even had you not written it to me yourself. Such prating about art, and yet
no results!!! The best description of this is to be found in Schiller’s
poem “Die Flüsse,” where the river Spree is supposed to speak. You are
going to be married, my dear friend, or are already so, and I have had no
chance of seeing you even once previously. May all the felicity that
marriage ever bestowed on husband and wife attend you both! What can I say
to you of myself? I can only exclaim with Johanna, “Compassionate my fate!”
If I am spared for some years to come, I will thank the Omniscient, the
Omnipotent, for the boon, as I do for all other weal and woe. If you
mention me when you write to Goethe, strive to find words expressive of my
deep reverence and admiration. I am about to write to him myself with
regard to “Egmont,” for which I have written some music solely from my love
for his poetry, which always delights me. Who can be sufficiently grateful
to a great poet,–the most precious jewel of a nation! Now no more, my dear
sweet friend! I only came home this morning at four o’clock from an orgy,
where I laughed heartily, but to-day I feel as if I could weep as sadly;
turbulent pleasures always violently recoil on my spirits. As for Clemens
[Brentano, her brother], pray thank him for his complaisance; with regard
to the Cantata, the subject is not important enough for us here–it is very
different in Berlin; and as for my affection, the sister engrosses so large
a share, that little remains for the brother. Will he be content with this?

Now farewell, my dear, dear friend; I imprint a sorrowful kiss on your
forehead, thus impressing my thoughts on it as with a seal. Write soon,
very soon, to your brother,


[Footnote 1: An expression which, as well as many others, he no doubt
borrowed from Bettina, and introduced to please her.]




I am disposed to engage a man who has just offered me his services,–a
music-copyist. His parents live in Vienna, which might be convenient in
many respects, but I first wish to speak to you about the terms; and as you
are disengaged to-morrow, which I, _alas_! am every day, I beg you will
take coffee with me in the afternoon, when we can discuss the matter, and
then proceed from _words to deeds_. We have also the honor to inform you
that we intend shortly to confer on you some of the decorations of the
Order of our Household,–the first class for yourself, the others for any
one you choose, except a priest. We shall expect your answer early
to-morrow. We now present you with some blotches of ink. Your






We beg you to confer some goose-quills on us; we will in return send you a
whole bunch of the same sort, that you may not be obliged to pluck out your
own. It is just possible that you may yet receive the Grand Cross of the
Order of the Violoncello. We remain your gracious and most friendly of all




The Spring of 1811.


As in spite of every effort I can find no copyist to write in my house, I
send you my own manuscript; all you have to do is to desire Schlemmer to
get you an efficient copyist, who must, however, write out the Trio in your
palace, otherwise there would be no security against piracy. I am better,
and hope to have the honor of waiting on you in the course of a few days,
when we must strive to make up for lost time. I always feel anxious and
uneasy when I do not attend your Royal Highness as often or as assiduously
as I wish. It is certainly the truth when I say that the loss is mine, but
I trust I shall not soon again be so unwell. Be graciously pleased to
remember me; the time may yet come when I shall be able to show you doubly
and trebly that I deserve this more than ever.

I am your Royal Highness’s devoted servant,


[Footnote 1: Schlemmer was for many years Beethoven’s copyist.]



I have taken this trouble only that I might figure correctly, and thus be
able sometimes to lead others. As for mistakes, I scarcely ever required to
have them pointed out to me, having had from my childhood such a quick
perception, that I exercised it unconscious that it ought to be so, or in
fact could be otherwise.

[Footnote 1: Written on a sheet of music-paper (oblong folio) numbered 22,
and evidently torn out of a large book. On the other side (21) is written,
in Beethoven’s hand, instructions on the use of the fourth in retardations,
with five musical examples. The leaf is no doubt torn from one of the books
that Beethoven had compiled from various text-books, for the instruction of
the Archduke Rudolph. I have therefore placed Beethoven’s remark here.]



June 6, 1811.


Have you read the book, and may I venture to hope that you will be
persuaded to undertake it? Be so good as to give me an answer, as I am
prevented going to you myself. If you have already read it, then send it
back to me, that I may also look over it again before you begin to work at
it. Above all, if it be your good pleasure that I should soar to the skies
on the wings of your poetry, I entreat you to effect this as soon as

Your obedient servant,




Sept. 10, 1811.


Let the rehearsal stand over for the present. I must see my doctor again
to-day, of whose bungling I begin to tire. Thanks for your metronome; let
us try whether we can measure Time into Eternity with it, for it is so
_simple_ and _easily managed_ that there seems to be no impediment to this!
In the mean time we will have a conference on the subject. The mathematical
precision of clockwork is of course greater; yet formerly, in watching the
little experiments you made in my presence, I thought there was something
worthy of notice in your metronome, and I hope we shall soon succeed in
_setting it thoroughly right_. Ere long I hope to see you.

Your friend,




Oct. 26, 1811.

I shall be at the “Swan” to-day, and hope to meet you there _to a
certainty_, but don’t come too late. My foot is better; the author of so
many poetical _feet_ promises the _head_ author a sound foot within a
week’s time.



Nov. 20, 1811.

We are deucedly obliged to you. We beg you to be careful not to lose your
well-earned fame. You are exhorted to pursue the same course, and we remain
once more your deucedly attached




Jan. 19, 1812.

I shall be at the “Swan” to-day, dear Z. I have, alas! _too much_ leisure,
and you _none_! Your






What the deuce has become of you? Are you to be at the “Swan” to-day? No?
… Yes! See from this enclosure what I have done for Hungary. When a
German undertakes a thing, even without pledging his word, he acts very
differently from one of those Hungarian Counts, such as B. [Brunswick], who
allowed me to travel by myself–from what paltry, miserable motive who can
tell?–and kept me waiting, though he did not wait for me!

My excellent little quondam musical Count,

I am now, as ever, your attached


Return the enclosure, for we wish to bring it, and something else, pretty
forcibly under the notice of the Count.

[Footnote 1: The date of this and the following note is decided by the
allusion to his compositions written for Hungary (Pesth). See the
subsequent letter to Varenna.]



You are summoned to appear to-day at the “Swan;” Brunswick also comes. If
you do not appear, you are henceforth excluded from all that concerns us.
Excuses _per excellentiam_ cannot be accepted. Obedience is enjoined,
knowing that we are acting for your benefit, and that our motive is to
guard you against temptations and faithlessness _per excellentiam–dixi_.





The well-known watchmaker who lives close to the Freiung is to call on you.
I want a first-rate repeater, for which he asks forty ducats. As you like
that kind of thing, I beg you will exert yourself on my behalf, and select
a really good watch for me.

With the most enthusiastic admiration for a man like yourself, who is soon
to give me an opportunity of displaying in his favor my particular
knowledge of horn-playing, I am your





If the wish to benefit the poor were not so evident in your letter, I
should have felt not a little offended by your accompanying your request to
me by the offer of payment. From my childhood, whenever my art could be
serviceable to poor suffering humanity, I have never allowed any other
motive to influence me, and never required anything beyond the heartfelt
gratification that it always caused me. With this you will receive an
Oratorio–(A), the performance of which occupies half an evening, also an
Overture and a Fantasia with Chorus–(B). If in your benevolent institution
you possess a _dépôt_ for such things, I beg you will deposit these three
works there, as a mark of my sympathy for the destitute; to be considered
as their property, and to be given at any concerts intended for their sole
benefit. In addition to these, you will receive an Introduction to the
“Ruins of Athens,” the score of which shall be written out for you as soon
as possible. Likewise a Grand Overture to “Ungarn’s erste Wohlthäter”
[Hungary’s First Benefactors].

Both form part of two works that I wrote for the Hungarians at the opening
of their new theatre [in Pesth]. Pray give me, however, your written
assurance that these works shall not be performed elsewhere, as they are
not published, nor likely to be so for some time to come. You shall receive
the latter Grand Overture as soon as it is returned to me from Hungary,
which it will be in the course of a few days.

The engraved Fantasia with Chorus could no doubt be executed by a lady, an
amateur, mentioned to me here by Professor Schneller.[2] The words after
the Chorus No. 4, in C major, were altered by the publishers, and are now
quite contrary to the musical expression; those written in _pencil_,
therefore, on the music must be sung. If you can make use of the Oratorio,
I can send you _all the parts written out_, so that the outlay may be less
for the poor. Write to me about this.

Your obedient


[Footnote 1: The correspondence with Varenna, consisting of fourteen
letters and four notes, was purchased some years ago by a collector of
autographs in Leipzig, and sold again by public auction, probably to
different persons. It would be like pursuing leaves scattered by the wind
to try to recover these letters. Those here given have for the most part
appeared in newspapers; I cannot, therefore, be responsible for the text,
farther than their publication goes, which, however, has evidently been
conducted by a clever hand. The date of the first letter is to be gleaned
from the second, and we also learn from them that _The Ruins of Athens_ and
_King Stephen_ (or at all events the Overture) were already finished in
January, 1812.]

[Footnote 2: This _dilettante_ was Mdlle. Marie Koschak, subsequently the
wife of Dr. Pachler, an advocate in Gratz, from whom two letters are given
by Schindler of the dates of August 15th, 1825, and November 5th, 1826, in
which she invites Beethoven to visit her in Gratz. Schindler considers as
applicable to this lady the words of a note in Beethoven’s writing of which
he has given a fac-simile in his _Biography_, I. 95; the date 1817 or 1818.
They are as follows:–“Love alone, yes! love alone can make your life
happier. O God! grant that I may at last find her who can strengthen me in
virtue, whom I can legitimately call my own. On July 27th, when she drove
past me in Baden, she seemed to gaze at me.” This lady also plays a
friendly part in Franz Schubert’s _Life_. See her _Biography_ by Dr.



Feb. 2, 1812.

By no means _extraordinary_, but _very ordinary_ mender of pens! whose
talent has failed on this occasion (for those I send require to be fresh
mended), when do you intend at last to cast off your fetters?–when? You
never for a moment think of me; accursed to me is life amid this Austrian
barbarism. I shall go now chiefly to the “Swan,” as in other taverns I
cannot defend myself against intrusion. Farewell! that is, _fare as well_
as I wish you to do without

Your friend,


Most wonderful of men! We beg that your servant will engage a person to fit
up my apartment; as he is acquainted with the lodgings, he can fix the
proper price at once. Do this soon, you Carnival scamp!!!!!!!

The enclosed note is at least a week old.



Feb. 8, 1812.

Most extraordinary and first and foremost man of the pendulum in the world,
and without a lever too!!!

I am much indebted to you for having imparted to me some share of your
motive power. I wish to express my gratitude in person, and therefore
invite you this morning to come to the “Swan,”–a tavern, the name of which
itself shows that it is a fitting place when such a subject is in question,

Yours ever,




Vienna, Feb. 8, 1812.

Herr Rettich has already got the parts of the Oratorio, and when you no
longer require them I beg you will send them back to me. It is not probable
that anything is wanting, but even in that case, as you have the score, you
can easily remedy this. I only yesterday received the Overtures from
Hungary, and shall have them copied and forwarded to you as soon as
possible. I likewise send a March with a vocal Chorus, also from the “Ruins
of Athens.” Altogether you will now have sufficient to fill up the time.

As these pieces are only in manuscript, I shall let you know at the time I
send them what precautions I wish you to take with regard to the Overtures
and the March with Chorus.

As I do not publish any new work until a year after its composition, and,
when I do so, am obliged invariably to give a written assurance to the
publisher that no one is in possession of it, you can yourself perceive
that I must carefully guard against any possible contingency or casualty as
to these pieces. I must, however, assure you that I shall always be
disposed to show the warmest zeal in aid of your charity, and I here pledge
myself to send you every year works that exist solely in manuscript, or
compositions written expressly for this charitable purpose. I beg you will
also let me know what your future plans are with regard to your
institution, that I may act accordingly.

Farewell! I remain, with the highest consideration,

Your obedient




Feb. 19, 1812.


I only yesterday received the written information that the Archduke pays
his share in the new paper-money of the full value [_Einlösungsschein_]. I
beg you will write out for me, as nearly as you can, the substance of what
you said on Sunday, and which we thought it advisable to send to the other
two. I am offered a certificate that the Archduke is to pay in
_Einlösungsschein_, but I think this unnecessary, more especially as the
people about Court, in spite of all their apparent friendship for me,
declare that my demands are _not just_!!!! O Heaven! aid me in enduring
this! I am no Hercules, to help Atlas in carrying the world, or to strive
to do so in his place. It was only yesterday that I heard the particulars
of the handsome manner in which Baron von Kraft had judged and spoken of me
to Zisius! But never mind, dear Z.! My endurance of these shameful attacks
cannot continue much longer; persecuted art will everywhere find an
asylum–Daedalus, though imprisoned in a labyrinth, found wings to carry
him aloft. Oh! I too shall find wings!

Yours ever,


If you have time, send me this morning the draft of the memorial;–probably
for nothing, and to receive nothing! so much time is already lost, and only
to be kept in suspense by civil words!

[Footnote 1: The Finance Patent appeared in Austria in 1811, by which the
value of money was depreciated by a fifth. This also affected the salary
that Beethoven drew from the Archduke Rudolph, Prince Kinsky, and Prince
Lobkowitz. The first of these gentlemen paid his full share in
_Einlösungsschein_. Lobkowitz, at the request of Beethoven, soon after did
the same; with Kinsky’s share alone difficulties arose subsequently, owing
to his death.]



Lent, 1812.

In spite of my anxiety to serve the cause of your charity, I have been
quite unable to do so. I have no copyist of my own to write for me as
formerly, and the limited time renders it impossible for me to do so
myself; thus I am obliged to have recourse to strangers as copyists. One of
these promised to write out the Overtures, &c., &c., for you; but Passion
Week intervening, when there are so many concerts, prevented his being able
to keep his word, in spite of every effort on my part. Even if the
Overtures and the March with Chorus were transcribed, it would not be
possible to send them by this post, and if we wait for the next, the music
will arrive too late for Easter Sunday. Let me know if there are any means
you could adopt to gain a little more time, or any chance opportunity of
sending these works to you, and I will do all that lies in my power to aid
the cause of your charity.

I am, with esteem, yours obediently,






I was much vexed not to receive Y.I.H.’s message to come to you till very
late yesterday evening–indeed nearly at eleven o’clock. Contrary to my
usual custom, I did not go home at all during the afternoon, the fine
weather having tempted me to spend the whole afternoon in walking, and the
evening at the Banda, “auf der Wieden,” and thus I was not aware of your
wish till I returned home. In the mean time, whenever Y.I.H. desires it, I
am ready at any hour or moment to place myself at your disposal. I
therefore await your gracious commands.

I am your Imperial Highness’s most obedient


[Footnote 1: The date 1812 is marked on the sheet by another hand, and the
close of the second note proves that it was at the commencement of this





I was unable till to-day, when I leave my bed for the first time, to answer
your gracious letter. It will be impossible for me to wait on you
to-morrow, but perhaps the day after. I have suffered much during the last
few days, and I may say two-fold from not being in a condition to devote a
great part of my time to you, according to my heartfelt wish. I hope now,
however, to have cleared off all scores for spring and summer (I mean as to

I am your Imperial Highness’s most obedient servant,




Vienna, May 8, 1812.


Being still far from well, and much occupied, I have been unable to reply
to your letters. How in the world did such an unfounded idea ever occur to
you as that I was displeased? It would certainly have been better had you
returned the music as soon as it had been performed; for at that period I
could have produced it here, whereas now, unluckily, it comes too late; but
I only say _unluckily_ because it prevents my being able to spare the
worthy ladies the expenses of copying. At any other time I would on no
account have allowed them to pay for writing out the works, but it so
happens that at this moment I am visited with every kind of _contretemps_,
so I cannot avoid doing so. Possibly Herr O., although with the best
intentions, has delayed informing you of this, which obliged me to apply to
him for repayment of the expenses of copying; perhaps, too, in my haste, I
did not express myself distinctly. You can now, esteemed sir, have the
Overture and the Chorus again if you require them.

I feel convinced that in any event you will prevent my confidence being
abused; in the mean time you may keep the Overture on the conditions I have
stated. If I find that I am able to pay for the copying, I will redeem it
for my own use.

The score of the Oratorio is a gift, and also the Overture to “Egmont.”
Keep the parts of the Oratorio beside you till you can have it performed.

Select whatever you choose for the concert which I hear you now intend to
give, and if you decide on the Chorus and the Overture, they shall be
forwarded to you at once. For the future concert, for the benefit of the
venerable Ursulines, I promise you an entirely new symphony at all events,
and perhaps also a work of some importance for voices, and as I have now a
favorable opportunity, the copying shall not cost you a farthing. My joy
would be beyond all bounds if the concert were to be successful, and I
could spare you all expense;–at all events, take my good-will for granted.

Remember me to the admirable teachers of the children, and say to them that
I shed tears of joy at the happy result of my poor good-will, and that so
far as my humble capabilities can serve them, they shall always find in me
the warmest sympathy.

My cordial thanks for your invitation; I would fain become acquainted with
the interesting scenery of Styria, and possibly I may one day enjoy that
pleasure. Farewell! I heartily rejoice in having found in you a friend to
the poor and needy, and am always yours to command.





The most insignificant of mortals has just been to wait on his gracious
master, when he found everything closed; so he came here, where indeed all
was _open_, but no one to be found except the trusty servant. I had a heavy
packet of music with me, in order to ensure a good musical evening before
we parted; but in vain. Malfatti[2] is resolved that I shall go to Töplitz,
which is anything but agreeable to me. As, however, I must obey, I hope at
least that my gracious master will not enjoy himself quite so much without
me. _O vanitas!_ for it is nothing else. Before I set off for Töplitz I
will either go to Baden to see you or write. Farewell! Pray present my
homage to my gracious master, and continue your regard for

Your friend,


[Footnote 1: The journey to Töplitz took place in the year 1812.]

[Footnote 2: A very celebrated physician in Vienna at that time, consulted
by Beethoven.]



Töplitz, July 19, 1812.

My thanks have been too long delayed for all the dainties which the worthy
ladies sent for my enjoyment; being constantly ill in Vienna, I was at last
forced to take refuge here.

However, better late than never; so I beg you will say all sorts of kind
things in my name to the admirable Ursuline ladies, though I did not
deserve so much gratitude; indeed it is rather for me to thank Him who
enables me to render my art occasionally useful to others. When you next
wish to make use of my poor abilities for the benefit of the venerable
ladies, you have only to write to me.

A new symphony is now ready for you, and as the Archduke Rudolph has had it
copied out, it will cost you nothing. Perhaps I may one of these days be
able to send you something vocal. I only wish and hope that you will not
ascribe my anxiety to serve these venerable ladies to a certain degree of
vanity or desire for fame, as this would grieve me exceedingly. If these
good ladies wish to do me any service in return, I beg they will include me
with their pupils in their pious orisons. I remain, with esteem,

Your friend,


I shall remain here for some weeks; so if there is any occasion to write,
address to me here.



Töplitz, August 8, 1812.


Who even if you would,
Forget you never should.



Franzensbrunn, Aug. 12, 1812.

It was my bounden duty long ago to have recalled myself to Y.R.H.’s
recollection, but partly my occupations and the state of my health, as well
as my own insignificance, made me reluctant to do so. I missed Y.R.H. by
one night only in Prague; for when proceeding to pay my respects to you in
the morning, I found you had set off the very night before. In Töplitz I
heard a military band four times a day,–the only musical report which I
can give you. I was a great deal with Goethe.[1] My physician Staudenheim,
however, ordered me off to Carlsbad,[2] and from thence here, and probably
I shall have to go back to Töplitz from this. What flights! And yet it
seems very doubtful whether any improvement in my condition has hitherto
taken place. I receive the best accounts of Y.R.H.’s health, and also of
the persistent devotion you exhibit towards the musical Muse. Y.R.H. has no
doubt heard of a concert that I gave for the benefit of the sufferers by
fire in the Stadt Baden,[3] assisted by Herr Polledro.[4] The receipts were
nearly 1000 florins W.W., and if I had not been restricted in my
arrangements we might easily have taken 2000 florins. It was literally a
_poor concert for the poor_. I could only find at the publisher’s here some
of my earlier sonatas with violin accompaniments, and as Polledro had set
his heart on these, I was obliged to content myself with playing an old
Sonata.[5] The entire concert consisted of a trio, in which Polledro
played, my Sonata with violin, then again something was played by Polledro,
and, lastly, I extemporized. Meanwhile I do sincerely rejoice that by this
means something has fallen to the share of the poor _Badeners_. Pray deign
to accept my best wishes for your welfare, and my entreaty that you will
sometimes think of me.


[Footnote 1: Beethoven speaks very briefly of his meeting with Goethe.
Goethe in his _Tag- und Jahrschriften_ of 1812 makes no allusion to
Beethoven during his stay at Töplitz. It does not, therefore, appear that
either of these master-minds found any particular pleasure in each other
when they met personally. Beethoven, indeed, dedicated to “the immortal
Goethe” (1812) his composition the _Meeresstille und glückliche Fahrt_, but
only wrote once to him in 1823 to obtain a subscription from the Grand Duke
of Weimar for his Grand Mass, and received no answer from Goethe. In the
complete edition of Goethe’s works Beethoven’s name is only once mentioned
by Goethe, when he refers to his funeral obsequies.]

[Footnote 2: Dr. Staudenheim was, like Malfatti, one of the most celebrated
physicians in Vienna. Beethoven, too, was well acquainted with Staudenheim,
but in his regimen he neither followed the prescriptions of Staudenheim nor
of Malfatti.]

[Footnote 3: The Stadt Baden, near Vienna, had been visited on July 16th by
a most destructive conflagration.]

[Footnote 4: Giov. Batt. Polledro, Kapellmeister in Turin, born 1776,
travelled through Germany as a violinist from 1809 to 1812. He gave a
concert in Vienna in March, 1812.]

[Footnote 5: The violin Sonata with pianoforte was probably Op. 47
(composed in 1803 and published in 1805, according to Thayer, No. 111), or
one of his earlier compositions, Op. 30, or 24, or 23.]



Töplitz, August 15, 1812.


Kings and princes can indeed create professors and privy-councillors, and
confer titles and decorations, but they cannot make great men,–spirits
that soar above the base turmoil of this world. There their powers fail,
and this it is that forces them to respect us.[1] When two persons like
Goethe and myself meet, these grandees cannot fail to perceive what such as
we consider great. Yesterday, on our way home, we met the whole Imperial
family; we saw them coming some way off, when Goethe withdrew his arm from
mine, in order to stand aside; and, say what I would, I could not prevail
on him to make another step in advance. I pressed down my hat more firmly
on my head, buttoned up my great-coat, and, crossing my arms behind me, I
made my way through the thickest portion of the crowd. Princes and
courtiers formed a lane for me; Archduke Rudolph took off his hat, and the
Empress bowed to me first. These great ones of the earth _know me_. To my
infinite amusement, I saw the procession defile past Goethe, who stood
aside with his hat off, bowing profoundly. I afterwards took him sharply to
task for this; I gave him no quarter, and upbraided him with all his sins,
especially towards you, my dear friend, as we had just been speaking of
you. Heavens! if I could have lived with you as _he_ did, believe me I
should have produced far greater things. A musician is also a poet, he too
can feel himself transported into a brighter world by a pair of fine eyes,
where loftier spirits sport with him and impose heavy tasks on him. What
thoughts rushed into my mind when I first saw you in the Observatory during
a refreshing May shower, so fertilizing to me also![2] The most beautiful
themes stole from your eyes into my heart, which shall yet enchant the
world when Beethoven no longer _directs_. If God vouchsafes to grant me a
few more years of life, I must then see you once more, my dear, most dear
friend, for the voice within, to which I always listen, demands this.
Spirits may love one another, and I shall ever woo yours. Your approval is
dearer to me than all else in the world. I told Goethe my sentiments as to
the influence praise has over men like us, and that we desire our equals to
listen to us with their understanding. Emotion suits women only; (forgive
me!) music ought to strike fire from the soul of a man. Ah! my dear girl,
how long have our feelings been identical on all points!!! The sole real
good is some bright kindly spirit to sympathize with us, whom we thoroughly
comprehend, and from whom we need not hide our thoughts. _He who wishes to
appear something, must in reality be something._ The world must acknowledge
us, it is not always unjust; but for this I care not, having a higher
purpose in view. I hope to get a letter from you in Vienna; write to me
soon and fully, for a week hence I shall be there. The Court leaves this
to-morrow, and to-day they have another performance. The Empress has
studied her part thoroughly. The Emperor and the Duke wished me to play
some of my own music, but I refused, for they are both infatuated with
_Chinese porcelain_. A little indulgence is required, for reason seems to
have lost its empire; but I do not choose to minister to such perverse
folly–I will not be a party to such absurd doings to please those princes
who are constantly guilty of eccentricities of this sort. Adieu! adieu!
dear one; your letter lay all night next my heart, and cheered me.
Musicians permit themselves great license. _Heavens! how I love you!_ Your
most faithful friend and deaf brother,


[Footnote 1: Fräulein Giannatasio del Rio, in the journal she sent to the
_Grenz Boten_ in 1857, states that Beethoven once declared, “It is very
pleasant to associate with the great of the earth, but one must possess
some quality which inspires them with respect.”]

[Footnote 2: According to Bettina (see _Goethe’s Correspondence with a
Child_, II. 193), their first acquaintance was made in Beethoven’s



Vienna, Dec. 30, 1812.


The dreadful event which deprived you of your husband, Prince von Kinsky,
snatching him from his father-land and from all those who love him,[1] as
well as from many whom he generously supported, filling every heart capable
of appreciating goodness and greatness with the deepest sorrow, affected me
also in the most profound and painful degree. The stern duty of
self-interest compels me to lay before your Highness a humble petition, the
reasonable purport of which may, I hope, plead my excuse for intruding on
your Highness at a time when so many affairs of importance claim your
attention. Permit me to state the matter to your Highness.

Y.H. is no doubt aware that when I received a summons to Westphalia in the
year 1809, his Highness Prince von Kinsky, your late husband, together with
his I.H. Archduke Rudolph and H.H. the Prince von Lobkowitz, offered to
settle on me for life an annual income of 4000 gulden, provided I declined
the proposal in question, and determined to remain in Austria. Although
this sum was by no means in proportion to that secured to me in Westphalia,
still my predilection for Austria, as well as my sense of this most
generous proposal, induced me to accept it without hesitation. The share
contributed by H.H. Prince Kinsky consisted of 1800 florins, which I have
received by quarterly instalments since 1809 from the Prince’s privy purse.
Though subsequent occurrences partially diminished this sum, I rested
satisfied, till the appearance of the Finance Patent, reducing bank-notes
into _Einlösung Schein_. I applied to H.I.H. the Archduke Rudolph to
request that the portion of the annuity contributed by H.I.H. should in
future be paid in _Einlösung Schein_. This was at once granted, and I
received a written assurance to that effect from H.I.H. Prince von
Lobkowitz agreed to the same with regard to his share,–700 florins [see
No. 84]. H.H. Prince von Kinsky being at that time in Prague, I addressed
my respectful petition to him last May, through Herr Varnhagen von Ense, an
officer in the Vogelsang Regiment, that his Highness’s contribution to my
salary–1800 florins–should be paid like the rest in _Einlösung Schein_.
Herr von Varnhagen wrote as follows, and the original of the letter is
still extant:–

“I had yesterday the desired interview with Prince Kinsky. With the highest
praise of Beethoven, he at once acceded to his demand, and is prepared to
pay up the arrears, and also all future sums from the date of the
_Einlösung Schein_, in that currency. The cashier here has received the
necessary instructions, and Beethoven can draw for the whole sum on his way
through Prague, or, if he prefers it, in Vienna, as soon as the Prince
returns there.

“Prague, June 9, 1812.”

When passing through Prague some weeks afterwards, I took the opportunity
of waiting on the Prince, and received from him the fullest confirmation of
this promise. H.H. likewise assured me that he entirely admitted the
propriety of my demand, and considered it quite reasonable. As I could not
remain in Prague till this affair was finally settled, H.H. was so kind as
to make me a payment of sixty ducats on account, which, according to H.H.’s
calculation, were good for 600 florins Vienna currency. The arrears were to
be paid up on my return to Vienna, and an order given to the cashier to pay
my salary in future in _Einlösung Schein_. Such was H.H.’s pleasure. My
illness increasing in Töplitz, I was obliged to remain there longer than I
originally intended. In the month of September I therefore addressed to
H.H., who was then in Vienna, through one of my friends here, Herr Oliva, a
written memorial, claiming his promise, when H.H. graciously repeated to
this friend the assurance he had already given me, adding that in the
course of a few days he would give the necessary instructions on the
subject to his cashier.

A short time afterwards he left Vienna. When I arrived there, I inquired
from the Prince’s secretary whether H.H. had given directions about my
salary before leaving Vienna, when, to my surprise, I was told that H.H.
had done nothing in the matter.

My title to the liquidation of my claim is proved by the testimony of the
Herren von Varnhagen and Oliva, to whom H.H. spoke on the subject,
reiterating his consent. I feel convinced that the illustrious heirs and
family of this prince will in the same spirit of benevolence and generosity
strive to fulfil his intentions. I therefore confidently place in Y.H.’s
hands my respectful petition, viz., “to pay up the arrears of my salary in
_Einlösung Schein_, and to instruct your cashier to transmit me the amount
in future, in the same currency.” Relying on your sense of justice
according me a favorable decision, I remain Y.H.’s

Most obedient servant,


[Footnote 1: Prince Josef Ferdinand Kinsky, born December, 1781, and killed
by a fall from his horse, November 3, 1812.]




I have been far from well since last Sunday, but have suffered more in mind
than in body. I beg your forgiveness a thousand times for not having sooner
sent my apologies; each day I had the strongest inclination to wait on you,
but Heaven knows that in spite of the best will that I always entertain for
the best of masters I was unable to do so, distressing as it is to me not
to have it in my power to sacrifice all to him for whom I cherish the
highest esteem, love, and veneration. Y.R.H. would perhaps act wisely in
making a pause at present with the Lobkowitz concerts; even the most
brilliant talent may lose its effect by too great familiarity.


[Footnote 1: Prince Franz Josef Lobkowitz died December 25th, 1816. His
musical meetings were certainly continued till 1813, or longer.]




At early dawn to-morrow the copyist shall begin the last movement. As I am
in the mean time writing several other works, I did not hurry myself much
with this last movement merely for the sake of punctuality, especially as I
must write this more deliberately, with a view to Rode’s[2] playing; we
like quick, full-toned passages in our _Finales_, which do not suit R., and
this rather cramps me. At all events, all is sure to go well next Tuesday.
I very much doubt whether I shall be able to present myself at Y.R.H.’s on
that evening, in spite of my zeal in your service; but to make up for this,
I mean to come to you to-morrow forenoon and to-morrow afternoon, that I
may entirely fulfil the wishes of my illustrious pupil.


[Footnote 1: 1813. January-February.]

[Footnote 2: Pierre Rode, the violinist, arrived in Vienna in January,
1813, and gave a concert in the Redoutensaal on February 6th, but did not
give universal satisfaction (_A.M.Z._, 1813, p. 114), and a second concert
that he had projected does not appear to have taken place. He played in
Gratz on February 20th and 27th. It seems that Rode was to play with
Beethoven at the Archduke Rudolph’s, for which occasion Beethoven prepared
a composition for them both. Was this the Sonata for pianoforte and violin,
Op. 36, which he afterwards dedicated to the Archduke? Thayer states that
it was written by Beethoven in 1810, and sold to the music-publisher
Steiner in Vienna in April, 1815. No other composition for the violin and
pianoforte is so likely to be the one as this. It is, however, a mistake in
the _Bibliothèque Universelle_, tome xxxvi. p. 210, to state that Beethoven
during Rode’s stay in Vienna composed the “délicieuse Romance” which was
played with so much expression by De Baillot on the violin. There are only
two Romances known for the violin by Beethoven, the one in G major, Op. 40,
in the year 1803, and the second in F major, Op. 50, published in 1805.
(Thayer, 102 and 104.)]




I had just gone out yesterday when your gracious letter reached me. As for
my health, it is pretty much the same, particularly as moral causes affect
it, which do not seem likely to be removed; particularly as I can have
recourse to no one but myself for aid, and can find help in my own head
alone; and more particularly still, because in these days neither words,
nor honor, nor written pledges, seem binding on any one. As for my
occupations, I have come to an end with some of them, and, even without
your gracious invitation, I intended to appear at the usual hour to-day.
With regard to Rode [see No. 96], I beg Y.R.H. to be so good as to let me
have the part by the bearer of this, and I will send it to him at once,
with a polite note from me. _He certainly will not take amiss my sending
him the part. Oh! certainly not! Would to Heaven that I were obliged to ask
his forgiveness on this account! for in that case things would really be in
a better position._ Is it your pleasure that I should come to you this
evening at five o’clock as usual, or does Y.R.H. desire another hour? I
shall endeavor to arrange accordingly, and punctually to fulfil your




Vienna, Feb. 12, 1813.


You were so gracious as to declare with regard to the salary settled on me
by your deceased husband, that you saw the propriety of my receiving it in
Vienna currency, but that the authority of the court of law which has
assumed the guardianship of the estate must first be obtained. Under the
conviction that the authorities who represent their princely wards could
not fail to be influenced by the same motives that actuated the late Prince
in his conduct towards me, I think I am justified in expecting the
ratification of my claim from the aforesaid court, as I can prove, by the
testimony of well-known, respectable, and upright men, the promise and
intentions of H.H. in my behalf, which cannot fail to be binding on his
heirs and children. If, therefore, the proofs submitted should even be
found deficient in legal formality, I cannot doubt that this want will be
supplied by the noble mode of thinking of this illustrious house, and by
their own inclination to generous actions.

Possibly another question may at present arise from the condition of the
inheritance, which is no doubt heavily burdened, both owing to the
melancholy and sudden death of the late Prince, and by the state of the
times, which renders it equally just and indispensable to husband carefully
all possible resources. On this account it is far from my wish to claim
more than is absolutely necessary for my own livelihood, and grounded on
the contract itself,–the legality of such a claim on the heirs of the late
Prince not being in any way disputed.

I beg, then, that Y.H. will be pleased to direct the arrears of my salary,
due since the 1st September, 1811, calculated in Vienna currency, in
accordance with the scale of the contract, making in W.W. 1088 florins 42
kreuzers, to be paid, and _in the interim_, the question whether this
salary ought to be paid in Vienna currency can be deferred until the
affairs are settled, when the subject is again brought before the trustees,
and my claims admitted to be just by their consent and authority. The late
Prince having given me sixty ducats merely on account of my salary, which
was to be paid by agreement in Vienna currency, and as this agreement (as
every intelligent man will inform Y.H.) must be accepted to its full
extent, or at all events not cause me loss, it follows as a matter of
course that Y.H. will not object to my considering the sixty ducats as only
an instalment of the arrears due to me beyond the usual scale of payment,
agreed to be paid in Vienna currency, so that the amount must not be
deducted from the sum still due to me.

I feel sure that Y.H.’s noble feelings will do justice to the equity of my
proposal, and my wish to enter into every detail of this affair, so far as
circumstances permit, and also my readiness to postpone my claims to suit
your convenience. The same elevated sentiments which prompted you to fulfil
the engagement entered into by the late Prince, will also make Y.H.
apprehend the absolute necessity entailed on me by my position again to
solicit immediate payment of the arrears of my salary, which are
indispensable for my maintenance.

Anxiously hoping for a favorable answer to my petition, I have the honor to
remain, with profound respect,

Y.R.H.’s obedient servant,





As the Prince’s counsel declared that my claim could not be heard till the
choice of a guardian had been made, and as I now hear that Y.H. has been
graciously pleased yourself to assume that office, but decline receiving
any one, I present my humble petition in writing, requesting at the same
time your early consideration; for you can easily understand that, relying
on a thing as a certainty, it is painful to be so long deprived of it,
especially as I am obliged entirely to support an unfortunate sickly
brother and his whole family,[1] which (not computing my own wants) has
entirely exhausted my resources, having expected to provide for myself by
the payment of my salary. You may perceive the justice of my claims from
the fact of my faithfully naming the receipt of the sixty ducats, advanced
to me by the late Prince in Prague, the Prince’s counsel himself declaring
that I might have said nothing about this sum, the late Prince not having
mentioned it either to him or to his cashier.

Forgive my being obliged to intrude this affair on you, but necessity
compels me to do so. Some days hence I shall take the liberty of making
inquiries on the subject from the Prince’s counsel, or from any one Y.H.
may appoint.

I remain, most esteemed and illustrious Princess,

Your devoted servant,


[Footnote 1: See a letter to Ries, Nov. 22d, 1815:–“He was consumptive for
some years, and, in order to make his life easier, I can safely compute
what I gave him at 10,000 florins W.W.”]




Forward the accompanying letter to-day without fail to Brunswick, that it
may arrive as soon and as safely as possible. Excuse the trouble I give
you. I have been again applied to, to send some of my works to Gratz, in
Styria, for a concert to be given in aid of the Ursuline convent and its
schools: last year they had very large receipts by this means. Including
this concert, and one I gave in Carlsbad for the benefit of the sufferers
from fire at Baden, three concerts have been given by me, and through me,
for benevolent purposes in one year; and yet if I ask a favor, people are
as deaf as a post. Your


I. Letter to Sclowonowitsch (Maître des bureaux des postes) in Cassel. I
can no longer do without the books of Tiedge and Frau von der Recke, as I
am expected to give some opinion about them.




Rode was not quite correct in all that he said of me; my health is not
particularly good, and from no fault of my own,–my present condition being
the most unfortunate of my life. But neither this nor anything in the world
shall prevent me from assisting, so far as it lies in my power, the
innocent and distressed ladies of your convent by my poor works. I
therefore place at your disposal two new symphonies, a bass aria with
chorus, and several minor choruses; if you desire again to perform
“Hungaria’s Benefactors,” which you gave last year, it is also at your
service. Among the choruses you will find a “Dervise Chorus,” a capital
bait for a mixed public.

In my opinion, your best plan would be to select a day when you could give
the “Mount of Olives,” which has been everywhere performed. This would
occupy one half of the concert, and the other half might consist of a new
symphony, the overtures, and various choruses, and likewise the above-named
bass aria and chorus; thus the evening would not be devoid of variety. But
you can settle all this more satisfactorily with the aid of your own
musical authorities. I think I can guess what you mean about a gratuity for
me from a _third person_. Were I in the same position as formerly, I would
at once say, “Beethoven never accepts anything _where the benefit of
humanity is concerned_;” but owing to my own too great benevolence I am
reduced to a low ebb, the cause of which, however, does not put me to
shame, being combined with other circumstances for which men devoid of
honor and principle are alone to blame; so I do not hesitate to say that I
would not refuse the contribution of the rich man to whom you allude.[1]
But there is no question here of any _claim_. If, however, the affair with
the _third person_ comes to nothing, pray rest assured that I shall be
equally disposed to confer the same benefit as last year on my friends the
respected Ursuline ladies, and shall at all times be ready to succor the
poor and needy so long as I live. And now farewell! Write soon, and I will
zealously strive to make all necessary arrangements. My best wishes for the

I am, with esteem, your friend,


[Footnote 1: Reichardt, on the 1st March, 1809, writes in his _Vertraute
Briefe_,–“Beethoven, by ‘a rich third person,’ as the following letter
proves, meant Louis Bonaparte, who, after abdicating the Dutch throne,
lived in Gratz.”]




I received your letter with much pleasure, but with much displeasure the
100 florins allotted to me by our poor convent ladies; in the mean time I
will apply part of this sum to pay the copyists–the surplus and the
accounts for copying shall be sent to these good ladies.

I never accept anything for such a purpose. I thought that perhaps the
_third person_ to whom you alluded might be the Ex-King of Holland, in
which case I should have had no scruples, under my present circumstances,
in accepting a gratuity from him, who has no doubt taken enough from the
Dutch in a less legitimate way; but as it is, I must decline (though in all
friendship) any renewal of this subject.

Let me know whether, were I to come myself to Gratz, I could give a
concert, and what the receipts would probably be; for Vienna, alas! can no
longer continue my place of abode. Perhaps it is now too late? but any
information from you on the point will be very welcome.

The works are being copied, and you shall have them as soon as possible.
You may do just what you please with the Oratorio; where it will be of most
use it will best fulfil my intentions.

I am, with esteem, your obedient


P.S. Say all that is kind from me to the worthy Ursuline ladies. I rejoice
in being able to serve them.



Confounded, invited guest! _Domanowetz!_–not musical Count, but gobbling
Count! dinner Count! supper Count! &c., &c. The Quartet is to be tried over
to-day at ten o’clock or half-past, at Lobkowitz’s.[1] His Highness, whose
wits are generally astray, is not yet arrived; so pray join us, if you can
escape from your Chancery jailer. Herzog is to see you to-day. He intends
to take the post of my man-servant; you may agree to give him thirty
florins, with his wife _obbligata_. Firing, light, and morning livery
found. I must have some one who knows how to cook, for if my food continues
as bad as it now is, I shall always be ill. I dine at home to-day, because
I get better wine. If you will only order what you like, I very much wish
you to come to me. You shall have the wine _gratis_, and of far better
quality than what you get at the scoundrelly “Swan.”

Your very insignificant


[Footnote 1: Reichardt, in his _Vertraute Briefe_, writes: “The beautiful
quartets and evening concerts for the Archduke Rudolph still continue at
Prince von Lobkowitz’s, although the Prince himself is about to join his
battalion in Bohemia.” Reichardt, Vol. I. p. 182, calls Lobkowitz “an
indefatigable, insatiable, genuine enthusiast for art.”]



Feb. 25, 1813.

I have been constantly indisposed, dear Zmeskall, since I last saw you; in
the mean time the servant who lived with you before your present one has
applied for my situation. I do not recollect him, but he told me he had
been with you, and that you had nothing to say against him, except that he
did not dress your hair as you wished. I gave him earnest-money, though
only a florin. Supposing you have no other fault to find with the man (and
if so I beg you will candidly mention it), I intend to engage him, for you
know that it is no object with me to have my hair dressed; it would be more
to the purpose if my finances could be dressed, or _re-dressed_. I hope to
get an answer from you to day. If there is no one to open the door to your
servant, let him leave the note in the entrance to the left, and should he
find no one there either, he must give it to the porter’s wife below
stairs. May Heaven prosper you in your musical undertakings! Your





Feb. 28, 1813.

Let us leave things as they are for to-day, dear Z., till we meet [and so
on about the servant].

Farewell! Carefully guard the fortresses of the realm, which, as you know,
are no longer virgins, and have already received many a shot.

Your friend,





Be so good as to let me know how matters stand, as this afternoon at latest
I shall take advantage of your reply to my question, by giving my servant
warning for this day fortnight. His wages, &c., &c. [The rest relates to
his servant.]



April 19, 1813.


I have been refused the University Hall. I heard this two days since; but
being indisposed yesterday I could not go to see you, nor can I to-day
either. We have no resource now but the Kärnthnerthor Theatre, or the one
“an der Wien.” I believe there will only be one concert. If both these
fail, we must then have recourse to the Augarten, in which case we ought
certainly to give two concerts. Reflect on this, my dear friend, and let me
have your opinion. To-morrow the symphonies may perhaps be tried over at
the Archduke’s if I am able to go out, of which I will apprise you.

Your friend,




April 23, 1813.


All will go right, the Archduke being resolved to take this Prince
_Fizlypuzly_ roundly to task. Let me know if you are to dine at the tavern
to-day, or where? Pray tell me if “Sentivany” is properly spelt, as I wish
to write to him at the same time about the Chorus. We must also consult
together what day to choose. By the by, be cautious not to mention the
intercession of the Archduke, for Prince _Fizlypuzly_ is not to be with him
till Sunday, and if that evil-minded creditor had any previous hint of the
affair, he would still try to evade us.

Yours ever,




April 26, 1813.

Lobkowitz will give me a day on the 15th of May, or after that period,
which seems to me scarcely better than none at all; so I am almost disposed
to give up all idea of a concert. But the Almighty will no doubt prevent my
being utterly ruined.





Baden, May 27, 1813.

I have the honor to inform you of my arrival in Baden, which is indeed
still very empty of human beings, but with all the greater luxuriance and
full lustre does Nature shine in her enchanting loveliness. Where I fail,
or ever have failed, be graciously indulgent towards me, for so many trying
occurrences, succeeding each other so closely, have really almost
bewildered me; still I am convinced that the resplendent beauties of Nature
here, and the charming environs, will gradually restore my spirits, and a
double share of tranquillity be my portion, as by my stay here I likewise
fulfil the wishes of Y.R.H. Would that my desire soon to hear that Y.R.H.
is fully restored were equally fulfilled! This is indeed my warmest wish,
and how much I grieve that I cannot at this moment contribute to your
recovery by means of _my_ art! This is reserved for the goddess Hygeia
alone, and I, alas! am only a poor mortal, who commends himself to Y.R.H.,
and sincerely hopes soon to be permitted to wait on you.




Vienna, July 24, 1813.

From day to day I have been expecting to return to Baden; in the mean time,
the discords that detain me here may possibly be resolved by the end of the
ensuing week. To me a residence in a town during the summer is misery, and
when I also remember that I am thus prevented waiting on Y.R.H., it is
still more vexatious and annoying. It is, in fact, the Lobkowitz and Kinsky
affairs that keep me here. Instead of pondering over a number of bars, I am
obliged constantly to reflect on the number of peregrinations I am forced
to make; but for this, I could scarcely endure to the end. Y.R.H. has no
doubt heard of Lobkowitz’s misfortunes,[1] which are much to be regretted;
but after all, to be rich is no such great happiness! It is said that Count
Fries alone paid 1900 gold ducats to Duport, for which he had the security
of the ancient Lobkowitz house. The details are beyond all belief. I hear
that Count Rasumowsky[2] intends to go to Baden, and to take his Quartet
with him, which is really very pretty, and I have no doubt that Y.R.H. will
be much pleased with it. I know no more charming enjoyment in the country
than quartet music. I beg Y.R.H. will accept my heartfelt wishes for your
health, and also compassionate me for being obliged to pass my time here
under such disagreeable circumstances. But I will strive to compensate
twofold in Baden for what you have lost.


[Footnote 1: Prince Lobkowitz’s “misfortunes” probably refer to the great
pecuniary difficulties which befell this music and pomp loving Prince
several years before his death. Beethoven seems to have made various
attempts to induce the Prince to continue the payment of his share of the
salary agreed on, though these efforts were long fruitless. The subject,
however, appears to have been again renewed in 1816, for on the 8th of
March in this year Beethoven writes to Ries to say that his salary consists
of 3400 florins E.S., and this sum he received till his death.]

[Footnote 2: Those who played in Count Rasumowsky’s Quartets, to whom
Beethoven dedicated various compositions, were the _virtuosi_ Schuppanzigh
(1st), Sina (2d violin), Linke (violoncello), Weiss (violin).]




I beg to inquire whether, being in some degree restored, I am to wait on
you this evening? I at the same time take the liberty to make a humble
request. I was in hopes that by this time, at all events, my melancholy
circumstances would have brightened, but all continues in its old state, so
I must determine on giving two concerts.[2] I find that I am compelled to
give up my former resolution never to give any except for benevolent
purposes; as self-maintenance demands that I should do so. The hall of the
University would be the most advantageous and distinguished for my present
object, and my humble request consists in entreating Y.R.H. to be so
gracious as to send a line to the present _Rector Magnificus_ of the
University, through Baron Schweiger, which would certainly ensure my
getting the hall. In the hope of a favorable answer, I remain, &c., &c.


[Footnote 1: Late in the autumn of 1813.]

[Footnote 2: The concerts here referred to were given in the University
Hall on the 8th and 12th December, 1813, when the _Battle of Vittoria_ and
the A major Symphony were performed for the first time. Beethoven himself



Late in the Autumn of 1813.


I have to-day applied (by letter) to my gracious master to interest himself
in procuring the University Hall for two concerts which I think of giving,
and in fact must give, for all remains as it was. Always considering you,
both in good and evil fortune, my best friend, I suggested to the Duke that
you should apply in his name for this favor to the present Rector of the
University. Whatever may be the result, let me know H.R.H.’s decision as
soon as possible, that I may make further efforts to extricate myself from
a position so detrimental to me and to my art. I am coming this evening to
the Archduke.

Your friend,






I request you will send me the parts of the Symphony in A, and likewise my
score. His I.H. can have the MS. again, but I require it at present for the
music in the Augarten to-morrow. I have just received two tickets, which I
send to you, and beg you will make use of them.

I am, with esteem, yours,


[Footnote 1: Private Secretary to the Archduke Rudolph.]



Oct. 9, 1813.


Don’t be indignant with me for asking you to address the enclosed letter
properly; the person for whom it is intended is constantly complaining that
he gets no letters from me. Yesterday I took one myself to the post-office,
when I was asked where the letter was meant to go. I see, therefore, that
my writing seems to be as little understood as myself. Thence my request to
you. Your




I esteem it my duty to express my gratitude for the great zeal shown by all
those artists who so kindly coöperated on the 8th and 12th December [1813]
in the concerts given for the benefit of the Austrian and Bavarian soldiers
wounded at the battle of Hanau. It was a rare combination of eminent
artists, where all were inspired by the wish to be of use to their
father-land, and to contribute by the exercise of their talents to the
fulfilment of the undertaking, while, regardless of all precedence, they
gladly accepted subordinate places.[1] While an artist like Herr
Schuppanzigh was at the head of the first violins, and by his fiery and
expressive mode of conducting kindled the zeal of the whole orchestra, Herr
Kapellmeister Salieri did not scruple to give the time to the drums and
cannonades; Herr Spohr and Herr Mayseder, each worthy from his talents to
fill the highest post, played in the second and third rank. Herr Siboni and
Herr Giuliani also filled subordinate places. The conducting of the whole
was only assigned to me from the music being my own composition; had it
been that of any one else, I would willingly, like Herr Hummel, have taken
my place at the big drum, as the only feeling that pervaded all our hearts
was true love for our father-land, and the wish cheerfully to devote our
powers to those who had sacrificed so much for us. Particular thanks are
due to Herr Maelzel, inasmuch as he first suggested the idea of this
concert, and the most troublesome part of the enterprise, the requisite
arrangements, management, and regulations, devolved on him. I more
especially thank him for giving me an opportunity by this concert of
fulfilling a wish I have long cherished, to compose for such a benevolent
object (exclusive of the works already made over to him) a comprehensive
work more adapted to the present times, to be laid on the altar of my
father-land.[2] As a notice is to be published of all those who assisted on
this occasion, the public will be enabled to judge of the noble self-denial
exercised by a mass of the greatest artists, working together with the same
benevolent object in view.


[Footnote 1: The A major Symphony and _Wellington’s Victory at Vittoria_
were performed.]

[Footnote 2: “Obsolete” is written in pencil by Beethoven.]




I beg you will send me the score of the “Final Chorus”[2] for half a day,
as the theatrical score is so badly written.


[Footnote 1: The spring of 1814.]

[Footnote 2: The _Schlusschor_, the score of which Beethoven requests the
Archduke to send him, is in all probability the Finale _Germania!
Germania!_ intended for Treitschke’s Operetta _Die gute Nachricht_, which
refers to the taking of Paris by the Allies, and was performed for the
first time at Vienna in the Kärnthnerthor Theatre on the 11th April, 1814.
The same _Final Chorus_ was substituted for another of Beethoven’s (_Es ist
vollbracht_) in Treitschke’s Operetta _Die Ehrenpforten_, first given on
the 15th July, 1815, in the Kärnthnerthor Theatre. Both these choruses are
printed in score in Breitkopf & Härtel’s edition of Beethoven’s works.]




Having only so recently received the score of the “Final Chorus,” I must
ask you to excuse your getting it back so late. The best thing H.R.H. can
do is to have it transcribed, for in its present form the score is of no
use. I would have brought it myself, but I have been laid up with a cold
since last Sunday, which is most severe, and obliges me to be very careful,
being so much indisposed. I never feel greater satisfaction than when
Y.R.H. derives any pleasure through me. I hope very soon to be able to wait
on you myself, and in the mean time I pray that you will keep me in





The song “Germania” belongs to the whole world who sympathize with the
subject, and to you beyond all others, just as I myself am wholly yours. I
wish you a good journey to Palermo.




March, 1814.


I have read with the greatest satisfaction your amendments of the Opera
[“Fidelio” which was about to be again performed]. It has decided me once
more to rebuild the desolate ruins of an ancient fortress.

Your friend,




The affair of the Opera is the most troublesome in the world, and there is
scarcely one part of it which quite satisfies me now, and that I have not
been obliged to _amend by something more satisfactory_. But what a
difference between this, and giving one’s self up to freely flowing thought
and inspiration!




I request, my dear T., that you will send me the score of the song [in
“Fidelio,” _Geld ist eine schöne Sache_], that the interpolated notes may
be transcribed in all the instrumental parts; though I shall not take it at
all amiss if you prefer that Girowetz or any other person, perhaps
Weinmüller [who sang the part of Rocco], should do so. This I have nothing
to say against, but I will not suffer my composition to be altered by any
one whatever, be he who he may.

I am, with high consideration,

Your obedient





If you wish to attend our council [about the alterations in “Fidelio”], I
beg to inform you that it assembles this afternoon at half-past three
o’clock, in the Spielmann Haus, auf dem Graben, No. 188, 4th Etage, at Herr
Weinmüller’s. I shall be very glad if you have leisure to be present.

[Footnote 1: The mention of Weinmüller decides the date of this note, as it
was in the spring of 1814 that he, together with the singers Saal and Vogl,
brought about the revival of _Fidelio_.]



My dear, victorious, and yet sometimes nonplussed (?) Count! I hope that
you rested well, most precious and charming of all Counts! Oh! most beloved
and unparalleled Count! most fascinating and prodigious Count!

[Music: Treble clef, E-flat Major, 2/2 time.
Graf Graf Graf Graf (in 3-part harmony)
Graf (in 3-part counterpoint)
Graf Graf Graf, liebster Graf, liebstes Schaf,
bester Graf, bestes Schaf! Schaf! Schaf!]

(_To be repeated at pleasure_.)

At what hour shall we call on Walter to-day? My going or not depends
entirely on you. Your


[Footnote 1: In Schindler’s _Beethoven’s Nachlass_ there is also an
autograph Canon of Beethoven’s in F major, 6/8, on Count Lichnowsky, on the
words, _Bester Herr Graf, Sie sind ein Schaf_, written (according to
Schindler) Feb. 20th, 1823, in the coffee-house “Die Goldne Birne,” in the
Landstrasse, where Beethoven usually went every evening, though he
generally slipped in by the backdoor.]




I hope you forgive me for not having come to you. Your displeasure would be
totally undeserved, and I will amply compensate for lost time in a few
days. My Opera of “Fidelio”[1] is again to be performed, which gives me a
great deal to do; moreover, though I look well, I am not so in reality. The
arrangements for my second concert[2] are partly completed. I must write
something new for Mdlle. Milder.[3] Meanwhile it is a consolation to me to
hear that Y.R.H. is so much better. I hope I am not too sanguine in
thinking that I shall soon be able to contribute towards this. I have taken
the liberty to apprise my Lord Falstaff[4] that he is ere long to have the
honor of appearing before Y.R.H.


[Footnote 1: Letters 125 and 126 refer to the revival of the Opera of
_Fidelio_, which had not been given since 1806, and was not again produced
on the stage till the 23d May, 1814, in the Kärnthnerthor Theatre.
Beethoven’s benefit took place on the 8th July, two newly composed pieces
being inserted.]

[Footnote 2: Beethoven gave a concert on the 2d January, 1814, when
_Wellington’s Victory_ was performed, and on the 26th March another for the
benefit of the Theatrical Fund, at which the _Overture to Egmont_ and
_Wellingtons’s Victory_ were given, directed by Beethoven himself.]

[Footnote 3: Anna Milder, Royal Court opera singer, a pupil of Vogl’s, who
first sang the part of Leonore in _Fidelio_.]

[Footnote 4: By “my Lord Falstaff” he means the corpulent violinist



Vienna, July 14, 1814.

Whenever I inquire about you I hear nothing but good news. As for my own
insignificant self, I have been hitherto hopelessly detained in Vienna, and
unable to approach Y.R.H.; I am also thus deprived of the enjoyment of
beautiful Nature, so dear to me. The directors of the theatre are so
_conscientious_, that, contrary to their faithful promise, they have again
given my Opera of “Fidelio,” without thinking of giving me any share in the
receipts. They would have exhibited the same commendable good faith a
second time, had I not been on the watch like a French custom-house officer
of other days. At last, after a great many troublesome discussions, it was
settled that the Opera of “Fidelio” should be given on Monday the 18th of
July, for my benefit. These _receipts_ at this season of the year may more
properly be called _deceits_; but if a work is in any degree successful it
often becomes a little feast for the author. To this feast the master
invites his illustrious pupil, and hopes–yes! I hope that Y.R.H. will
graciously consent to come, and thus add lustre to everything by your
presence. It would be a great boon if Y.R.H. would endeavor to persuade the
other members of the Imperial family to be present at the representation of
my Opera, and I on my part will not fail to take the proper steps on the
subject which duty commands. Vogl’s illness[1] enabled me to satisfy my
desire to give the part of Pizarro to Forti,[2] his voice being better
suited to it; but owing to this there are daily rehearsals, which cannot
fail to have a favorable effect on the performance, but which render it
impossible for me to wait upon Y.R.H. before my benefit. Pray give this
letter your favorable consideration, and think graciously of me.


[Footnote 1: Joh. Mich. Vogl, born August 10th, 1768, was Court opera
singer (tenor) in Vienna from 1794 to 1822; he died November 19th, 1840.]

[Footnote 2: Forti, born June 8th, 1790, a member of the Royal Court
Theatre (a barytone), pensioned off in 1834.]




I voluntarily presented Maelzel _gratis_ with a “Battle Symphony” for his
panharmonica. After having kept it for some time, he brought me back the
score, which he had already begun to engrave, saying that he wished it to
be harmonized for a full orchestra. The idea of a battle had already
occurred to me, which, however, could not be performed on his panharmonica.
We agreed to select this and some more of my works [see No. 116] to be
given at the concert for the benefit of disabled soldiers. At that very
time I became involved in the most frightful pecuniary difficulties.
Forsaken by every one in Vienna, and in daily expectation of remittances,
&c., Maelzel offered me fifty gold ducats, which I accepted, saying that I
would either repay them, or allow him to take the work to London, (provided
I did not go there myself with him,) referring him to an English publisher
for payment.

I got back from him the score written for the panharmonica. The concerts
then took place, and during that time Herr Maelzel’s designs and character
were first fully revealed. Without my consent, he stated on the bills of
the concert that the work was _his property_. Indignant at this, I insisted
on his destroying these bills. He then stated that I had given it to him as
a friendly act, because he was going to London. To this I did not object,
believing that I had reserved the right to state the conditions on which
the work should be his own. I remember that when the bills were being
printed, I violently opposed them, but the time was too short, as I was
still writing the work. In all the fire of inspiration, and absorbed in my
composition, I scarcely thought at all on the subject. Immediately after
the first concert in the University Hall, I was told on all sides, and by
people on whom I could rely, that Maelzel had everywhere given out he had
paid me 400 gold ducats for the Symphony. I sent what follows to a
newspaper, but the editor would not insert it, as Maelzel stands well with
them all. As soon as the first concert was over, I repaid Maelzel his fifty
ducats, declaring that having discovered his real character, nothing should
ever induce me to travel with him; justly indignant that, without
consulting me, he had stated in the bills that all the arrangements for the
concert were most defective. His own despicable want of patriotism too is
proved by the following expressions: “I care nothing at all about L.; if it
is only said in London that people have paid ten gulden for admission here,
that is all I care about; the wounded are nothing to me.” Moreover, I told
him that he might take the work to London on certain conditions, which I
would inform him of. He then asserted that it was a _friendly gift_, and
made use of this phrase in the newspapers after the second concert, without
giving me the most remote hint on the subject. As Maelzel is a rude,
churlish man, entirely devoid of education or cultivation, it is easy to
conceive the tenor of his conduct to me during this time, which still
further irritated me. Who could bear to be forced to bestow a _friendly
gift_ on such a man? I was offered an opportunity to send the work to the
Prince Regent, [afterwards George IV.] It was therefore quite impossible
for me to _give away the work unconditionally_.

He then called on a mutual friend to make proposals. He was told on what
day to return for an answer, but he never appeared, set off on his travels,
and performed the work in Munich. How did he obtain it? He could not
possibly _steal_ it; but Herr Maelzel had several of the parts for some
days in his house, and he caused the entire work to be harmonized by some
obscure musical journeyman, and is now hawking it about the world. Herr
Maelzel promised me ear-trumpets. I harmonized the “Battle Symphony” for
his panharmonica from a wish to keep him to his word. The ear-trumpets came
at last, but were not of the service to me that I expected. For this slight
trouble Herr Maelzel, after my having arranged the “Battle Symphony” for a
full orchestra, and composed a battle-piece in addition, declared that I
ought to have made over these works to him as _his own exclusive property_.
Even allowing that I am in some degree obliged to him for the ear-trumpets,
this is entirely balanced by his having made at least 500 gulden in Munich
by my mutilated or stolen battle-piece. He has therefore paid himself in
full. He had actually the audacity to say here that he was in possession of
the battle-piece; in fact he showed it, written out, to various persons. I
did not believe this; and, in fact, with good reason, as the whole is not
by me, but compiled by some one else. Indeed the credit he assumes for the
work should alone be sufficient compensation.

The secretary at the War Office made no allusion whatever to me, and yet
every work performed at both concerts was of my composition.

Herr Maelzel thinks fit to say that he has delayed his visit to London on
account of the battle-piece, which is a mere subterfuge. He stayed to
finish his patchwork, as the first attempt did not succeed.




The Summer of 1814.

A thousand thanks, my esteemed Kauka. At last I meet with a _legal
representative_ and a _man_, who can both write and think without using
unmeaning formulas. You can scarcely imagine how I long for the end of this
affair, as it not only interferes with my domestic expenditure, but is
injurious to me in various ways. You know yourself that a sensitive spirit
ought not to be fettered by miserable anxieties, and much that might render
my life happy is thus abstracted from it. Even my inclination and the duty
I assigned myself, to serve suffering humanity by means of my art, I have
been obliged to limit, and must continue to do so.[1]

I write nothing about our monarchs and monarchies, for the newspapers give
you every information on these subjects.[2] The intellectual realm is the
most precious in my eyes, and far above all temporal and spiritual
monarchies. Write to me, however, what you wish _for yourself_ from my poor
musical capabilities, that I may, in so far as it lies in my power, supply
something for your own musical sense and feeling. Do you not require all
the papers connected with the Kinsky case? If so I will send them to you,
as they contain most important testimony, which, indeed, I believe you read
when with me. Think of me and do not forget that you represent a
disinterested artist in opposition to a niggardly family. How gladly do men
withhold from the poor artist in one respect _what they pay him in
another_, and there is no longer a Zeus with whom an artist can invite
himself to feast on ambrosia. Strive, my dear friend, to accelerate the
tardy steps of justice. Whenever I feel myself elevated high, and in happy
moments revel in my artistic sphere, circumstances drag me down again, and
none more than these two lawsuits. You too have your disagreeable moments,
though with the views and capabilities I know you to possess, especially in
your profession, I could scarcely have believed this; still I must recall
your attention to myself. I have drunk to the dregs a cup of bitter sorrow,
and already earned martyrdom in art through my beloved artistic disciples
and colleagues. I beg you will think of me every day, and imagine it to be
an _entire world_, for it is really asking rather too much of you to think
of so humble an _individual_ as myself.

I am, with the highest esteem and friendship,

Your obedient


[Footnote 1: He supported a consumptive brother and his wife and child.]

[Footnote 2: At the Vienna Congress Beethoven was received with much
distinction by the potentates present.]



Vienna, July 25, 1814.

Herr Maelzel, now in London, on his way thither performed my “Battle
Symphony” and “Wellington’s Battle of Vittoria” in Munich, and no doubt he
intends to produce them at London concerts, as he wished to do in
Frankfort. This induces me to declare that I never in any way made over or
transferred the said works to Herr Maelzel; that no one possesses a copy of
them, and that the only one verified by me I sent to his Royal Highness the
Prince Regent of England. The performance of these works, therefore, by
Herr Maelzel is either an imposition on the public, as the above
declaration proves that he does not possess them, or if he does, he has
been guilty of a breach of faith towards me, inasmuch as he must have got
them in a surreptitious manner.

But even in the latter case the public will still be deluded, for the works
that Herr Maelzel performs under the titles of “Wellington’s Battle of
Vittoria” and “Battle Symphony” are beyond all doubt spurious and
mutilated, as he never had any portion of either of these works of mine,
except some of the parts for a few days.

This suspicion becomes a certainty from the testimony of various artists
here, whose names I am authorized to give if necessary. These gentlemen
state that Herr Maelzel, before he left Vienna, declared that he was in
possession of these works, and showed various portions, which, however, as
I have already proved, must be counterfeit. The question whether Herr
Maelzel be capable of doing me such an injury is best solved by the
following fact,–In the public papers he named himself as sole giver of the
concert on behalf of our wounded soldiers, whereas my works alone were
performed there, and yet he made no allusion whatsoever to me.

I therefore appeal to the London musicians not to permit such a grievous
wrong to be done to their fellow-artist by Herr Maelzel’s performance of
the “Battle of Vittoria” and the “Battle Symphony,” and also to prevent the
London public being so shamefully imposed upon.



Vienna, August 22, 1814.

You have shown a feeling for harmony, and you can resolve a great discord
in my life, which causes me much discomfort, into more pleasing melody, if
you will. I shortly expect to hear something of what you understand is
likely to happen, as I eagerly anticipate the result of this most _unjust_
affair with the Kinskys. When the Princess was here, she seemed to be well
disposed towards me; still I do not know how it will end. In the mean time
I must restrict myself in everything, and await with entire confidence what
is _rightfully my own_ and _legally devolves on me_; and though unforeseen
occurrences caused changes in this matter, still two witnesses recently
bore testimony to the wish of the deceased Prince that my appointed salary
in _Banco Zettel_ should be paid in _Einlösung Schein_, making up the
original sum, and the Prince himself gave me sixty gold ducats _on account_
of my claim.

Should the affair turn out badly for me by the conduct of the Kinsky
family, I will publish it in every newspaper, to their disgrace. If there
had been an heir, and the facts had been told to him _in all their truth_,
just as I narrated them, I am convinced that he would at once have adopted
the words and deeds of his predecessor. Has Dr. Wolf [the previous
advocate] shown you the papers, or shall I make you acquainted with them?
As I am by no means sure that this letter will reach you safely, I defer
sending you the pianoforte arrangement of my opera “Fidelio,” which is
ready to be dispatched.

I hope, in accordance with your usual friendliness, soon to hear from you.
I am also writing to Dr. Wolf (who certainly does not treat any one
_wolfishly_), in order not to arouse his _passion_, so that he may have
_compassion_ on me, and neither take my purse nor my life.

I am, with esteem, your true friend,




Baden, Sept. 21, 1841.[1]


I unluckily only got your letter yesterday. A thousand thanks for your
remembrance of me. Pray express my gratitude also to your charming Princess
Christiane [wife of Prince Carl Lichnowsky]. I had a delightful walk
yesterday with a friend in the Brühl, and in the course of our friendly
chat you were particularly mentioned, and lo! and behold! on my return I
found your kind letter. I see you are resolved to continue to load me with

As I am unwilling you should suppose that a step I have already taken is
prompted by your recent favors, or by any motive of the sort, I must tell
you that a sonata of mine [Op. 90] is about to appear, _dedicated to you_.
I wished to give you a surprise, as this dedication has been long designed
for you, but your letter of yesterday induces me to name the fact. I
required no new motive thus publicly to testify my sense of your friendship
and kindness. But as for anything approaching to a gift in return, you
would only distress me, by thus totally misinterpreting my intentions, and
I should at once decidedly refuse such a thing.

I beg to kiss the hand of the Princess for her kind message and all her
goodness to me. _Never have I forgotten what I owe to you all_, though an
unfortunate combination of circumstances prevented my testifying this as I
could have wished.

From what you tell me about Lord Castlereagh, I think the matter in the
best possible train. If I were to give an opinion on the subject, I should
say that Lord Castlereagh ought to hear the work given here before writing
to Wellington. I shall soon be in Vienna, when we can consult together
about a grand concert. Nothing is to be effected at Court; I made the
application, but–but–

[Music: Treble clef, C major, 4/4 time, Adagio.
al-lein al-lein al-lein]


Farewell, my esteemed friend; pray continue to esteem me worthy of your
friendship. Yours,


A thousand compliments to the illustrious Princess.

[Footnote 1: The date reversed, as written by Beethoven, is here given.]




I perceive that Y.R.H. wishes to try the effect of my music even upon
horses.[1] We shall see whether its influence will cause the riders to
throw some clever summersets. Ha! ha! I can’t help laughing at Y.R.H.
thinking of me on such an occasion; for which I shall remain so long as I
live, &c., &c., &c. The horse-music that Y.R.H. desires shall set off to
you full gallop.


[Footnote 1: A tournament was held on the 23d November, 1814, in the Royal
Riding School. Beethoven was probably requested by the Archduke to compose
some music for it, which, however, has not been traced.]




It is impossible for me to-day to wait on you, much as I wish it. I am
dispatching the work on Wellington’s victory[1] to London. Such matters
have their appointed and fixed time, which cannot be delayed without final
loss. To-morrow I hope to be able to call on Y.R.H.


[Footnote 1: The Cantata _Der glorreiche Augenblick_, the poetry by Dr.
Alois Weissenbach, set to music by Beethoven for chorus and orchestra (Op.
136), was first given in Vienna on the 29th November, 1814, and repeated on
the 2d December.]



(In a different hand) Dec. 1814.

I really feel that I can never deserve your goodness towards me. I beg to
offer my most respectful thanks for Y.R.H.’s gracious intervention in my
affairs at Prague. I will punctually attend to the score of the Cantata.[1]
I trust Y.R.H. will forgive my not having yet been to see you. After the
concert for the poor, comes one in the theatre, equally for the benefit of
the _impresario in angustia_, for they have felt some just shame, and have
let me off with one third and one half of the usual charges. I have now
some fresh work on hand, and then there is a new opera to be begun,[2] the
subject of which I am about to decide on. Moreover, I am again far from
well, but a few days hence I will wait on Y.R.H. If I could be of any
service to Y.R.H., the most eager and anxious wish of my life would be


[Footnote 1: What concert Beethoven alludes to I cannot discover, but no
mention of it being made in the very exact _Allgemeine Leipziger
Musikalische Zeitung_, it appears not to have taken place.]

[Footnote 2: The new opera, with the subject of which Beethoven was
occupied, was no doubt Treitschke’s _Romulus_.]




My warmest thanks for your present.[1] I only regret that you could not
participate in the music. I have now the honor to send you the score of the
Cantata [see No. 134]. Y.R.H. can keep it for some days, and afterwards I
shall take care that it is copied for you as soon as possible.

I feel still quite exhausted from fatigue and worry, pleasure and
delight!–all combined! I shall have the honor of waiting on you in the
course of a few days. I hope to hear favorable accounts of Y.R.H.’s health.
How gladly would I sacrifice many nights, were it in my power to restore
you entirely!


[Footnote 1: The present he refers to was probably for the concert of
November 29th, or December 2d, 1814.]




I see with real pleasure that I may dismiss all fears for your well-being.
As for myself, I hope (always feeling happy when able to give you any
pleasure) that my health is also rapidly recruiting, when I intend
forthwith to compensate both you and myself for the _pauses_ that have
occurred. As for Prince Lobkowitz, his _pauses_ with me still continue, and
I fear he will never again come in at the right place; and in Prague (good
heavens! with regard to Prince Kinsky’s affair) they scarcely as yet know
what a figured bass is, for they sing in slow, long-drawn choral notes;
some of these sustained through sixteen bars |======|. As all these
discords seem likely to be very slowly resolved, it is best to bring
forward only those which we can ourselves resolve, and to give up the rest
to inevitable fate. Allow me once more to express my delight at the
recovery of Y.R.H.


[Footnote 1: 1814 or 1815. Prince Lobkowitz was still alive at that time
(died December 21st, 1816).]




As you were so kind as to let me know through Count Troyer[1] that you
would write a few lines on my affairs in Prague to the _Oberstburggraf_
Count Kolowrat, I take the liberty to enclose my letter to Count K.; I do
not believe that it contains anything to which Y.R.H. will take exception.
There is no chance of my being allowed payment in _Einlösung Schein_, for,
in spite of all the proofs, the guardians cannot be persuaded to consent to
this; still it is to be hoped that by the friendly steps we have meanwhile
had recourse to, _extra-judicially_, a more favorable result may be
obtained,–as, for instance, the rate of the scale to be higher. If,
however, Y.R.H. will either write a few words yourself, or cause it to be
done in your name, the affair will certainly be _much accelerated_, which
induces me earnestly to entreat Y.R.H. to perform your gracious promise to
me. This affair has now gone on for three years, and is still–undecided.


[Footnote 1: Count Ferdinand Troyer was one of the Archduke’s




I have again for a fortnight past been afflicted with severe headaches,
though constantly hoping to get better, but in vain. Now, however, that the
weather is improved, my physician promises me a speedy cure. Though as each
day I expected to be the last of my suffering, I did not write to you on
the subject; besides, I thought that Y.R.H. probably did not require me, as
it is so long since Y.R.H. sent for me. During the festivities in honor of
the Princess of Baden,[1] and the injury to Y.R.H.’s finger, I began to
work very assiduously, and as the fruit of this, among others, is a new
pianoforte trio.[2] Myself very much occupied, I had no idea that I had
incurred the displeasure of Y.R.H., though I now begin almost to think this
to be the case. In the mean time I hope soon to be able to present myself
before your tribunal.


[Footnote 1: The festivities in honor of the Princess of Baden were
probably during the Congress, 1814.]

[Footnote 2: The new trio, if the one in B flat for the pianoforte, violin,
and violoncello, Op. 97, was first performed on the 11th April, 1814, in
the hall of the “Komischer Kaiser.” Letter 139 also mentions this trio,
composed in 1811 and published in July, 1816.]




I beg you will be so good as to let me have the Trio in B flat with all the
parts, and also both parts of the violin Sonata in G,[1] as I must have
them written out for myself with all speed, not being able to hunt out my
own scores among so many others. I hope that this detestable weather has
had no bad effect on Y.R.H.’s health; I must own that it rather deranges
me. In three or four days at least I shall have the honor to restore both
works to their proper place.

Do the musical pauses still continue?


[Footnote 1: The Sonata for pianoforte and violin in G major, Op. 96, was
purchased by Haslinger, April 1st, 1815, and published the end of July,
1816. It was composed in 1814–perhaps in 1813. Thayer thinks in 1810.]



Vienna, Jan. 11, 1815.


I received Baron Pasqualati’s letter to-day, by which I perceive that you
wish me to defer any fresh measures. In the mean time all the necessary
papers are lodged with Pasqualati; so be so good as to inform him that he
must delay taking any further steps. To-morrow a council is to be held
here, and you and P. shall learn the result probably to-morrow evening.
Meanwhile I wish you to look through the paper I sent to the Court through
Pasqualati, and read the appendix carefully. You will then see that Wolf
and others have not given you correct information.

One thing is certain, that there are sufficient proofs _for any one who
wishes to be convinced_. How could it ever occur to me _to think of written
legal testimony_ with such a man as Kinsky, whose integrity and generosity
were everywhere acknowledged? I remain, with the warmest affection and

In haste, your friend,






What can I think, or say, or feel? As for W. [Wolf], it seems to me that he
not only showed _his weak points_, but gave himself no trouble to conceal
them. It is impossible that he can have drawn up his statement in
accordance with all the actual evidence he had. The order on the treasury
about the rate of exchange was given by Kinsky previous to his consent to
pay me my salary in _Einlösung Schein_, as the documents prove; indeed it
is only necessary to examine the date to show this, so the first
instruction is of importance. The _species facti_ prove that I was more
than six months absent from Vienna. As I was not anxious to get the money,
I allowed the affair to stand over; so the Prince thus forgot to recall his
former order to the treasury, but that he neither forgot his promise to me,
nor to Varnhagen [an officer] in my behalf, is evident by the testimony of
Herr von Oliva, to whom shortly before his departure from hence–and indeed
into another world–he repeated his promise, making an appointment to see
him when he should return to Vienna, in order to arrange the matter with
the treasury, which of course was prevented by his untimely death.

The testimony of the officer Varnhagen is accompanied by a document (he
being at present with the Russian army), in which he states that he is
prepared to _take his oath_ on the affair. The evidence of Herr Oliva is
also to the effect that he is willing to confirm his evidence by oath
before the Court. As I have sent away the testimony of Col. Count Bentheim,
I am not sure of its tenor, but I believe the Count also says that he is
prepared at any time to make an affidavit on the matter in Court, and I am
myself _ready to swear before the Court_ that Prince Kinsky said to me in
Prague, “he thought it only fair to me that my salary should be paid in
_Einlösung Schein_.” These were his own words.

He gave me himself sixty gold ducats in Prague, on account (good for about
600 florins), as, owing to my state of health, I could remain no longer,
and set off for Töplitz. The Prince’s word was _sacred_ in my eyes, never
having heard anything of him to induce me either to bring two witnesses
with me or to ask him for any written pledge. I see from all this that Dr.
Wolf has miserably mismanaged the business, and has not made you
sufficiently acquainted with the papers.

Now as to the step I have just taken. The Archduke Rudolph asked me some
time since whether the Kinsky affair was yet terminated, having probably
heard something of it. I told him that it looked very bad, as I knew
nothing, absolutely nothing, of the matter. He offered to write himself,
but desired me to add a memorandum, and also to make him acquainted with
all the papers connected with the Kinsky case. After having informed
himself on the affair, he wrote to the _Oberstburggraf_, and enclosed my
letter to him.

The _Oberstburggraf_ answered both the Duke and myself immediately. In the
letter to me he said “that I was to present a petition to the Provincial
Court of Justice in Prague, along with all the proofs, whence it would be
forwarded to him, and that he would do his utmost to further my cause.” He
also wrote in the most polite terms to the Archduke; indeed, he expressly
said “that he was thoroughly cognizant of the late Prince Kinsky’s
intentions with regard to me and this affair, and that I might present a
petition,” &c. The Archduke instantly sent for me, and desired me to
prepare the document and to show it to him; he also thought that I ought to
solicit payment in _Einlösung Schein_, as there was ample proof, if not in
strictly legal form, of the intentions of the Prince, and no one could
doubt that if he had survived he would have adhered to his promise. If he
[the Archduke] were this day the heir, _he would demand no other proofs
than those already furnished_. I sent this paper to Baron Pasqualati, who
is kindly to present it himself to the Court. Not till after the affair had
gone so far did Dr. Adlersburg receive a letter from Dr. Wolf, in which he
mentioned that he had made a claim for 1500 florins. As we have come so far
as 1500 florins with the _Oberstburggraf_, we may possibly get on to 1800
florins. I do not esteem this any _favor_, for the late Prince was one of
those who urged me most to refuse a salary of 600 gold ducats per annum,
offered to me from Westphalia; and he said at the time “that he was
resolved I should have no chance of eating hams in Westphalia.” Another
summons to Naples somewhat later I equally declined, and I am entitled to
demand a fair compensation for the loss I incurred. If the salary were to
be paid in bank-notes, what should I get? Not 400 florins in
_Conventionsgeld_!!! in lieu of such a salary as 600 ducats! There are
ample proofs for those who wish to act justly; and what does the _Einlösung
Schein_ now amount to??!!! It is even at this moment no equivalent for what
I refused. This affair was pompously announced in all the newspapers while
I was nearly reduced to beggary. The intentions of the Prince are evident,
and in my opinion the family are bound to act in accordance with them
unless they wish to be disgraced. Besides, the revenues have rather
increased than diminished by the death of the Prince; so there is no
sufficient ground for curtailing my salary.

I received your friendly letter yesterday, but am too weary at this moment
to write all that I feel towards you. I can only commend my case to your
sagacity. It appears that the _Oberstburggraf_ is the chief person; so what
he wrote to the Archduke must be kept a profound secret, for it might not
be advisable that any one should know of it but you and Pasqualati. You
have sufficient cause on looking through the papers to show how improperly
Dr. Wolf has conducted the affair, and that another course of action is
necessary. I rely on your friendship to act as you think best for my

Rest assured of my warmest thanks, and pray excuse my writing more to-day,
for a thing of this kind is very fatiguing,–more so than the greatest
musical undertaking. My heart has found something for you to which yours
will respond, and this you shall soon receive.

Do not forget me, poor tormented creature that I am! and _act for me_ and
_effect for me_ all that is possible.

With high esteem, your true friend,




Vienna, Jan. 14, 1815.


The long letter I enclose was written when we were disposed to claim the
1800 florins. Baron Pasqualati’s last letter, however, again made me waver,
and Dr. Adlersburg advised me to adhere to the steps already taken; but as
Dr. Wolf writes that he has offered in your name to accept 1500 florins a
year, I beg you will at least make every effort to get that sum. For this
purpose I send you the long letter written before we received Baron P.’s
dissuasive one, as you may discover in it many reasons for demanding _at
least_ the 1500 florins. The Archduke, too, has written a second time to
the _Oberstburggraf_, and we may conclude from his previous reply that he
will certainly exert himself, and that we shall at all events succeed in
getting the 1500 florins.

Farewell! I cannot write another syllable; such things exhaust me. May your
friendship accelerate this affair!–if it ends badly, then I must leave
Vienna, because I could not possibly live on my income, for here things
have come to such a pass that everything has risen to the highest price,
and that price must be paid. The last two concerts I gave cost me 1508
florins, and had it not been for the Empress’s munificent present I should
scarcely have derived any profit whatever.

Your faithful friend,




Vienna, 1815.


Quite ignorant of law proceedings, and believing that all claims on an
inheritance could not fail to be liquidated, I sent to my lawyer in Prague
[Dr. Kauka] the contract signed by the Archduke Rudolph, Prince Lobkowitz,
and Prince von Kinsky, in which these illustrious personages agreed to
settle on me an annual allowance of 4000 florins. My constant efforts to
obtain a settlement of my claim, and also, as I am bound to admit, my
reproaches to Dr. Kauka for not conducting the affair properly (his
application to the guardians having proved fruitless), no doubt prompted
him to have recourse to law.

None but those who are fully aware of my esteem for the deceased Prince can
tell how repugnant it is to my feelings to appear as a complainant against
my benefactor.

Under these circumstances I have recourse to a shorter path, in the
conviction that the guardians of the Prince’s estate will be disposed to
mark their appreciation of art, and also their desire to fulfil the
engagements of the late Prince. According to the terms of the contract in
question, the Archduke Rudolph, Prince Lobkowitz, and Prince v. Kinsky
granted me these 4000 florins until I should obtain a situation of equal
value; and further, if by misfortune or old age I was prevented exercising
my art, these distinguished contracting parties secured this pension to me
for life, while I, in return, pledged myself not to leave Vienna.

This promise was generous, and equally generous was its fulfilment, for no
difficulty ever occurred, and I was in the peaceful enjoyment of my pension
till the Imperial Finance Patent appeared. The consequent alteration in the
currency made no difference in the payments of the Archduke Rudolph, for I
received his share in _Einlösung Schein_, as I had previously done in
bank-notes, without any reference to the new scale. The late illustrious
Prince v. Kinsky also at once assured me that his share (1800 florins)
should also be paid in _Einlösung Schein_. As however, he omitted giving
the order to his cashier, difficulties arose on the subject. Although my
circumstances are not brilliant, I would not have ventured to bring this
claim before the notice of the guardians of the estate, if respectable,
upright men had not received the same pledge from the late Prince’s own
lips, namely, that he would pay my past as well as my future claims in
Vienna currency, which is proved by the papers B, C, D, appended to the
pleas. Under these circumstances I leave the guardians to judge whether,
after so implicitly relying on the promise of the deceased Prince, I have
not cause to complain of my delicacy being wounded by the objection
advanced by the curators to the witnesses, from their not having been
present together at the time the promise was made, which is most
distressing to my feelings.

In order to extricate myself from this most disagreeable lawsuit, I take
the liberty to give an assurance to the guardians that I am prepared, both
as to the past and the future, to be satisfied with the 1800 florins,
Vienna currency; and I flatter myself that these gentlemen will admit that
I on my part make thus no small sacrifice, as it was solely from my esteem
for those illustrious Princes that I selected Vienna for my settled abode,
at a time when the most advantageous offers were made to me elsewhere.

I therefore request the Court to submit this proposal to the guardians of
the Kinsky estates for their opinion, and to be so good as to inform me of
the result.


[Footnote 1: See No. 94. On the 18th January, 1815, the Court of Justice at
Prague decreed that the trustees of Prince Kinsky’s estate should pay to L.
v. Beethoven the sum of 1200 florins W.W. from November 3d, 1812, instead
of the original written agreement of 1800 florins. Dr. Constant, of
Wurzbach, in his _Biographical Austrian Lexicon_, states that Beethoven
dedicated his splendid song _An die Hoffnung_, Op. 94, to Princess Kinsky,
wife of Prince Ferdinand Kinsky, who died in 1812.]



January, 1815.


I beg you will kindly send me by the bearer the proper form for the Kinsky
receipt (_but sealed_) for 600 florins half-yearly from the month of April.
I intend to send the receipt forthwith to Dr. Kauka in Prague,[1] who on a
former occasion procured the money for me so quickly. I will deduct your
debt from this, but if it be possible to get the money here before the
remittance arrives from Prague, I will bring it at once to you myself.

I remain, with the most profound esteem,

Your sincere friend,


[Footnote 1: This man, now ninety-four years of age and quite blind, was at
that time Beethoven’s counsel in Prague. Pasqualati was that benefactor of
Beethoven’s who always kept rooms for him in his house on the Mölker
Bastei, and whose kind aid never deserted him to the close of his life.]



Vienna, Feb. 24, 1815.


I have repeatedly thanked you through Baron Pasqualati for your friendly
exertions on my behalf, and I now beg to express one thousand thanks
myself. The intervention of the Archduke could not be very palatable to
you, and perhaps has prejudiced you against me. You had already done all
that was possible when the Archduke interfered. If this had been the case
sooner, and we had not employed that one-sided, or many-sided, or
weak-sided Dr. Wolf, then, according to the assurances of the
_Oberstburggraf_ himself, the affair might have had a still more favorable
result. I shall therefore ever and always be grateful to you for your
services. The Court now deduct the sixty ducats I mentioned of my own
accord, and to which the late Prince never alluded either to his treasurer
or any one else. Where truth could injure me it has been accepted, so why
reject it when it could have benefited me? How unfair! Baron Pasqualati
requires information from you on various points.

I am again very tired to-day, having been obliged to discuss many things
with poor P.; such matters exhaust me more than the greatest efforts in
composition. It is a new field, the soil of which I ought not to be
required to till. This painful business has cost me many tears and much
sorrow. The time draws near when Princess Kinsky must be written to. Now I
must conclude. How rejoiced shall I be when I can write you the pure
effusions of my heart once more; and this I mean to do as soon as I am
extricated from all these troubles. Pray accept again my heartfelt thanks
for all that you have done for me, and continue your regard for

Your attached friend,





I heard yesterday, and it was indeed confirmed by meeting Count Troyer,
that Y.R.H. is now here. I therefore send the dedication of the Trio [in B
flat] to Y.R.H., whose name is inscribed on it; but all my works on which I
place any value, though the name does not appear, are equally designed for
Y.R.H. I trust, however, that you will not think I have a motive in saying
this,–men of high rank being apt to suspect self-interest in such
expressions,–and I mean on this occasion to risk the imputation so far as
_appearances_ go, by at once asking a favor of Y.R.H. My well-grounded
reasons for so doing you will no doubt at once perceive, and graciously
vouchsafe to grant my request. I have been very much indisposed in Baden
since the beginning of last October; indeed, from the 5th of October I have
been entirely confined to my bed, or to my room, till about a week ago. I
had a very serious inflammatory cold, and am still able to go out very
little, which has also been the cause of my not writing to Y.R.H. in
Kremsir. May all the blessings that Heaven can shower upon earth attend




1815 TO 1822.




Vienna, March 3, 1815.

[Music: Treble clef, F Major, 3/4 time.
Kurz, kurz, kurz, kurz ist der Schmerz, der Schmerz,
e-wig, e-wig ist die Freu-de, ist die Freu-de,
ja die Freu-de, e-wig ist die Freu-de.
Kurz, kurz, kurz, kurz ist der Schmerz, der Schmerz, der Schmerz,
e-wig, e-wig ist die Freu-de, ist die Freu-de,
e-wig ist die Freude, e-wig, e-wig ist die Freu-de.
Kurz, kurz, kurz, kurz ist der Schmerz, der Schmerz, der Schmerz,
e-wig, e-wig ist die Freude, e-wig ist die Freu-de.]

Whenever, dear Spohr, you chance to find true art and true artists, may you
kindly remember

Your friend,


[Footnote 1: From the fac-simile in Spohr’s _Autobiography_, Vol. I.]



Vienna, April 8, 1815.

It seems scarcely admissible to be on the friendly terms on which I
consider myself with you, and yet to be on such unfriendly ones that we
should live close to each other and never meet!!!!![1] You write “_tout à
vous_.” Oh! you humbug! said I. No! no! it is really too bad. I should like
to thank you 9000 times for all your efforts on my behalf, and to reproach
you 20,000 that you came and went as you did. So all is a delusion!
friendship, kingdom, empire; all is only a vapor which every breeze wafts
into a different form!! Perhaps I may go to Töplitz, but it is not certain.
I might take advantage of that opportunity to let the people of Prague hear
something–what think you? if _indeed you still think of me at all_! As the
affair with Lobkowitz is now also come to a close, we may write _Finis_,
though it far from _fine is_ for me.

Baron Pasqualati will no doubt soon call on you again; he also has taken
much trouble on my account. Yes, indeed! it is easy to talk of _justice_,
but to obtain it from others is _no easy matter_. In what way can I be of
service to you in my own art? Say whether you prefer my celebrating the
monologue of a fugitive king, or the perjury of a usurper–or the true
friends, who, though near neighbors, never saw each other? In the hope of
soon hearing from you–for being now so far asunder it is easier to hold
intercourse than when nearer!–I remain, with highest esteem,

Your ever-devoted friend,


[Footnote 1: Kauka evidently had been recently in Vienna without visiting





I have just received from the Syndic Baier in R. the good news that you
told him yourself about Prince F.K. As for the rest, you shall be perfectly

I take the liberty to ask you again to look after my interests with the
Kinsky family, and I subjoin the necessary receipt for this purpose [see
No. 144]. Perhaps some other way may be found, though it does not as yet
occur to me, by means of which I need not importune you in future. On the
15th October [1815] I was attacked by an inflammatory cold, from the
consequences of which I still suffer, and my art likewise; but it is to be
hoped that I shall now gradually recover, and at all events be able once
more to display the riches of my little realm of sweet sounds. Yet I am
very poor in all else–owing to the times? to poverty of spirit? or
what???? Farewell! Everything around disposes us to _profound silence_; but
this shall not be the case as to the bond of friendship and soul that
unites us. I loudly proclaim myself, now as ever,

Your loving friend and admirer,






My second letter follows that of yesterday, May 2d. Pasqualati tells me
to-day, after the lapse of a month and six days, that the house of
Ballabene is too _high and mighty_ to assist me in this matter. I must
therefore appeal to your _insignificance_ (as I myself do not hesitate to
be so mean as to serve other people). My house-rent amounts to 550 florins,
and must be paid out of the sum in question.

As soon as the newly engraved pianoforte pieces appear, you shall receive
copies, and also of the “Battle,” &c., &c. Forgive me, forgive me, my
generous friend; some other means must be found to forward this affair with
due promptitude.

In haste, your friend and admirer,




Vienna, June 1, 1815.


I always hoped to meet you one day in London, but many obstacles have
intervened to prevent the fulfilment of this wish, and as there seems now
no chance of such a thing, I hope you will not refuse a request of mine,
which is that you will be so obliging as to apply to some London publisher,
and offer him the following works of mine. Grand Trio for piano, violin,
and violoncello [Op. 97], 80 ducats. Pianoforte Sonata, with violin
accompaniment [Op. 96], 60 ducats. Grand Symphony in A (one of my very
best); a short Symphony in F [the 8th]; Quartet for two violins, viola, and
violoncello in F minor [Op. 95]; Grand Opera in score, 30 ducats. Cantata
with Choruses and Solos [“The Glorious Moment”], 30 ducats. Score of the
“Battle of Vittoria” and “Wellington’s Victory,” 80 ducats; also the
pianoforte arrangement of the same, if not already published, which, I am
told here, is the case. I have named the prices of some of these works, on
a scale which I hold to be suitable for England, but I leave it to you to
say what sum should be asked both for these and the others. I hear, indeed,
that Cramer [John, whose pianoforte-playing was highly estimated by
Beethoven] is also a publisher, but my scholar Ries lately wrote to me that
Cramer not long since _publicly expressed his disapproval of my works_: I
trust from no motive but that of _being of service to art_, and if so I
have no right to object to his doing this. If, however, Cramer should wish
to possess any of my _pernicious_ works, I shall be as well satisfied with
him as with any other publisher; but I reserve the right to give these
works to be published here, so that they may appear at the same moment in
London and Vienna.

Perhaps you may also be able to point out to me in what way I can recover
from the Prince Regent [afterwards George IV.] the expenses of transcribing
the “Battle Symphony” on Wellington’s victory at Vittoria, to be dedicated
to him, for I have long ago given up all hope of receiving anything from
that quarter. I have not even been deemed worthy of an answer, whether I am
to be authorized to dedicate the work to the Prince Regent; and when at
last I propose to publish it here, I am informed that it has already
appeared in London. What a fatality for an author!!! While the English and
German papers are filled with accounts of the success of the work, as
performed at Drury Lane, and that theatre drawing great receipts from it,
the author has not one friendly line to show, not even payment for the cost
of copying the work, and is thus deprived of all profit.[2] For if it be
true that the pianoforte arrangement is soon to be published by a German
publisher, copied from the London one, then I lose both my fame and my
_honorarium_. The well-known generosity of your character leads me to hope
that you will take some interest in the matter, and actively exert yourself
on my behalf.

The inferior paper-money of this country is now reduced to one fifth of its
value, and I am paid according to this scale. After many struggles and
considerable loss, I at length succeeded in obtaining the full value; but
at this moment the old paper-money has again risen far beyond the fifth
part, so that it is evident my salary becomes for the second time almost
_nil_, and there is no hope of any compensation. My whole income is derived
from my works. If I could rely on a good sale in England, it would
doubtless be very beneficial to me. Pray be assured of my boundless
gratitude. I hope soon, very soon, to hear from you.

I am, with esteem, your sincere friend,


[Footnote 1: J.P. Salomon was likewise a native of Bonn, and one of the
most distinguished violin-players of his time. He had been Kapellmeister to
Prince Heinrich of Prussia, and then went to London, where he was very
active in the introduction of German music. It was through his agency that
Beethoven’s connection with Birchall, the music publisher, first commenced,
to whom a number of his letters are addressed.]

[Footnote 2: Undoubtedly the true reading of these last words, which in the
copy before me are marked as “difficult to decipher.”]




Pray forgive my asking Y.R.H. to send me the two Sonatas with violin
_obbligato_[1] which I caused to be transcribed for Y.R.H. I require them
only for a few days, when I will immediately return them.


[Footnote 1: If by the two Sonatas for the pianoforte with violoncello
_obbligato_, Op. 102 is meant, they were composed in July-August, 1815, and
appeared on Jan. 13th, 1819. The date of the letter appears also to be




I beg you will kindly send me the Sonata in E minor,[1] as I wish to
correct it. On Monday I shall inquire for Y.R.H. in person. _Recent
occurrences_[2] render it indispensable to complete many works of mine
about to be engraved as quickly as possible; besides, my health is only
partially restored. I earnestly entreat Y.R.H. to desire _some one_ to
write me a few lines as to the state of your own health. I trust I shall
hear a better–nay, the best report of it.


[Footnote 1: The letters 152 and 153 speak sometimes expressly of the
pianoforte Sonata in E minor, Op. 90, these being engraved or under
revision, and sometimes only indicate them. This Sonata, dedicated to Count
Lichnowsky, was composed on August 14th, 1814, and published in June,

[Footnote 2: What “recent occurrences” Beethoven alludes to, unless indeed
his well-known misfortunes as to his salary and guardianship we cannot




You must almost think my illness a mere fiction, but that is assuredly not
the case. I am obliged always to come home early in the evening. The first
time that Y.R.H. was graciously pleased to send for me, I came home
immediately afterwards, but feeling much better since then, I made an
attempt the evening before last to stay out a little later. If Y.R.H. does
not countermand me, I intend to have the honor of waiting on you this
evening at five o’clock. I will bring the new Sonata with me, merely for
to-day, for it is so soon to be engraved that it is not worth while to have
it written out.





I intended to have given you this letter myself, but my personal attendance
might possibly be an intrusion; so I take the liberty once more to urge on
Y.R.H. the request it contains. I should also be glad if Y.R.H. would send
me back my last MS. Sonata, for as I _must_ publish it, it would be labor
lost to have it transcribed, and I shall soon have the pleasure of
presenting it to you engraved. I will call again in a few days. I trust
these joyous times may have a happy influence on your precious health.




Vienna, July 23, 1815.

When you were recently in town, the enclosed Chorus[1] occurred to me. I
hurried home to write it down, but was detained longer in doing so than I
at first expected, and thus, to my great sorrow, I missed Y.R.H. The bad
custom I have followed from childhood, instantly to write down my first
thoughts, otherwise they not unfrequently go astray, has been an injury to
me on this occasion. I therefore send Y.R.H. my impeachment and my
justification, and trust I may find grace in your eyes. I hope soon to
present myself before Y.R.H., and to inquire after a health so precious to
us all.


[Footnote 1: In 1815 the Chorus of _Die Meeresstille_ was composed by
Beethoven. Was this the chorus which occurred to him? The style of the
letter leaves his meaning quite obscure.]




It is neither presumption, nor the pretension of advocating any one’s
cause, still less from the wish of arrogating to myself the enjoyment of
any especial favor with Y.R.H., that induces me to make a suggestion which
is in itself very simple. Old Kraft[1] was with me yesterday; he wished to
know if it were possible for him to be lodged in your palace, in return for
which he would be at Y.R.H.’s service as often as you please it. He has
lived for twenty years in the house of Prince Lobkowitz, and during a great
part of that time he received no salary; he is now obliged to vacate his
rooms without receiving any compensation whatever. The position of the poor
deserving old man is hard, and I should have considered myself equally
hard, had I not ventured to lay his case before you. Count Troyer will
request an answer from Y.R.H. As the object in view is to brighten the lot
of a fellow-creature, pray forgive your, &c., &c.


[Footnote 1: Old Kraft was a clever violoncello-player who had an
appointment in Prince Lobkowitz’s band, but when the financial crisis
occurred in the Prince’s affairs he lost his situation, and was obliged to
give up his lodging.]



Mr. Beethoven send word to Mr. Birchall that it is severall days past that
he has sent for London Wellington’s Battel Sinphonie and that Mr.
B[irchall] may send for it at Thomas Coutts. Mr. Beethoven wish Mr. B.
would make ingrave the sayd Sinphonie so soon as possible and send him word
in time the day it will be published that he may prevend in time the
Publisher in Vienna.

In regard the 3. Sonata which Mr. Birchall receive afterwerths there is not
wanted such a g’t hurry and Mr. B. will take the liberty to fixe the day
when the are to be published.

Mr. B[irchall] sayd that Mr. Salomon has a good many tings to say
concerning the Synphonie in G [? A].

Mr. B[eethoven] wish for a answer so soon as possible concerning the days
of the publication.



October 16, 1815.

I only wish to let you know that I am _here_, and not _elsewhere_, and wish
in return to hear if you are _elsewhere_ or _here_. I should be glad to
speak to you for a few minutes when I know that you are at home and alone.
_Farewell_–but not _too well_–sublime Commandant Pacha of various
mouldering fortresses!!!

In haste, your friend,




Nov. 16, 1815.

Since yesterday afternoon I have been lying in a state of exhaustion, owing
to my great distress of mind caused by the sudden death of my unhappy
brother. It was impossible for me to send an answer to Y.R.H. yesterday,
and I trust you will graciously receive my present explanation. I expect,
however, certainly to wait on Y.R.H. to-morrow.




Vienna, Nov. 22, 1815.

You will herewith receive the pianoforte arrangement of the Symphony in A.
“Wellington’s Battle Symphony,” and “Victory at Vittoria” were sent a month
since, through Herr Neumann, to the care of Messrs. Coutts; so you have no
doubt received them long ere this.

In the course of a fortnight you shall have the Trio and Sonata, when you
are requested to pay into the hands of Messrs. Coutts the sum of 130 gold
ducats. I beg you will make no delay in bringing out these works, and
likewise let me know on what day the “Wellington Symphony” is to appear, so
that I may take my measures here accordingly. I am, with esteem,

Your obedient




Vienna, Wednesday, Nov. 22, 1815.


I hasten to apprise you that I have to-day forwarded by post the pianoforte
arrangement of the Symphony in A, to the care of Messrs Coutts. As the
Court is absent, few, indeed almost no couriers go from here; moreover, the
post is the safest way. The Symphony ought to be brought out about March;
the precise day I will fix myself. So much time has already been lost on
this occasion that I could not give an earlier notice of the period of
publication. The Trio in [??] and the violin Sonata may be allowed more
time, and both will be in London a few weeks hence. I earnestly entreat
you, dear Ries, to take charge of these matters, and also to see that I get
the money; I require it, and it costs me a good deal before all is sent

I have lost 600 florins of my yearly salary; at the time of the
_bank-notes_ there was no loss, but then came the _Einlösungsscheine_
[reduced paper-money], which deprives me of these 600 florins, after
entailing on me several years of annoyance, and now the total loss of my
salary. We are at present arrived at a point when the _Einlösungsscheine_
are even lower than the _bank-notes_ ever were. I pay 1000 florins for
house-rent: you may thus conceive all the misery caused by paper-money.

My poor unhappy brother [Carl v. Beethoven, a cashier in Vienna] is just
dead [Nov. 15th, 1815]; he had a bad wife. For some years past he has been
suffering from consumption, and from my wish to make his life less irksome
I may compute what I gave him at 10,000 florins (_Wiener Währung_). This
indeed does not seem much to an Englishman, but it is a great deal for a
poor German, or rather Austrian. The unhappy man was latterly much changed,
and I must say I lament him from my heart, though I rejoice to think I left
nothing undone that could contribute to his comfort.

Tell Mr. Birchall that he is to repay the postage of my letters to you and
Mr. Salomon, and also yours to me; he may deduct this from the sum he owes
me; I am anxious that those who work for me should lose as little as
possible by it. “Wellington’s Victory at Vittoria”[1] must have arrived
long ago through the Messrs. Coutts. Mr. Birchall need not send payment
till he is in possession of all the works; only do not delay letting me
know when the day is fixed for the publication of the pianoforte
arrangement. For to-day, I only further earnestly recommend my affairs to
your care; I shall be equally at your service at any time. Farewell, dear

Your friend,


[Footnote 1: “This is also to be the title of the pianoforte arrangement.”
(Note by Beethoven.)]



Jan. 1816.


I was shocked to discover to-day that I had omitted replying to a proposal
from the “Society of Friends to Music in the Austrian States” to write an
Oratorio for them.

The death of my brother two months ago, which, owing to the guardianship of
my nephew having devolved on me, has involved me in all sorts of annoyances
and perplexities, has caused this delay in my answer. In the mean time, the
poem of Herr van Seyfried is already begun, and I purpose shortly to set it
to music. I need not tell you how very flattering I consider such a
commission, for how could I think otherwise? and I shall endeavor to acquit
myself as honorably as my poor talents will admit of.

_With regard to our artistic resources_, when the time for the performance
arrives I shall certainly take into consideration those usually at our
disposal, without, however, strictly limiting myself to them. I hope I have
made myself clearly understood on this point. As I am urged to say what
gratuity I require in return, I beg to know whether the Society will
consider 400 gold ducats a proper remuneration for such a work? I once more
entreat the forgiveness of the Society for the delay in my answer, but I am
in some degree relieved by knowing that, at all events, you, my dear
friend, have already verbally apprised the Society of my readiness to write
a work of the kind.[1]

Ever, my worthy Z., your


[Footnote 1: In the _Fischof’sche Handschrift_ we are told:–“The allusion
to ‘our artistic resources’ requires some explanation. Herr v. Zmeskall had
at that time received instructions to give a hint to the great composer
(who paid little regard to the difficulty of executing his works) that he
must absolutely take into consideration the size of the orchestra, which at
grand concerts amounted to 700 performers. The Society only stipulated for
the exclusive right to the work for one year, and did not purchase the
copyright; they undertook the gratuity for the poem also, so they were
obliged to consult their pecuniary resources, and informed the composer
that they were prepared to give him 200 gold ducats for the use of the work
for a year, as they had proposed. Beethoven was quite satisfied, and made
no objection whatever; he received an advance on this sum according to his
own wish, the receipt of which he acknowledged in 1819. Beethoven rejected
the first poem selected, and desired to have another. The Society left his
choice quite free. Herr Bernhard undertook to supply a new one. Beethoven
and he consulted together in choosing the subject, but Herr Bernhard,
overburdened by other business, could only send the poem bit by bit.
Beethoven, however, would not begin till the whole was in his hands.”]



Vienna, Jan. 6, 1816.


I have too long delayed writing to you. How gladly would I personally
participate in the enthusiasm you excite at Berlin in “Fidelio!” A thousand
thanks on my part for having so faithfully adhered to _my_ “Fidelio.” If
you will ask Baron de la Motte-Fouqué, in my name, to discover a good
subject for an opera, and one suitable likewise to yourself, you will do a
real service both to me and to the German stage; it is also my wish to
write it expressly for the _Berlin Theatre_, as no new opera can ever
succeed in being properly given here under this very penurious direction.
Answer me soon, very soon–quickly, very quickly–as quickly as
possible–as quick as lightning–and say whether such a thing is
practicable. Herr Kapellmeister B. praised you up to the skies to me, and
he is right; well may he esteem himself happy who has the privilege of
enjoying your muse, your genius, and all your splendid endowments and
talents;–it is thus I feel. Be this as it may, those around can only call
themselves your fellow-creatures [Nebenmann], whereas I alone have a right
to claim the honored name of captain [_Hauptmann_].

In my secret heart, your true friend and admirer,


My poor unfortunate brother is dead, which has been the cause of my long
silence. As soon as you have replied to this letter, I will write myself to
Baron de la Motte-Fouqué. No doubt your influence in Berlin will easily
obtain for me a commission to write a grand opera (in which you shall be
especially studied) on favorable terms; but do answer me soon, that I may
arrange my other occupations accordingly.

[Music: Tenor clef, C Major, 4/4 time.
Ich küs-se Sie, drü-cke Sie an’s Herz!
Ich der Haupt-mann, der Haupt-mann.]

Away with all other false _Hauptmänner_! [captains.]

[Footnote 1: Mdlle. Milder married Hauptmann, a jeweller in Munich, in
1810, travelled in 1812, and was engaged at Berlin in 1816.]



Vienna, Jan. 20, 1816.


The Symphony is to be dedicated to the Empress of Russia. The pianoforte
score of the Symphony in A must not, however, appear before June, for the
publisher here cannot be ready sooner. Pray, dear Ries, inform Mr. Birchall
of this at once. The Sonata with violin accompaniment, which will be sent
from here by the next post, can likewise be published in London in May, but
the Trio at a later date (it follows by the next post); I will myself name
the time for its publication. And now, dear Ries, pray receive my heartfelt
thanks for your kindness, and especially for the corrections of the proofs.
May Heaven bless you more and more, and promote your progress, in which I
take the most sincere interest. My kind regards to your wife. Now as ever,

Your sincere friend,




Vienne, le 3. Febr. den 1816


Le grand Trio p. Pf. V. et Vllo. Sonata pour Pf. et Violin–qui form le
reste de ce qu’il vous a plus à me comettre. Je vous prie de vouloir payer
la some de 130 Ducats d’Holland come le poste lettre a Mr. Th. Cutts et Co.
de votre ville e de me croire avec toute l’estime et consideration

Votre tres humble Serviteur,





Pray give the enclosed to your parents for the dinners the boy had recently
at your house; I positively will not accept these _gratis_. Moreover, I am
very far from wishing that your lessons should remain without
remuneration,–even those already given must be reckoned up and paid for;
only I beg you to have a little patience for a time, as nothing can be
_demanded_ from the widow, and I had and still have heavy expenses to
defray;–but I _borrow_ from you for the moment only. The boy is to be with
you to-day, and I shall come later.

Your friend,


[Footnote 1: Carl Czerny, the celebrated pianist and composer, for whom
Beethoven wrote a testimonial in 1805 (see No. 42). He gave lessons to
Beethoven’s nephew in 1815, and naturally protested against any payment,
which gave rise to the expressions on the subject in many of his notes to
Czerny, of which there appear to be a great number.]



Vienna, Feb. 12, 1816.


I cannot see you to-day, but I will call to-morrow being desirous to talk
to you. I spoke out so bluntly yesterday that I much regretted it
afterwards. But you must forgive this on the part of an author, who would
have preferred hearing his work as he wrote it, however charmingly you
played it. I will, however, _amply_ atone for this by the violoncello

Rest assured that I cherish the greatest regard for you as an artist, and I
shall always endeavor to prove this.

Your true friend,


[Footnote 1: Czerny, in the _A.M. Zeitung_, 1845, relates:–“On one
occasion (in 1812), at Schuppanzigh’s concert, when playing Beethoven’s
quintet with wind-instruments, I took the liberty, in my youthful levity,
to make many alterations,–such as introducing difficulties into the
passages, making use of the upper octaves, &c., &c. Beethoven sternly and
deservedly reproached me for this, in the presence of Schuppanzigh, Linke,
and the other performers.”]

[Footnote 2: Opera 69, which Czerny (see _A.M. Zeitung_) was to perform
with Linke the following week.]



Vienna, Feb. 28, 1816.

… For some time past I have been far from well; the loss of my brother
affected both my spirits and my works. Salomon’s death grieves me much, as
he was an excellent man whom I have known from my childhood. You are his
executor by will, while I am the guardian of my late poor brother’s child.
You can scarcely have had as much vexation from Salomon’s death as I have
had from that of my brother!–but I have the sweet consolation of having
rescued a poor innocent child from the hands of an unworthy mother.
Farewell, dear Ries; if I can in any way serve you, look on me as

Your true friend,




Feb. 1816.


I have great pleasure in saying that at last I intend to-morrow to place
under your care the dear pledge intrusted to me. But I must impress on you
not to permit any influence on the mother’s part to decide when and where
she is to see her son. We can, however, discuss all this more minutely
to-morrow…. You must keep a watchful eye on your servant, for mine was
_bribed by her_ on one occasion. More as to this verbally, though it is a
subject on which I would fain be silent; but the future welfare of the
youth you are to train renders this unpleasant communication necessary. I
remain, with esteem,

Your faithful servant and friend,





Your estimable lady, Mdme. A.G. [Giannatasio] is politely requested to let
the undersigned know as soon as possible (that I may not be obliged to keep
it all in my head) how many pairs of stockings, trousers, shoes, and
drawers are required, and how many yards of kerseymere to make a pair of
black trousers for my tall nephew; and for the sake of the “Castalian
Spring” I beg, without any further reminders on my part, that I may receive
an answer to this.

As for the Lady Abbess [a nickname for their only daughter], there shall be
a conference held on Carl’s affair to-night, viz., if things are to
continue as they are.

Your well (and ill) born





I heard yesterday evening, unluckily at too late an hour, that you had
something to give me; had it not been for this, I would have called on you.
I beg, however, that you will send it, as I have no doubt it is a letter
for me from the “Queen of the Night.”[1] Although you gave me permission to
fetch Carl twice already, I must ask you to let him come to me when I send
for him at eleven o’clock to-morrow, as I wish to take him with me to hear
some interesting music. It is also my intention to make him play to me
to-morrow, as it is now some time since I heard him. I hope you will urge
him to study more closely than usual to-day, that he may in some degree
make up for his holiday. I embrace you cordially, and remain,

Yours truly,


[Footnote 1: The “Queen of the Night” was the name given to Carl’s mother
by Beethoven. She was a person of great levity of conduct and bad
reputation, and every effort was made by Beethoven to withdraw her son from
her influence, on which account he at once removed him from her care, and
placed him in this institution. She consequently appealed to the law
against him,–the first step in a long course of legal proceedings of the
most painful nature.]




I send you, dear sir, the cloak, and also a school-book of my Carl’s, and
request you will make out a list of his clothes and effects, that I may
have it copied for myself, being obliged, as his guardian, to look
carefully after his property. I intend to call for Carl to-morrow about
half-past twelve o’clock, to take him to a little concert, and wish him to
dine with me afterwards, and shall bring him back myself. With respect to
his mother, I desire that _under the pretext_ of the boy being _so busy_,
you will not let her see him; no man on earth can know or judge of this
matter better than myself, and by any other line of conduct all my
well-matured plans for the welfare of the child might be materially
injured. I will myself discuss with you when the mother is henceforth to
have access to Carl, for I am anxious on every account to prevent the
occurrence of yesterday ever being repeated. I take all the responsibility
on myself; indeed, so far as I am concerned, the Court conferred on me full
powers, and the authority at once to counteract anything adverse to the
welfare of the boy. If they could have looked on her in the light of an
estimable mother, they assuredly would not have excluded her from the
guardianship of her child. Whatever she may think fit to assert, nothing
has been done in a clandestine manner against her. There was but one voice
in the whole council on the subject. I hope to have no further trouble in
this matter, for the burden is already heavy enough.

From a conversation I had yesterday with Adlersburg [his lawyer], it would
appear that a long time must yet elapse before the Court can decide what
really belongs to the child. In addition to all these anxieties am I also
to endure a persecution such as I have recently experienced, and from which
I thought I _was entirely rescued by your Institution_? Farewell!

I am, with esteem, your obedient


[Footnote 1: Beethoven’s arbitrary authority had been previously sanctioned
by a decree of the Court, and the mother deprived of all power over her



Vienna, March 8, 1816.

My answer has been too long delayed; but I was ill, and had a great press
of business. Not a single farthing is yet come of the ten gold ducats, and
I now almost begin to think that the English are only liberal when in
foreign countries. It is the same with the Prince Regent, who has not even
sent me the cost of copying my “Battle Symphony,” nor one verbal or written
expression of thanks. My whole income consists of 3400 florins in
paper-money. I pay 1100 for house-rent, and 900 to my servant and his wife;
so you may reckon for yourself what remains. Besides this, the entire
maintenance of my young nephew devolves on me. At present he is at school,
which costs 1100 florins, and is by no means a good one; so that I must
arrange a proper household and have him with me. How much money must be
made to live at all here! and yet there seems no end to
it–because!–because!–because!–but you know well what I mean.

Some commissions from the Philharmonic would be very acceptable to me,
besides, the concert. Now let me say that my dear scholar Ries must set to
work and dedicate something valuable to me, to which his master may
respond, and repay him in his own coin. How can I send you my portrait? My
kind regards to your wife. I, alas! have none. One alone I wished to
possess, but never shall I call her mine![1] This, however, has not made me
a woman-hater.

Your true friend,


[Footnote 1: See the statement of Fräulein del Rio in the _Grenzboten_. We
read:–“My father’s idea was that marriage alone could remedy the sad
condition of Beethoven’s household matters; so he asked him whether he knew
any one, &c., &c. Our long-existing presentiment was then realized.” His
love was unfortunate. Five years ago he had become acquainted with a person
with whom he would have esteemed it the highest felicity of his life to
have entered into closer ties; but it was vain to think of it, being almost
an impossibility! a chimera! and yet his feelings remained the same as the
very first day he had seen her! He added, “that never before had he found
such harmony! but no declaration had ever been made, not being able to
prevail on himself to do so.” This conversation took place in Sept. 1816,
at Helenenthal, in Baden, and the person to whom he alluded was undoubtedly
Marie L. Pachler-Koschak in Gratz. (See No. 80.)]



Vienna, April 3, 1816.

Neate[1] is no doubt in London by this time. He took several of my works
with him, and promised to do the best he could for me.

The Archduke Rudolph [Beethoven’s pupil, see No. 70] also plays your works
with me, my dear Ries; of these “Il Sogno” especially pleased us. Farewell!
Remember me to your charming wife, and to any fair English ladies who care
to receive my greetings.

Your true friend,


[Footnote 1: Charles Neate, a London artist, as Schindler styles him in his
_Biography_ (II. 254), was on several different occasions for some time
resident in Vienna, and very intimate with Beethoven, whom he tried to
persuade to come to London. He also was of great service in promoting the
sale of his works. A number of Neate’s letters, preserved in the Berlin
State Library, testify his faithful and active devotion and attachment to
the master.]



Vienna, May 2, 1816.

I authorize Herr v. Kauka, Doctor of Laws in the kingdom of Bohemia,
relying on his friendship, to obtain for me the receipt of 600 florins
W.W., payable at the treasury of Prince Kinsky, from the house of Ballabene
in Prague, and after having drawn the money to transmit the same to me as
soon as possible.

Witness my hand and seal.




Vienna, June 11, 1816.


I regret much to put you to the expense of postage on my account; gladly as
I assist and serve every one, I am always unwilling myself to have recourse
to others. I have as yet seen nothing of the ten ducats, whence I draw the
inference that in England, just as with us, there are idle talkers who
prove false to their word. I do not at all blame you in this matter. I have
not heard a syllable from Neate; so I do wish you would ask him whether he
has disposed of the F minor Concerto. I am almost ashamed to allude to the
other works I intrusted to him, and equally so of myself, for having given
them to him so confidingly, devoid of all conditions save those suggested
by his own friendship and zeal for my interests.

A translation has been sent to me of an article in the “Morning Chronicle”
on the performance of the Symphony. Probably it will be the same as to this
and all the other works Neate took with him as with the “Battle Symphony;”
the only profit I shall derive will be reading a notice of their
performance in the newspapers.





I beg you will send Carl to me with the bearer of this letter; otherwise I
shall not be able to see him all day, which would be contrary to his own
interest, as my influence seems to be required; in the same view, I beg you
will give him a few lines with a report of his conduct, so that I may enter
at once on any point where improvement is necessary.

I am going to the country to-day, and shall not return till rather late at
night; being always unwilling to infringe your rules, I beg you will send
some night-things with Carl, so that if we return too late to bring him to
you to-day, I can keep him all night, and take him back to you myself early
next morning.

In haste, always yours,





I must apologize to you, my good friend, for Carl having come home at so
late an hour. We were obliged to wait for a person who arrived so late that
it detained us, but I will not soon repeat this breach of your rules. As to
Carl’s mother, I have now decided that your wish not to see her again in
your house shall be acceded to. This course is far more safe and judicious
for our dear Carl, experience having taught me that every visit from his
mother leaves a root of bitterness in the boy’s heart, which may injure,
but never can benefit him. I shall strive to arrange occasional meetings at
my house, which is likely to result in everything being entirely broken off
with her. As we thoroughly agree on the subject of Carl’s mother, we can
mutually decide on the mode of his education.

Your true friend,




Vienna, July 11, 1816.

Your kindness towards me induces me to hope that you will not attribute to
any _selfish_ design on my part the somewhat audacious (though only as to
the surprise) dedication annexed. The work[1] was written for Y.R.H., or
rather, it owes its existence to you, and this the world (the musical
world) ought to know. I shall soon have the honor of waiting on Y.R.H. in
Baden. Notwithstanding all the efforts of my physician, who will not allow
me to leave this, the weakness in my chest is no better, though my general
health is improved. I hope to hear all that is cheering of your own health,
about which I am always so much interested.


[Footnote 1: Does Beethoven here allude to the dedication of the Sonata for
pianoforte and violin in G major, Op. 96, which, though sold to a publisher
in April, 1815, was designated as quite new in the _Allgemeine Zeitung_ on
July, 29, 1816?]




Received, March, 1816, of Mr. Robert Birchall, music-seller, 133 New Bond
Street, London, the sum of one hundred and thirty gold Dutch ducats, value
in English currency sixty-five pounds, for all my copyright and interest,
present and future, vested or contingent, or otherwise within the United
kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the four following compositions or
pieces of music composed or arranged by me, viz.:–

1st. A Grand Battle Sinfonia, descriptive of the battle and victory at
Vittoria, adapted for the pianoforte and dedicated to his Royal Highness
the Prince Regent–40 ducats.

2d. A Grand Symphony in the key of A, adapted to the pianoforte and
dedicated to–

3d. A Grand Trio for the pianoforte, violin, and violoncello in the key of

4th. A Sonata for the pianoforte, with an accompaniment for the violin in
the key of G, dedicated to–

And, in consideration of such payment I hereby, for myself, my executors,
and administrators, promise and engage to execute a proper anignment
thereof to him, his executors and administrators or anignees, at his or
their request and costs, as he or they shall direct. And I likewise promise
and engage as above, that none of the above shall be published in any
foreign country, before the time and day fixed and agreed on for such
publication between R. Birchall and myself shall arrive.




Vienne 22. Juilliet, 1816.


J’ai reçu la déclaration de proprieté de mes Oeuvres entierement cedé a
Vous pour y adjoindre ma Signature. Je suis tout a fait disposer a seconder
vos voeux si tôt, que cette affaire sera entierement en ordre, en egard de
la petite somme de 10 # d’or la quelle me vient encore pour le fieux de la
Copieture de poste de lettre etc. comme j’avois l’honneur de vous
expliquier dans une note detaillé sur ses objectes. Je vous invite donc
Monsieur de bien vouloir me remettre ces petits objects, pour me mettre
dans l’état de pouvoir vous envoyer le Document susdit. Agrées Monsieur
l’assurance de l’estime la plus parfait avec la quelle j’ai l’honneur de me


Copying . . . . 1. 10. 0.
Postage to Amsterdam 1. 0. 0.
—- Trio . . . 2. 10. —
£5. 0. 0.



July 28, 1816.


Various circumstances compel me to take charge of Carl myself; with this
view permit me to enclose you the amount due at the approaching quarter, at
the expiry of which Carl is to leave you. Do not, I beg, ascribe this to
anything derogatory either to yourself or to your respected institution,
but to other pressing motives connected with Carl’s welfare. It is only an
experiment, and when it is actually carried out I shall beg you to fortify
me by your advice, and also to permit Carl sometimes to visit your
institution. I shall always feel the most sincere gratitude to you, and
never can forget your solicitude, and the kind care of your excellent wife,
which has fully equalled that of the best of mothers. I would send you at
least four times the sum I now do, if my position admitted of it; but at
all events I shall avail myself at a future and, I hope, a brighter day, of
every opportunity to acknowledge and to do justice to the foundation _you_
have laid for the moral and physical good of my Carl. With regard to the
“Queen of the Night,” our system must continue the same; and as Carl is
about to undergo an operation in your house which will cause him to feel
indisposed, and consequently make him irritable and susceptible, you must
be more careful than ever to prevent her having access to him; otherwise
she might easily contrive to revive all those impressions in his mind which
we are so anxious to avoid. What confidence can be placed in any promise to
reform on her part, the impertinent scrawl I enclose will best prove [in
reference, no doubt, to an enclosed note]. I send it merely to show you how
fully I am justified in the precautions I have already adopted with regard
to her. On this occasion, however, I did not answer like a Sarastro, but
like a Sultan. I would gladly spare you the anxiety of the operation on
Carl, but as it must take place in your house, I beg you will inform me of
the outlay caused by the affair, and the expenses consequent on it, which I
will thankfully repay. Now farewell! Say all that is kind from me to your
dear children and your excellent wife, to whose continued care I commend my
Carl. I leave Vienna to-morrow at five o’clock A.M., but shall frequently
come in from Baden.

Ever, with sincere esteem, your




Mdme. A.G. is requested to order several pairs of good linen drawers for
Carl. I intrust Carl to her kindness, and entirely rely on her motherly



Baden, September 5, 1816.


I don’t know whether you received a note that I recently left on the
threshold of your door, for the time was too short to enable me to see you.
I must therefore repeat my request about another servant, as the conduct of
my present one is such that I cannot possibly keep him.[1] He was engaged
on the 25th of April, so on the 25th of September he will have been five
months with me, and he received 50 florins on account. The money for his
boots will be reckoned from the third month (in my service), and from that
time at the rate of 40 florins per annum; his livery also from the third
month. From the very first I resolved not to keep him, but delayed
discharging him, as I wished to get back the value of my florins. In the
mean time if I can procure another, I will let this one leave my service on
the 15th of the month, and also give him 20 florins for boot money, and 5
florins a month for livery (both reckoned from the third month), making
altogether 35 florins. I ought therefore still to receive 15 florins, but
these I am willing to give up; in this way I shall at all events receive
some equivalent for my 50 florins. If you can find a suitable person, I
will give him 2 florins a day while I am in Baden, and if he knows how to
cook he can use my firewood in the kitchen. (I have a kitchen, though I do
not cook in it.) If not, I will add a few kreutzers to his wages. As soon
as I am settled in Vienna, he shall have 40 florins a month, and board and
livery as usual, reckoned from the third month in my service, like other
servants. It would be a good thing if he understood a little tailoring. So
now you have my proposals, and I beg for an answer by the 10th of this
month at the latest, that I may discharge my present servant on the 2d,
with the usual fortnight’s warning; otherwise I shall be obliged to keep
him for another month, and every moment I wish to get rid of him. As for
the new one, you know pretty well what I require,–_good, steady conduct_,
a _good character_, and _not to be of a bloodthirsty nature_, that I may
feel my life to be safe, as, for the sake of various scamps in this world,
I should like to live a little longer. By the 10th, therefore, I shall
expect to hear from you on this affair. If you don’t run restive, I will
soon send you my treatise on the four violoncello strings, very profoundly
handled; the first chapter devoted exclusively to entrails in general, the
second to catgut in particular. I need scarcely give you any further
warnings, as you seem to be quite on your guard against wounds inflicted
before certain fortresses. The most _profound peace_ everywhere prevails!!!
Farewell, my good _Zmeskällchen_! I am, as ever, _un povero musico_ and
your friend,


N.B. I shall probably only require my new servant for some months, as, for
the sake of my Carl, I must shortly engage a housekeeper.

[Footnote 1: During a quarrel, the servant scratched Beethoven’s face.]



Baden, Sept. 6, 1816.


I send you herewith the receipt, according to your request, and beg that
you will kindly arrange that I should have the money by the 1st October,
and without any deduction, which has hitherto been the case; I also
particularly beg _you will not assign the money to Baron P._ (I will tell
you why when we meet; for the present let this remain between ourselves.)
Send it either direct to myself, or, if it must come through another
person, do not let it be Baron P. It would be best for the future, as the
house-rent is paid here for the great house belonging to Kinsky, that my
money should be paid at the same time. This is only my own idea. The Terzet
you heard of will soon be engraved, which is infinitely preferable to all
written music; you shall therefore receive an engraved copy, and likewise
some more of my unruly offspring. In the mean time I beg that you will see
only what is truly good in them, and look with an indulgent eye on the
human frailties of these poor innocents. Besides, I am full of cares, being
in reality father to my late brother’s child; indeed I might have ushered
into the world a second part of the “Flauto Magico,” having also been
brought into contact with a “Queen of the Night.” I embrace you from my
heart, and hope soon in so far to succeed that you may owe some thanks to
my Muse. My dear, worthy Kauka, I ever am your truly attached friend,




What would be the result were I to leave this, and indeed the kingdom of
Austria altogether? Would the life-certificate, if signed by the
authorities of a non-Austrian place, still be valid?

_A tergo._

I beg you will let me know the postage all my letters have cost you.



Sunday, September 22, 1816.

Certain things can never be fully expressed. Of this nature are my
feelings, and especially my gratitude, on hearing the details of the
operation on Carl from you. You will excuse my attempting even remotely to
shape these into words. I feel certain, however, that you will not decline
the tribute I gladly pay you; but I say no more. You can easily imagine my
anxiety to hear how my dear son is going on; do not omit to give me your
exact address, that I may write to you direct. After you left this I wrote
to Bernhard [Bernard], to make inquiries at your house, but have not yet
got an answer; so possibly you may have thought me a kind of half-reckless
barbarian, as no doubt Herr B. has neglected to call on you, as well as to
write to me. I can have no uneasiness about Carl when your admirable wife
is with him: that is quite out of the question. You can well understand how
much it grieves me not to be able to take part in the sufferings of my
Carl, and that I at least wish to hear frequently of his progress. As I
have renounced such an unfeeling, unsympathizing friend as Herr B.
[Bernard], I must have recourse to your friendship and complaisance on this
point also, and shall hope soon to receive a few lines from you. I beg to
send my best regards and a thousand thanks to your admirable wife.

In haste, your


I wish you to express to Smetana [the surgeon] my esteem and high



If you do not object, I beg you will allow Carl to come to me with the
bearer of this. I forgot, in my haste, to say that all the love and
goodness which Mdme. A.G. [Giannatasio] showed my Carl during his illness
are inscribed in the list of my obligations, and I hope one day to show
that they are ever present in my mind. Perhaps I may see you to-day with

In haste, your sincere friend,




I take the opportunity through J. Simrock to remind you of myself. I hope
you received the engraving of me [by Letronne], and likewise the Bohemian
glass. When I next make a pilgrimage through Bohemia you shall have
something more of the same kind. Farewell! You are a husband and a father;
so am I, but without a wife. My love to your dear ones–to _our_ dear ones.

Your friend,




Vienna, 1. Oct. 1816.


I have duly received the £5 and thought previously you would non increase
the number of Englishmen neglecting their word and honor, as I had the
misfortune of meeting with two of this sort. In replic to the other topics
of your favor, I have no objection to write variations according to your
plan, and I hope you will not find £30 too much, the Accompaniment will be
a Flute or Violin or a Violoncello; you’ll either decide it when you send
me the approbation of the price, or you’ll leave it to me. I expect to
receive the songs or poetry–the sooner the better, and you’ll favor me
also with the probable number of Works of Variations you are inclined to
receive of me. The Sonata in G with the accompan’t of a Violin to his
Imperial Highnesse Archduke Rodolph of Austria–it is Op’a 96. The Trio in
Bb is dedicated to the same and is Op. 97. The Piano arrangement of the
Symphony in A is dedicated to the Empress of the Russians–meaning the Wife
of the Emp’r Alexander–Op. 98.

Concerning the expences of copying and packing it is not possible to fix
him before hand, they are at any rate not considerable, and you’ll please
to consider that you have to deal with a man of honor, who will not charge
one 6p. more than he is charged for himself. Messrs. Fries & Co. will
account with Messrs. Coutts & Co.–The postage may be lessened as I have
been told. I offer you of my Works the following new ones. A Grand Sonata
for the Pianoforte alone £40. A Trio for the Piano with accomp’t of Violin
and Violoncello for £50. It is possible that somebody will offer you other
works of mine to purchase, for ex. the score of the Grand Symphony in
A.–With regard to the arrangement of this Symphony for the Piano I beg you
not to forget that you are not to publish it until I have appointed the day
of its publication here in Vienna. This cannot be otherwise without making
myself guilty of a dishonorable act–but the Sonata with the Violin and the
Trio in B fl. may be published without any delay.

With all the _new works_, which you will have of me or which I offer you,
it rests with you to name the day of their publication at your own choice:
I entreat you to honor me as soon as possible with an answer having many
ordres for compositions and that you may not be delayed. My address or
direction is

Monsieur Louis van Beethoven

No. 1055 & 1056 Sailerstette 3d. Stock. Vienna.

You may send your letter, if you please, direct to your most humble servant




Oct. 24, 1816.


We are in Baden to-day, and intend to bring the celebrated naturalist
Ribini a collection of dead leaves. To-morrow we purpose paying you not
only a _visit_ but a _visitation_.

Your devoted




November, 1816.[1]

I have been again much worse, so that I can only venture to go out a little
in the daytime; I am, however, getting better, and hope now to have the
honor of waiting on Y.R.H. three times a week. Meanwhile, I have many and
great cares in these terrible times (which surpass anything we have ever
experienced), and which are further augmented by having become the father
since last November of a poor orphan. All this tends to retard my entire
restoration to health. I wish Y.R.H. all imaginable good and happiness, and
beg you will graciously receive and not misinterpret

Your, &c., &c.


[Footnote 1: A year after Carl von Beethoven’s death (Nov. 15, 1815).]






The bearer of this is a poor devil! (like many another!!!) You could assist
him by asking your gracious master whether he is disposed to purchase one
of his small but neat pianos. I also beg you will recommend him to any of
the Chamberlains or Adjutants of the Archduke Carl, to see whether it is
possible that H.R.H. would buy one of these instruments for his Duchess. We
therefore request an introduction from the illustrious _Turner Meister_ for
this poor devil[1] to the Chamberlains and Adjutants of the household.



poor devil,


[Footnote 1: A name cannot now be found for the “poor devil.”]



Nov. 16, 1816.


My household seems about to make shipwreck, or something very like it. You
know that I was duped into taking this house on false pretexts; besides, my
health does not seem likely to improve in a hurry. To engage a tutor under
such circumstances, whose character and whose very exterior even are
unknown to me, and thus to intrust my Carl’s education to hap-hazard, is
quite out of the question, no matter how great the sacrifices which I shall
be again called on to make. I beg you, therefore, to keep Carl for the
ensuing quarter, commencing on the 9th. I will in so far comply with your
proposal as to the cultivation of the science of music, that Carl may come
to me two or three times a week, leaving you at six o’clock in the evening
and staying with me till the following morning, when he can return to you
by eight o’clock. It would be too fatiguing for Carl to come every day, and
indeed too great an effort and tie for me likewise, as the lessons must be
given at the same fixed hour.

During this quarter we can discuss more minutely the most suitable plan for
Carl, taking into consideration both his interests and my own. I must,
alas! mention my own also in these times, which are daily getting worse. If
your garden residence had agreed with my health, everything might have been
easily adjusted. With regard to my debt to you for the present quarter, I
beg you will be so obliging as to call on me, that I may discharge it; the
bearer of this has the good fortune to be endowed by Providence with a vast
amount of stupidity, which I by no means grudge him the benefit of,
provided others do not suffer by it. As to the remaining expenses incurred
for Carl, either during his illness or connected with it, I must, for a few
days only, request your indulgence, having great calls on me at present
from all quarters. I wish also to know what fee I ought to give Smetana for
the successful operation he performed; were I rich, or not in the same sad
position in which all are who have linked their fate to this country
(always excepting _Austrian usurers_), I would make no inquiries on the
subject; and I only wish you to give me a rough estimate of the proper fee.
Farewell! I cordially embrace you, and shall always look on you as a friend
of mine and of Carl’s.

I am, with esteem, your




Though I would gladly spare you all needless disagreeable trouble, I
cannot, unluckily, do so on this occasion. Yesterday, in searching for some
papers, I found this pile, which has been sent to me respecting Carl. I do
not quite understand them, and you would oblige me much by employing some
one to make out a regular statement of all your outlay for Carl, so that I
may send for it to-morrow. I hope you did not misunderstand me when I
yesterday alluded to _magnanimity_, which certainly was not meant for you,
but solely for the “Queen of the Night,” who is never weary of hoisting the
sails of her vindictiveness against me; so on this account I require
vouchers, more for the satisfaction of others than for her sake (as I never
will submit to render her any account of my actions). No stamp is required,
and the sum alone for each quarter need be specified, for I believe most of
the accounts are forthcoming; so all you have to do is to append them to
your _prospectus_ [the conclusion illegible].




Nov. 14, 1816.


I beg you will allow Carl to come to me to-morrow, as it is the anniversary
of his father’s death [Nov. 15th], and we wish to visit his grave together.
I shall probably come to fetch him between twelve and one o’clock. I wish
to know the effect of my treatment of Carl, after your recent complaints.
In the mean time, it touched me exceedingly to find him so susceptible as
to his honor. Before we left your house I gave him some hints on his want
of industry, and while walking together in a graver mood than usual, he
pressed my hand vehemently, but met with no response from me. At dinner he
scarcely eat anything, and said that he felt very melancholy, the cause of
which I could not extract from him. At last, in the course of our walk, he
owned that _he was vexed because he had not been so industrious as usual_.
I said what I ought on the subject, but in a kinder manner than before.
This, however, proves a certain delicacy of feeling, and such _traits_ lead
me to augur all that is good. If I cannot come to you to-morrow, I hope you
will let me know by a few lines the result of my conference with Carl.

I once more beg you to let me have the account due for the last quarter. I
thought that you had misunderstood my letter, or even worse than that. I
warmly commend my poor orphan to your good heart, and, with kind regards to
all, I remain

Your friend,





Pray forgive me for having allowed the enclosed sum to be ready for you
during the last twelve days or more, and not having sent it. I have been
very much occupied, and am only beginning to recover, though indeed the
word _recovery_ has not yet been pronounced.

In haste, with much esteem, ever yours,





It is certainly of some moment to me _not to appear in a false light_,
which must account for the accompanying statement being so prolix. As to
the future system of education, I can at all events congratulate myself on
having done all that I could possibly effect at present _for the best_, and
trust _that the future may be in accordance with it_. But if the welfare of
my nephew demands a _change_, I shall be the first not only to propose such
a step, but _to carry it out_. I am no self-interested guardian, but I wish
to establish a new monument to my name through my nephew. I _have no need
of my nephew_, but he has need of me. Idle talk and calumnies are beneath
the dignity of a man with proper self-respect, and what can be said when
these extend even to the subject of linen!!! This might cause me great
annoyance, _but a just man ought to be able to bear injustice_ without in
the _most remote degree_ deviating from the path of _right_. In this
conviction I will stand fast, and nothing shall make me flinch. To deprive
me of my nephew would indeed entail a heavy responsibility. As a matter of
_policy_ as well as of morality, such a step would be productive of evil
results to my nephew. _I urgently recommend his interests to you._ As for
me, _my actions_ for _his_ benefit (not for my _own_) must speak for me.

I remain, with esteem,

Your obedient


Being very busy, and rather indisposed, I must claim your indulgence for
the writing of the memorial.



Vienna 14. December 1816–1055 Sailerstette.


I give you my word of honor that I have signed and delivered the receipt to
the home Fries and Co. some day last August, who as they say have
transmitted it to Messrs. Coutts and Co. where you’ll have the goodness to
apply. Some error might have taken place that instead of Messrs. C. sending
it to you they have been directed to keep it till fetched. Excuse this
irregularity, but it is not my fault, nor had I ever the idea of
withholding it from the circumstance of the £5 not being included. Should
the receipt not come forth as Messrs. C., I am ready to sign any other, and
you shall have it directly with return of post.

If you find Variations–in my style–too dear at £30, I will abate for the
sake of your friendship one third–and you have the offer of such
Variations as fixed in our former lettres for £20 each Air.

Please to publish the Symphony in A immediately–as well as the Sonata–and
the Trio–they being ready here. The Grand Opera Fidelio is my work. The
arrangement for the Pianoforte has been published here under my care, but
the score of the Opera itself is not yet published. I have given a copy of
the score to Mr. Neate under the seal of friendship and whom I shall direct
to treat for my account in case an offer should present.

I anxiously hope your health is improving, give me leave to subscrive

Dear Sir

Your very obedient Serv.




Dec. 16, 1816.

With this, dear Zmeskall, you will receive my friendly dedication [a
stringed quartet, Op. 95], which may, I hope, serve as a pleasant memorial
of our long-enduring friendship here; pray accept it as a proof of my
esteem, and not merely as the extreme end of a thread long since spun out
(for you are one of my earliest friends in Vienna).

Farewell! Beware of mouldering fortresses! for an attack on them will be
more trying than on those in a better state of preservation! As ever,

Your friend,


N.B. When you have a moment’s leisure, let me know the probable cost of a
livery, without linen, but including hat and boots. Strange changes have
come to pass in my house. The man is off to the devil, I am thankful to
say, whereas his wife seems the more resolved to take root here.



Dec. 28, 1816.

N—- ought to have given you the New Year’s tickets yesterday, but it
seems she did not do so. The day before I was occupied with Maelzel, whose
business was pressing, as he leaves this so soon; otherwise you may be sure
that I would have hurried up again to see you. Your dear kind daughter was
with me yesterday, but I scarcely ever remember being so ill; my _precious
servants_ were occupied from seven o’clock till ten at night in trying to
heat the stove. The bitter cold, particularly in my room, caused me a
chill, and the whole of yesterday I could scarcely move a limb. All day I
was coughing, and had the most severe headache I ever had in my life; so by
six o’clock in the evening I was obliged to go to bed, where I still am,
though feeling somewhat better. Your brother dined with me yesterday, and
has shown me great kindness. You are aware that on the same day, the 27th
of December, I discharged B. [Baberl]. I cannot endure either of these vile
creatures; I wonder if Nany will behave rather better from the departure of
her colleague? I doubt it–but in that case I shall send her _packing_
without any ceremony. She is too uneducated for a housekeeper, indeed quite
a _beast_; but the other, in spite of her pretty face, is even _lower than
the beasts_. As the New Year draws near, I think five florins will be
enough for Nany; I have not paid her the charge for _making her spencer_,
on account of her _bad behavior to you_. The other certainly _deserves no
New Year’s gift_; besides, she has nine florins of mine on hand, and when
she leaves I don’t expect to receive more than four or five florins of that
sum. I wish to have _your opinion about all this_. Pray accept my best
wishes for your welfare, which are offered in all sincerity. I am your
debtor in so many ways, that I really often feel quite ashamed. Farewell; I
trust I may always retain your friendship.

Now, as ever, your friend,




I thank you for the interest you take in me. I am rather better, though
to-day again I have been obliged to endure a great deal from Nany; but I
shied half a dozen books at her head by way of a New Year’s gift. We have
stripped off the leaves (by sending off Baberl) and lopped off the
branches, but we must extirpate the _roots_, till nothing is left but the
actual soil.



Nany is not strictly _honest_, and an odiously stupid _animal_ into the
bargain. Such people must be managed not by _love_ but by _fear_. I now see
this clearly. Her account-book alone cannot show you everything clearly;
you must often drop in unexpectedly at dinner-time, like an avenging angel,
to see with your own eyes _what_ we actually have. I never dine at home
now, _unless_ I have some friend as my guest, for I have no wish to pay as
much for one person as would serve for four. I shall _now soon_ have my
dear son Carl with me, so economy is more necessary than ever. I cannot
prevail on myself to go to you; I know you will forgive this. I am very
sensitive, and not used to such things, so the less ought I to expose
myself to them. In addition to twelve kreutzers for bread, Nany has a roll
of white bread every morning. Is this usual?–and it is the same with the
cook. A daily roll for breakfast comes to eighteen florins a year.
_Farewell_, and _work well_ for me. Mdlle. Nany is wonderfully changed for
the better since I sent the half-dozen books at her head. Probably they
chanced to come in collision with her _dull brain_ or her _bad heart_; at
all events, she now plays the part of a penitent swindler!!!

In haste, yours,




Nany yesterday took me to task in the vulgar manner usual with people of
her _low class_, about my complaining to you; so she evidently knew that I
had written to you on the subject. All the devilry began again yesterday
morning, but I made short work of it by throwing the heavy arm-chair beside
my bed at B.’s head, which procured me peace for the rest of the day. They
always take their revenge on me when I write to you, or when they discover
any communication between us.

I do thank Heaven that I everywhere find men who interest themselves in me;
one of the _most distinguished Professors_ in this University has in the
kindest manner undertaken _all that concerns Carl’s education_. If you
happen to meet any of the Giannatasios at Czerny’s, you had better _know
nothing of what is going on about Carl_, and say that it is _contrary_ to
my _usual habit to disclose my plans, as when a project is told to others
it is no longer exclusively your own_. They would like to interfere in the
matter, and I do not choose that these _commonplace people should do so,
both for_ my _own sake and Carl’s_. Over their portico is inscribed, in
golden letters, “Educational Institution,” whereas “_Non_-Educational
Institution” would be more appropriate.

As for the servants, there is only _one voice_ about their immorality, to
which _all_ the other annoyances here may be ascribed.

Pray receive my benediction in place of that of the Klosterneuburgers.[1]

In haste, your friend,


[Footnote 1: Frau von Streicher was at that time in Klosterneuburg.]



Judgment was executed to-day on the notorious criminal! She bore it nearly
in the same spirit as Caesar did Brutus’s dagger, except that in the former
case truth formed the basis, while in hers only wicked malice. The
kitchen-maid seems more handy than the former _ill-conducted beauty_; she
no longer shows herself,–a sign that she does not expect a _good
character_ from me, though I really had some thoughts of giving her one.
The kitchen-maid at first made rather a wry face about carrying wood, &c.



Last day of December, 1816.

I have been again obliged to keep my room ever since the Burgher
concert,[1] and some time must no doubt elapse before I shall be able to
dismiss all precautions as to my health. The year is about to close; and
with this new year my warmest wishes are renewed for the welfare of Y.R.H.;
but indeed these have neither beginning nor end with me, for every day I
cherish the same aspirations for Y.R.H. If I may venture to add a wish for
myself to the foregoing, it is, that I may daily thrive and prosper more in
Y.R.H.’s good graces. The master will always strive not to be unworthy of
the favor of his illustrious master and pupil.


[Footnote 1: Beethoven directed his A major Symphony in the Burgher concert
in the Royal Redoutensaal on the 25th December, 1816.]



… As to his mother, she urgently requested to see Carl in my house. You
have sometimes seen me tempted to place more confidence in her, and my
feelings would lead me to guard against harshness towards her, especially
as it is not in her power to injure Carl. But you may well imagine that to
one usually so independent of others, the annoyances to which I am exposed
through Carl are often utterly insupportable, and above all with regard to
his mother; I am only too glad to hear nothing of her, which is the cause
of my avoiding her name. With respect to Carl, I beg you will enforce the
strictest discipline on him, and if he refuses to obey your orders or to do
his duty, I trust you will at once _punish_ him. Treat him as if he were
your own child rather than a _mere pupil_, for I already told you that
during his father’s lifetime he only submitted to the discipline of blows,
which was a bad system; still, such was the fact, and we must not forget

If you do not see much of me, pray ascribe it solely to the little
inclination I have for society, which is sometimes more developed and
sometimes less; and this you might attribute to a change in my feelings,
but it is not so. What is good alone lives in my memory, and not what is
painful. Pray impute therefore solely to these hard times my not more
practically showing my gratitude to you on account of Carl. God, however,
directs all things; so my position may undergo a favorable change, when I
shall hasten to show you how truly I am, with sincere esteem, your grateful


I beg you will read this letter to Carl.



Carl must be at H.B.’s to-day before four o’clock; I must request you
therefore to ask his professor to dismiss him at half-past three o’clock;
if this cannot be managed he must not go into school at all. In the latter
case, I will come myself and fetch him; in the former, I will meet him in
the passage of the University. To avoid all confusion, I beg for an
explicit answer as to what you settle. As you have been loudly accused of
showing great party feeling, I will take Carl myself. If you do not see me,
attribute it to my distress of mind, for I am now only beginning to feel
the full force of this terrible incident.[1]

In haste, your


[Footnote 1: Probably the reversal of the first decree in the lawsuit with
Carl’s mother, who in order to procure a verdict more favorable to her
claims, pointed out to the Austrian “Landrecht,” where the lawsuit had been
hitherto carried on, an error in their proceedings, the “Van,” prefixed to
Beethoven’s name, having been considered by them a sign of nobility.
Beethoven was cited to appear, and on the appointed day, pointing to his
head and his heart, he said, “My nobility is here, and here.” The
proceedings were then transferred to the “magistrate,” who was in universal
bad odor from his mode of conducting his business.]



The assertions of this wicked woman have made such a painful impression on
me, that I cannot possibly answer every point to-day; to-morrow you shall
have a detailed account of it all; but on no pretext whatever allow her to
have access to Carl, and adhere to your rule that she is only to see him
once a month. As she has been once this month already, she cannot come
again till the next.

In haste, your






I sincerely rejoice that we take the same view as to the terms in use to
denote the proper time in music which have descended to us from barbarous
times. For example, what can be more irrational than the general term
_allegro_, which only means _lively_; and how far we often are from
comprehending the real time, so that the piece itself _contradicts the
designation_. As for the four chief movements,–which are, indeed, far from
possessing the truth or accuracy of the four cardinal points,–we readily
agree _to dispense with them_, but it is quite another matter as to the
words that indicate the character of the music; these we cannot consent to
do away with, for while the time is, as it were, part and parcel of the
piece, the _words denote the spirit in which it is conceived_.

So far as I am myself concerned, I have long purposed giving up those
inconsistent terms _allegro_, _andante_, _adagio_, and _presto_; and
Maelzel’s metronome furnishes us with the best opportunity of doing so. I
here _pledge_ myself _no longer_ to make use of them in any of my new
compositions. It is another question whether we can by this means attain
the necessary universal use of the metronome. I scarcely think we shall! I
make no doubt that we shall be loudly proclaimed as _despots_; but if the
cause itself were to derive benefit from this, it would at least be better
than to incur the reproach of Feudalism! In our country, where music has
become a national requirement, and where the use of the metronome must be
enjoined on every village schoolmaster, the best plan would be for Maelzel
to endeavor to sell a certain number of metronomes by subscription, at the
present higher prices, and as soon as the number covers his expenses, he
can sell the metronomes demanded by the national requirements at so cheap a
rate, that we may certainly anticipate their _universal use_ and
_circulation_. Of course some persons must take the lead in giving an
impetus to the undertaking. You may safely rely on my doing what is in my
power, and I shall be glad to hear what post you mean to assign to me in
the affair.

I am, sir, with esteem, your obedient





We beg you to give us bank-notes for twenty-four gold ducats at yesterday’s
rate of exchange, and to send them to us this evening or to-morrow, in
order that we may forthwith _remit_ and _transmit_ them. I should be glad
and happy if your trustworthy Adjutant were to bring me these, as I have
something particular to say to him. He must forget all his resentment, like
a good Christian; we acknowledge his merits and do not contest his
demerits. In short, and once for all, we wish to see him. This evening
would suit us best.

We have the honor to remain, most astounding Lieutenant-General! your


[Footnote 1: Beethoven styled himself “Generalissimus,” Herr A. Steiner
“Lieutenant-General,” and his partner, Tobias Haslinger, “Adjutant” and




After due consideration, and by the advice of our Council, we have
determined and decreed that henceforth on all our works published with
German titles, the word _Pianoforte_ is to be replaced by that of _Hammer
Clavier_, and our worthy Lieutenant-General, his Adjutant, and all whom it
may concern, are charged with the execution of this order.

Instead of Pianoforte–_Hammer Clavier_.

Such is our will and pleasure.

Given on the 23d of January, 1817, by the _Generalissimus_.

_Manu propria._



The following dedication occurred to me of my new Sonata:–

“Sonata for the Pianoforte,
_Hammer Clavier_.
Composed and dedicated to Frau Baronin Dorothea
Ertmann–née Graumann,
Ludwig van Beethoven.”

If the title is already engraved, I have the two following proposals to
make; viz., that I pay for one title–I mean that it should be at my
expense, or reserved for another new sonata of mine, for which purpose the
mines of the Lieutenant-General (or _pleno titulo_, Lieutenant-General and
First Councillor of State) must be opened to usher it into the light of
day; the title to be previously shown to a good linguist. _Hammer Clavier_
is certainly German, and so is the device. Honor to whom honor is due! How
is it, then, that I have as yet received no reports of the carrying out of
my orders, which, however, have no doubt been attended to?

Ever and always your attached

ad Amicum
de Amico._

[Music: Treble clef.
O Ad-ju-tant!]

N.B. I beg you will observe the most profound silence about the dedication,
as I wish it to be a surprise!



Jan. 30, 1817.


You seem to place me on a level with Schuppanzigh, &c., and have distorted
the plain and simple meaning of my words. You are not my debtor, but I am
yours, and now you make me so more than ever. I cannot express to you the
pain your gift has caused me, and I must candidly say that I cannot give
you one friendly glance _in return_. Although you confine yourself to the
practice of music, still you have often recourse to the power of
imagination, and it seems to me that this not unfrequently leads to
uncalled-for caprice on your part; at least, so it appeared to me from your
letter after my dedication. Loving as my sentiments are towards you, and
much as I prize all your goodness, still I feel provoked!–much
provoked!–terribly provoked!

Your debtor afresh,

Who will, however, contrive to have his revenge,


End of Project Gutenberg’s Beethoven’s Letters 1790-1826, Vol. 1 of 2
by Lady Wallace


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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Beethoven’s Letters 1790-1826 Vol. 2, by Lady Wallace This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at Title: Beethoven’s Letters 1790-1826 Vol. 2 Author: Lady Wallace Release Date: August 25, 2004 [EBook #13272] Language: English *** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK BEETHOVEN’S LETTERS 1790-1826 *** Produced by Juliet Sutherland, John Williams and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team. BEETHOVEN’S LETTERS. (1790-1826.) FROM THE COLLECTION OF DR. LUDWIG NOHL. ALSO HIS LETTERS TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH, CARDINAL-ARCHBISHOP OF OLMÜTZ, K.W., FROM THE COLLECTION OF DR. LUDWIG RITTER VON KÖCHEL. TRANSLATED BY LADY WALLACE. _WITH A PORTRAIT AND FAC-SIMILE._ IN TWO VOLUMES. VOL. II. BOSTON: OLIVER DITSON & CO., 277 WASHINGTON STREET. NEW YORK: C.H. DITSON & CO. CONTENTS OF VOLUME II. SECOND PART. LIFE’S MISSION. 1815-1822. (_Continued._) 216. To Steiner & Co. 217. To the Same 218. To Tobias Haslinger 219. To the Same 220. To Baroness Dorothea von Ertmann 221. To Zmeskall 222. To Steiner & Co. 223. To G. del Rio 224. To the Same 225. To the Same 226. To the Same 227. To the Same 228. To Czerny 229. To the Same 230. To the Same 231. To Zmeskall 232. To G. del Rio 233. To Frau von Streicher 234. To the Same 235. To the Same 236. To F. Ries, London 237. To Zmeskall 238. To the Same 239. To Frau von Streicher 240. To G. del. Rio 241. To Zmeskall 242. To the Same 243. To the Same 244. To the Same 245. To Frau von Streicher 246. To the Same 247. To the Same 248. To the Same 249. To the Archduke Rudolph 250. To G. del Rio 251. To the Same 252. To the Archduke Rudolph 253. To G. del Rio 254. To the Same 255. To Czerny 256. To F. Ries, London 257. To the Rechnungsrath Vincenz Hauschka 258. To the Archduke Rudolph 259. To the Same 260. To Ferdinand Ries 261. To the Same 262. To the Same 263. To the Philharmonic Society in Laibach 264. To Ferdinand Ries, London 265. To the Archduke Rudolph 266. To the Same 267. To the Same 268. To the Same 269. To the Same 270. To the Same 271. To the Same 272. To the Same 273. To the Same 274. To the Same 275. To the Same 276. To Herr Blöchlinger 277. Canon on Herr Schlesinger 278. To Artaria, Vienna 279. A Sketch by Beethoven 280. To Artaria 281. Petition to the Magistracy 282. To F. Ries, London 283. To the Archduke Rudolph 284. Memorandum 285. To the Archduke Rudolph 286. To the Same 287. To the Royal and Imperial High Court of Appeal 288. To the Archduke Rudolph 289. Testimonial in favor of Herr von Kandeler 290. To Theodore Amadeus Hoffmann 291. To Haslinger 292. To the Same 293. To the Archduke Rudolph 294. To the Same 295. To Artaria & Co. 296. To Bolderini 297. To the Archduke Rudolph 298. To Artaria & Co. 299. To Haslinger 300. To the Archduke Rudolph 301. To the Same 302. To Steiner & Co. 303. To a Friend 304. To the Archduke Rudolph 305. To F. Ries, London 306. To Herren Peters & Co., Leipzig 307. To the Same 308. To the Same 309. To Artaria 310. To Herr Peters, Leipzig 311. To the Archduke Rudolph 312. To Herr Peters, Leipzig 313. To F. Ries, London 314. To Ignaz Ritter von Seyfried THIRD PART. LIFE’S TROUBLES AND CLOSE 1823-1827. 315. To Zelter 316. To F. Ries, London 317. To Schindler 318. To the Same 319. To Herr Kind 320. To Cherubini 321. To Schindler 322. To Herr Peters, Leipzig 323. To Zelter 324. To the Archduke Rudolph 325. To Schindler 326. To F. Ries, London 327. To Herr Lissner, Petersburg 328. To Schindler 329. To the Same 330. To the Same 331. To the Same 332. To the Same 333. To the Same 334. To the Same 335. To the Same 336. To the Archduke Rudolph 337. To Schindler 338. To Pilat, editor of the “Austrian Observer” 339. To Schindler 340. To the Same 341. To the Same 342. To the Same 343. To the Same 344. To the Same 345. To the Archduke Rudolph 346. To F. Ries 347. To Herr von Könneritz 348. To Herr von Könneritz 349. To Schindler 350. To his Nephew 351. To the Archduke Rudolph 352. To the Same 353. To the Same 354. To F. Ries, London 355. To the Same 356. To the Archduke Rudolph 357. To the Same 358. To Schindler 359. To the Same 360. To the Same 361. To Herr Grillparzer 362. To Herr Probst, Leipzig 363. To Schindler 364. To Herr von Rzehatschek 365. To Prince Trautmannsdorf 366. To Count Moritz Lichnowsky 367. To Herr Schuppanzigh 368. To Schindler 369. To Herr von Sartorius 370. To Schindler 371. To the Same 372. To the Same 373. To the Same 374. To the Same 375. To Steiner & Co 376. To Haslinger 377. To Steiner & Co 378. To Haslinger 379. To the Same 380. To the Same 381. To M. Diabelli 382. To Herr Probst, Leipzig 383. To Haslinger 384. To Herr Schott, Mayence 385. To the Archduke Rudolph 386. To his Nephew 387. To Herr Peters 388. To Hans Georg Nägeli, Zurich 389. To his Nephew 390. To Herr Nägeli 391. To Herr Schott, Mayence 392. To Hauschka 393. To Herr Nägeli, Zurich 394. To the Archduke Rudolph 395. To Herr Schott, Mayence 396. To Carl Holz 397. To the Same 398. To Herr Schott, Mayence 399. To Friends 400. To Schindler 401. To Linke 402. To * * * 403. To F. Ries 404. To Herr Jenger, Vienna 405. To Schott 406. To Ludwig Rellstab 407. To * * * 408. To his brother Johann 409. To Herr von Schlemmer 410. To his Nephew 411. To the Same 412. To Dr. Braunhofer 413. To his Nephew 414. To the Same 415. To the Same 416. To the Same 417. To his Nephew 418. To the Same 419. To the Same 420. To the Same 421. To the Same 422. To the Same 423. To the Same 424. To the Same 425. To the Same 426. To the Same 427. To the Same 428. To the Same 429. To the Same 430. To the Same 431. To the Same 432. To the Same 433. To the Same 434. To his brother Johann, Gneixendorf 435. To his Nephew 436. To the Same 437. To the Same 438. To his Copyist 439. To his Nephew 440. To the Same 441. To Zmeskall 442. To Herr Friedrich Kuhlau 443. To his Nephew 444. To the Same 445. To Herr von Schlesinger 446. To his Nephew 447. To the Same 448. To the Same 449. To the Same 450. To the Abbé Maximilian Stadler 451. To Gottfried Weber 452. To Herr Probst, Leipzig 453. To Stephan von Breuning 454. To the Same 455. To the Same 456. Testimonial for C. Holz 457. To C. Holz 458. To the King of Prussia 459. To Wegeler 460. To Tobias Haslinger 461. To the Same 462. To Carl Holz 463. To Dr. Bach 464. To Wegeler 465. To Sir George Smart, London 466. To Herr Moscheles 467. To Schindler 468. To Baron von Pasqualati 469. To the Same 470. To Sir George Smart, London 471. To Baron von Pasqualati 472. To the Same 473. To Herr Moscheles 474. To Schindler 475. To Herr Moscheles 476. Codicil BEETHOVEN’S LETTERS. 216. TO STEINER & CO. The Adjutant’s innocence is admitted, and there is an end of it! We beg you to be so good as to send us two copies in score of the Symphony in A. We likewise wish to know when we may expect a copy of the Sonata for Baroness von Ertmann, as she leaves this, most probably, the day after to-morrow. No. 3–I mean the enclosed note–is from a musical friend in Silesia, not a rich man, for whom I have frequently had my scores written out. He wishes to have these works of Mozart in his library; as my servant, however, has the good fortune, by the grace of God, to be one of the greatest blockheads in the world (which is saying a good deal), I cannot make use of him for this purpose. Be so kind therefore as to send to Herr —- (for the _Generalissimus_ can have no dealings with a petty tradesman), and desire him to _write down the price of each work_ and send it to me with my two scores in A, and also an answer to my injunction about Ertmann, as early to-day as you can (_presto, prestissimo_!)–_nota bene_, the _finale_ to be _a march in double-quick time_. I recommend the best execution of these orders, so that no further obstacle may intervene to my recovery. L. VAN BEETHOVEN, The best _generalissimus_ for the good, But the devil himself for the bad! 217. TO STEINER. The Lieutenant-General is requested to send his _Diabolum_, that I may tell him myself my opinion of the “Battle,” which is _printed in the vilest manner_. There is much to be altered. THE G—-S. 218. TO TOBIAS HASLINGER. MY GOOD ADJUTANT,– Best of all little fellows! Do see again about that house, and get it for me. I am very anxious also to procure _the treatise on education_. It is of some importance to me to be able to compare my own opinions on this subject with those of others, and thus still further improve them. As for our juvenile Adjutant, I think I shall soon have hit on the right system for his education. Your CONTRA FA, _Manu propria._ 219. TO THE HIGH-BORN HERR HASLINGER, HONORARY MEMBER OF THE HÖFEN GRABENS AND PATER NOSTER GÄSSCHEN. BEST OF ALL PRINTERS AND ENGRAVERS,– Be kinder than kind, and throw off a hundred impressions of the accompanying small plate.[1] I will repay you threefold and fourfold. Farewell! Your BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: This is possibly the humorous visiting-card that Beethoven sometimes sent to his friends, with the inscription _Wir bleiben die Alten_ (“We are the same as ever”), and on reversing the card, a couple of asses stared them in the face! Frau Eyloff told me of a similar card that her brother Schindler once got from Beethoven on a New Year’s day.] 220. TO BARONESS DOROTHEA VON ERTMANN.[1] Feb. 23, 1817. MY DEAR AND VALUED DOROTHEA CECILIA,– You have no doubt often misjudged me, from my apparently forbidding manner; much of this arose from circumstances, especially in earlier days, when my nature was less understood than at present. You know the manifestations of those self-elected apostles who promote their interests by means very different from those of the true Gospel. I did not wish to be included in that number. Receive now what has been long intended for you,[2] and may it serve as a proof of my admiration of your artistic talent, and likewise of yourself! My not having heard you recently at Cz—- [Czerny’s] was owing to indisposition, which at last appears to be giving way to returning health. I hope soon to hear how you get on at St. Polten [where her husband’s regiment was at that time quartered], and whether you still think of your admirer and friend, L. VAN BEETHOVEN. My kindest regards to your excellent husband. [Footnote 1: It was admitted that she played Beethoven’s compositions with the most admirable taste and feeling. Mendelssohn thought so in 1830 at Milan, and mentions it in his _Letters from Italy and Switzerland_.] [Footnote 2: Undoubtedly the Sonata dedicated to her, Op. 101.] 221. TO ZMESKALL. DEAR Z.,– I introduce to your notice the bearer of this, young Bocklet, who is a very clever violin-player. If you can be of any service to him through your acquaintances, do your best for him, especially as he is warmly recommended to me from Prague.[1] As ever, your true friend, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Carl Maria Bocklet, a well-known and distinguished pianist in Vienna. He told me himself that he came for the first time to Vienna in 1817, where he stayed six weeks. On April 8th he gave a violin concert in the _Kleine Redoutensaale_. He brought a letter of introduction to Beethoven, from his friend Dr. Berger in Prague.] 222. TO STEINER & CO. The Lieutenant-General is desired to afford all aid and help to the young artist Bocklet from Prague. He is the bearer of this note, and a virtuoso on the violin. We hope that our command will be obeyed, especially as we subscribe ourselves, with the most vehement regard, your GENERALISSIMUS. 223. TO G. DEL RIO. I only yesterday read your letter attentively at home. I am prepared to give up Carl to you at any moment, although I think it best not to do so till after the examination on Monday; but I will send him sooner if you wish it. At all events it would be advisable afterwards to remove him from here, and to send him to Mölk, or some place where he will neither see nor hear anything more of his abominable mother. When he is in the midst of strangers, he will meet with less support, and find that he can only gain the love and esteem of others by his own merits. In haste, your BEETHOVEN. 224. TO G. DEL RIO. I request you, my dear friend, to inquire whether in any of the houses in your vicinity there are lodgings to be had at Michaelmas, consisting of a few rooms. You must not fail to do this for me to-day or to-morrow. Your friend, L. VAN BEETHOVEN. P.S.–N.B. Though I would gladly profit by your kind offer of living in your garden-house, various circumstances render this impossible. My kind regards to all your family. 225. TO G. DEL RIO. HOUSE OF GIANNATASIO!– The treatise on the piano is a general one,–that is, it is a kind of compendium. Besides, I am pleased with the Swiss [probably Weber, a young musician who had been recommended to him], but the “Guaden” is no longer the fashion. In haste, the devoted servant and friend of the Giannatasio family, BEETHOVEN. 226. TO G. DEL RIO. You herewith receive through Carl, my dear friend, the ensuing quarter due to you. I beg you will attend more to the cultivation of his feelings and kindness of heart, as the latter in particular is the lever of all that is good; and no matter how a man’s kindly feeling may be ridiculed or depreciated, still our greatest authors, such as Goethe and others, consider it an admirable quality; indeed, many maintain that without it no man can ever be very distinguished, nor can any depth of character exist. My time is too limited to say more, but we can discuss verbally how in my opinion Carl ought to be treated on this point. Your friend and servant, L. VAN BEETHOVEN. Alser Vorstadt–Beim Apfel, 2ter Étage, No. 12, Leiberz, Dressmaker. 227. TO G. DEL RIO. This is at any rate the first time that it has been necessary to remind me of an agreeable duty; very pressing business connected with my art, as well as other causes, made me totally forget the account, but this shall not occur again. As for my servant bringing home Carl in the evening, the arrangement is already made. In the mean time I thank you for having been so obliging as to send your servant for him yesterday, as I knew nothing about it, so that Carl probably must otherwise have remained at Czerny’s. Carl’s boots are too small, and he has repeatedly complained of this; indeed, they are so bad that he can scarcely walk, and it will take some time before they can be altered to fit him. This kind of thing ruins the feet, so I beg you will not allow him to wear them again till they are made larger. With regard to his pianoforte studies, I beg you will keep him strictly to them; otherwise his music-master would be of no use. Yesterday Carl could not play the whole day, I have repeatedly wished to hear him play over his lessons, but have been obliged to come away without doing so. “_La musica merita d’esser studiata._” Besides, the couple of hours now appointed for his music lessons are quite insufficient. I must therefore the more earnestly urge on you their being strictly adhered to. It is by no means unusual that this point should be attended to in an institute; an intimate friend of mine has also a boy at school, who is to become a professor of music, where every facility for study is afforded him; indeed, I was rather struck by finding the boy quite alone in a distant room practising, neither disturbing others, nor being himself disturbed. I beg you will allow me to send for Carl to-morrow about half-past ten o’clock, as I wish to see what progress he has made, and to take him with me to some musicians. I am, with all possible esteem, your friend, L. VAN BEETHOVEN. 228. TO CZERNY. DEAR CZERNY,– I beg you will treat Carl with as much patience as possible; for though he does not as yet get on quite as you and I could wish, still I fear he will soon do even less, because (though I do not want him to know it) he is over-fatigued by the injudicious distribution of his lesson hours. Unluckily it is not easy to alter this; so pray, however strict you may be, show him every indulgence, which will, I am sure, have also a better effect on Carl under such unfavorable circumstances. With respect to his playing with you, when he has finally acquired the proper mode of fingering, and plays in right time, and gives the notes with tolerable correctness, you must only then first direct his attention to the mode of execution; and when he is sufficiently advanced, do not stop his playing on account of little mistakes, but only point them out at the end of the piece. Although I have myself given very little instruction, I have always followed this system, which quickly forms a _musician_; and this is, after all, one of the first objects of art, and less fatiguing both to master and scholar. In certain passages, like the following,– [Music: Treble clef, sixteenth notes.] I wish all the fingers to be used; and also in similar ones, such as these,– [Music: Treble clef, sixteenth notes.] &c. [Music: Treble clef, sixteenth notes.] &c. so that they may go very smoothly; such passages can indeed be made to sound very _perlés_, or like a pearl, played by fewer fingers, but sometimes we wish for a different kind of jewel.[1] More as to this some other time. I hope that you will receive these suggestions in the same kindly spirit in which they are offered and intended. In any event I am, and ever must remain, your debtor. May my candor serve as a pledge of my wish to discharge this debt at some future day! Your true friend, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Carl Czerny relates in the Vienna _A.M. Zeitung_ of 1845, No. 113, as follows:–“Beethoven came to me usually every day himself with the boy, and used to say to me, ‘You must not think that you please me by making Carl play my works; I am not so childish as to wish anything of the kind. Give him whatever you think best.’ I named Clementi. ‘Yes, yes,’ said he, ‘Clementi is very good indeed;’ and, added he, laughing, ‘Give Carl occasionally what is _according to rule_, that he may hereafter come to what is _contrary to rule_.’ After a hit of this sort, which he introduced into almost every speech, he used to burst into a loud peal of laughter. Having in the earlier part of his career been often reproached by the critics with his _irregularities_, he was in the habit of alluding to this with gay humor.”] 229. TO CZERNY. DEAR CZERNY,– I beg you will say nothing _on that particular subject_ at Giannatasio’s, who dined with us on the day you were so good as to call on me; he requested this himself. I _will tell you the reason_ when we meet. I hope to be able to prove my gratitude for your patience with my nephew, that I may not always remain your debtor. In haste, Your friend, BEETHOVEN. 230. TO CZERNY. DEAR CZERNY,– Can you in any way assist the man I now send to you (a pianoforte maker and tuner from Baden) in selling his instruments? Though small in size, their manufacture is solid. In haste, Your friend, BEETHOVEN. 231. TO ZMESKALL. Wednesday, July 3, 1817. DEAR ZMESKALL,– I have changed my mind. It might hurt the feelings of Carl’s mother to see her child in the house of a stranger, which would be more harsh than I like; so I shall allow her to come to my house to-morrow; a certain tutor at Puthon, of the name of Bihler, will also be present. I should be _extremely_ glad if you could be with me about six o’clock, but not later. Indeed, I earnestly beg you to come, as I am desirous to show the Court that you are present, for there is no doubt that a _Court Secretary_ will be held in higher estimation by them than a man _without an official character, whatever his moral character may be!_ Now, jesting apart, independent of my real affection for you, your coming will be of great service to me. I shall therefore expect you without fail. I beg you will not take my _badinage_ amiss. I am, with sincere esteem, Your friend, BEETHOVEN 232. TO G. DEL RIO. Your friend has no doubt told you of my intention to send for Carl early to-morrow. I wish to place his mother in a more creditable position with the neighborhood; so I have agreed to pay her the compliment of taking her son to see her in the company of a third person. This is to be done once a month. As to all that is past, I beg you will never allude to it again, either in speaking or writing, but forget it all–as I do. 233. TO FRAU VON STREICHER. I have been occupied in arranging my papers; an immense amount of patience is required for such an affair as putting them in order, but having once summoned it to our aid we must persevere, or the matter would never be completed. My papers, both musical and unmusical, are nearly arranged at last; it was like one of the seven labors of Hercules![1] [Footnote 1: Ries (in Wegeler’s _Notizen_) relates: “Beethoven placed very little value on the MSS. of his pieces written out by himself; when once engraved they were usually scattered about the anteroom, or on the floor in the middle of his apartment, together with other music. I often arranged his music for him, but the moment Beethoven began to search for any piece, it was all strewed about again.”] 234. TO FRAU VON STREICHER. You see what servants are! [He had gone out and taken the key with him.] Such is housekeeping! So long as I am ill, I would fain be on a different footing with those around me; for dearly as I usually love solitude, it is painful to me now, finding it scarcely possible, while taking baths and medicine, to employ myself as usual,–to which is added the grievous prospect that I may perhaps never get better. I place no confidence in my present physician, who at length pronounces my malady to be _disease of the lungs_. I will consider about engaging a housekeeper. If I could only have the faintest hope, in this corrupt Austrian State, of finding an honest person, the arrangement would be easily made; but–but!! [He wishes to hire a piano and pay for it in advance; the tone to be as loud as possible, to suit his defective hearing.] Perhaps you do not know, though I have not always had one of your pianos, that since 1809 I have invariably preferred yours. It is peculiarly hard on me to be a burden on any one, being accustomed rather to serve others than to be served by them. 235. TO FRAU VON STREICHER. I can only say that I am better; I thought much of death during the past night, but such thoughts are familiar to me by day also. 236. TO F. RIES,–LONDON. Vienna, July 9, 1817. MY DEAR FRIEND,– The proposals in your esteemed letter of the 9th of June are very flattering, and my reply will show you how much I value them. Were it not for my unhappy infirmities, which entail both attendance and expense, particularly on a journey to a foreign country, I would _unconditionally_ accept the offer of the Philharmonic Society. But place yourself in my position, and consider how many more obstacles I have to contend with than any other artist, and then judge whether my demands (which I now annex) are unreasonable. I beg you will convey my conditions to the Directors of the above Society, namely:– 1. I shall be in London early in January. 2. The two grand new symphonies shall be ready by that time; to become the exclusive property of the Society. 3. The Society to give me in return 300 guineas, and 100 for my travelling expenses, which will, however, amount to much more, as I am obliged to bring a companion. 4. As I am now beginning to work at these grand symphonies for the Society, I shall expect that (on receiving my consent) they will remit me here the sum of 150 guineas, so that I may provide a carriage, and make my other preparations at once for the journey. 5. The conditions as to my non-appearance in any other public orchestra, my not directing, and the preference always to be given to the Society on the offer of equal terms by them, are accepted by me; indeed, they would at all events have been dictated by my own sense of honor. 6. I shall expect the aid of the Society in arranging one, or more, benefit concerts in my behalf, as the case may be. The very friendly feeling of some of the Directors in your valuable body, and the kind reception of my works by all the artists, is a sufficient guaranty on this point, and will be a still further inducement to me to endeavor not to disappoint their expectations. 7. I request that I may receive the assent to and confirmation of these terms, signed by three Directors in the name of the Society. You may easily imagine how much I rejoice at the thoughts of becoming acquainted with the worthy Sir George Smart [Music Director], and seeing you and Mr. Neate again; would that I could fly to you myself instead of this letter! Your sincere well wisher and friend, LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN. [P.S. ON A SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER.] DEAR RIES,– I cordially embrace you! I have purposely employed another hand in my answer to the Society, that you might read it more easily, and present it to them. I place the most implicit reliance on your kindly feelings toward me. I hope that the Philharmonic Society may accept my proposals, and they may rest assured that I shall employ all my energies to fulfil in the most satisfactory manner the flattering commission of so eminent a society of artists. What is the strength of your orchestra? How many violins, &c.? Have you _one or two sets of wind instruments_? Is the concert room large and sonorous? 237. TO ZMESKALL. NUSSDORF, July 23, 1817. MY DEAR GOOD ZMESKALL,– I shall soon see you again in town. What is the proper price for fronting a pair of boots? I have to pay my servant for this, who is always running about. I am really in despair at being condemned by my defective hearing to pass the greater part of my life with this most odious class of people, and to be in some degree dependent on them. To-morrow, early, my servant will call on you, and bring me back a _sealed answer_. 238. TO ZMESKALL. August 12, 1817. MY DEAR GOOD Z.,– I heard of your indisposition with great regret. As for myself, I am often in despair, and almost tempted to put an end to my life, for all these remedies seem to have no end. May God have compassion on me, for I look upon myself to be as good as lost! I have a great deal to say to you. That this servant is a _thief_, I cannot doubt–he must be sent away; my health requires living _at home_ and greater comfort. I shall be glad to have your opinion on this point. If my condition is not altered, instead of being in London I shall probably be in my grave. I thank God that the thread of my life will soon be spun out. In haste, your BEETHOVEN. N.B. I wish you to buy me a quarter of a yard of green wax-cloth, green on both sides. It seems incredible that I have not been able to get anything of the kind from these _green_ people here. It is far…. [illegible]. [X. brought the Trio in C minor (Op. 1, No. 3) to show to Beethoven, having arranged it as a quintet for stringed instruments (published by Artaria as Op. 104). Beethoven evidently discovered a good many faults in the work; still, the undertaking had sufficient attractions to induce him to correct it himself, and to make many changes in it. A very different score was thus of course produced from that of X., on the cover of whose work the genial master, in a fit of good humor, inscribed with his own hand the following title:– A Terzet arranged as a Quintet, by _Mr. Well-meaning_, translated from the semblance into the reality of five parts, and exalted from the depths of wretchedness to a certain degree of excellence, by _Mr. Goodwill_. Vienna, Aug. 14, 1817. N.B. The original three-part score of the Quintet has been sacrificed as a solemn burnt-offering to the subterranean gods.][1] [Footnote 1: This Quintet appeared as Op. 104 at Artaria’s in Vienna.] 239. TO FRAU VON STREICHER. When we next meet, you will be surprised to hear what I have in the mean time learned. My poor Carl was only misled for the moment; but there are men who are brutes, and of this number is the priest here, who deserves to be well cudgelled. 240. TO G. DEL RIO. August 19, 1817. I unluckily received your letter yesterday too late, for she had already been here; otherwise I would have shown her to the door, as she richly deserved. I sincerely thank Fraulein N. for the trouble she took in writing down the gossip of this woman. Though an enemy to all tattling and gossip, still this is of importance to us; so I shall write to her, and also give her letter to me to Herr A.S. [Advocate Schönauer?] I may possibly have let fall some words in her presence in reference to the recent occurrence, and the irregularity on your part, but I cannot in the slightest degree recall ever having written to her about you. It was only an attempt on her side to exasperate you against me; and thus to influence you and obtain more from you, in the same way that she formerly reported to me all sorts of things that you had said about me; but I took no heed of her talk. On this recent occasion I wished to try whether she might not be improved by a more patient and conciliatory mode of conduct: I imparted my intention to Herr A.S., but it has utterly failed; and on Sunday I made up my mind to adhere to the former necessary severity, as even during the glimpse she had of Carl, she contrived to inoculate him with some of her venom. In short, we must be guided by the zodiac, and only allow her to see Carl twelve times a year, and then barricade her so effectually that she cannot smuggle in even a pin, whether he is with you or me, or with a third person. I really thought that by entirely complying with her wishes, it might have been an incitement to her to improve, and to acknowledge my complete unselfishness. Perhaps I may see you to-morrow. Frau S. can order the shoes and stockings and all that Carl requires, and I will remit her the money at once. I beg that you will always order and buy anything Carl ought to have, without any reference to me, merely informing me of the amount, which I will forthwith discharge, without waiting for the end of the quarter. I will take care that Carl has a new coat for the next examination. One thing more. The mother affects to receive her information from a person in your house. If you cannot arrange with Czerny to bring Carl home, he must not go at all; “_trau, schau, wem!_” [trust not till you try.] The only impression that his mother ought to make on Carl is what I have already told him,–namely, to respect her as _his mother_, but _not to follow her example in any respect_; he must be strongly warned against this. Yours truly, L. V. BEETHOVEN. 241. TO ZMESKALL. Sept. 11, 1817. DEAR Z.,– The answer from London arrived yesterday [see No. 236], but in English. Do you know any one who could translate it verbally for us? In haste, Your BEETHOVEN. 242. TO ZMESKALL. Oct. 20, 1817. DEAR Z.,– The devil himself cannot persuade your _Famulus_ to take away the wine. Pray forgive my behavior yesterday; I intended to have asked your pardon this very afternoon. _In my present condition_ I require _indulgence_ from every one, for I am a poor unfortunate creature! In haste, as ever, yours. 243. TO ZMESKALL. DEAR Z.,– I give up the journey; at least I will not pledge myself on this point. The matter must be more maturely considered. In the mean time the work is already sent off to the Prince Regent. _If they want me they can have me_, and I am still at _liberty_ to say _yes_! or _no_! Liberty!!!! what more can any one desire!!! 244. TO ZMESKALL. DEAR Z.,– Don’t be angry about my note. Are you not aware of my present condition, which is like that of Hercules with Queen Omphale??? I asked you to buy me a looking-glass like yours, which I now return, but if you do not require it, I wish you would send yours back to me to-day, for mine is broken. Farewell, and do not write in such high-flown terms about me, for never have I felt so strongly as now the strength and the weakness of human nature. Continue your regard for me. 245. TO FRAU VON STREICHER. The Autumn of 1817. I have had an interview with your husband, whose sympathy did me both good and harm, for Streicher almost upset my resignation. God alone knows the result! but as I have always assisted my fellow-men when I had the power to do so, I also rely on his mercy to me. Educate your daughter carefully, that she may make a good wife. To-day happens to be Sunday; so I will quote you something out of the Bible,–“Love one another.” I conclude with best regards to your best of daughters, and with the wish that all your wounds may be healed. When you visit the ancient ruins [Frau Streicher was in Baden], do not forget that Beethoven has often lingered there; when you stray through the silent pine forests, do not forget that Beethoven often wrote poetry there, or, as it is termed, _composed_. 246. TO FRAU VON STREICHER. How deeply am I indebted to you, my excellent friend, and I have become such a poor creature that I have no means of repaying you. I am very grateful to Streicher for all the trouble he has taken on my behalf [about a house in the Gärtner Strasse], and beg he will continue his inquiries. God will, I hope, one day enable me to return benefit for benefit, but this being at present impossible, grieves me most of all…. Now Heaven be praised! [he thus winds up a long letter about a bad servant,] I have contrived to collect all these particulars for you with no little toil and trouble, and God grant that I may never, never more be obliged to speak, or write, or think again on such a subject, for mud and mire are not more pernicious to artistic soil, than such devilry to any man!!! 247. TO FRAU VON STREICHER. As to Frau von Stein [stone], I beg she will not allow Herr von Steiner to turn into stone, that he may still be of service to me; nor must Frau von Stein become too stony towards Herr von Steiner, &c. My good Frau von Streicher, do not play any trick [Streiche] to your worthy little husband, but rather be to all others Frau von Stein [stone]!!!! Where are the coverlets for the beds? [Music: Treble clef. Where? where?] 248. TO FRAU VON STREICHER. … It is now very evident from all this that if _you_ do not kindly superintend things for me, I, with my _infirmities_, must meet with the _same fate_ as usual at the hands of these people. Their _ingratitude_ towards you is what chiefly degrades both of them in my eyes. But I don’t understand your allusion about gossip? on one occasion alone can I remember having forgotten myself for the moment, but _with very different people_. This is all I can say on the subject. For my part I neither encourage nor listen to the gossip of the lower orders. I have often given you hints on the subject, without telling you a word of what I had heard. Away! away! away! with such things! 249. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. Nussdorf, Sept. 1, 1817. I hope to be able to join you in Baden; but my invalid condition still continues, and though in some respects improved, my malady is far from being entirely cured. I have had, and still have, recourse to remedies of every kind and shape; I must now give up the long-cherished hope of ever being wholly restored. I hear that Y.R.H. looks wonderfully well, and though many false inferences may be drawn from this as to good health, still every one tells me that Y.R.H. is much better, and in this I feel sincerely interested. I also trust that when Y.R.H. again comes to town, I may assist you in those works dedicated to the Muses. My confidence is placed on Providence, who will vouchsafe to hear my prayer, and one day set me free from all my troubles, for I have served Him faithfully from my childhood, and done good whenever it has been in my power; so my trust is in Him alone, and I feel that the Almighty will not allow me to be utterly crushed by all my manifold trials. I wish Y.R.H. all possible good and prosperity, and shall wait on you the moment you return to town. [K.] 250. TO G. DEL RIO Vienna, Nov. 12, 1817. My altered circumstances render it possible that I may not be able to leave Carl under your care beyond the end of this quarter; so, as in duty bound, I give you this _warning_ a quarter in advance. Though it is painful to admit it, my straitened circumstances leave me no choice in the matter; had it been otherwise, how gladly would I have presented you with an additional quarter’s payment when I removed Carl, as a slight tribute of my gratitude. I do hope you will believe that such are my _genuine and sincere_ wishes on the subject. If on the other hand I leave Carl with you for the ensuing quarter, commencing in February, I will apprise you of it early in January, 1818. I trust you will grant me this _favor_, and that I shall not solicit it in vain. If I ever enjoy better health, so that I can _earn more money_, I shall not fail to evince my gratitude, knowing well how much more you have done for Carl than I had any right to expect; and I can with truth say that to be obliged to confess my inability to requite your services at this moment, distresses me much. I am, with sincere esteem, your friend, L. V. BEETHOVEN. 251. TO G. DEL RIO. MY DEAR FRIEND,– I have been hitherto unable to answer your friendly letter, having been much occupied and still far from well. As to your proposal, it merits both gratitude and consideration. I must say that the same idea formerly occurred to me about Carl; at this moment, however, I am in the most unsettled state. This was why I made the stipulation to which I begged you to agree, namely, to let you know in the last month of the present quarter whether Carl was to continue with you. In this way our plans would neither be hurried nor demolished. I am, besides, well aware that it can be no advantage to you to have Carl either on his present terms, or according to your last proposal, and on that very account I wished to point out to you in my letter how gladly, besides the usual remuneration, I would have testified my gratitude in some additional manner. When I spoke of my _inability_, I knew that his education would cost me even more elsewhere than with you; but what I intended to convey was that every father has a particular object in the education of his child, and it is thus with me and Carl. No doubt we shall soon discover what is best for him; whether to have a tutor here, or to go on as formerly. I do not wish to tie myself down for the moment, but to remain free to act as his interests may dictate. Carl daily costs me great sacrifices, but I only allude to them on his own account. I know too well the influence his mother contrives to acquire over him, for she seems resolved to show herself well worthy of the name of “Queen of the Night.” Besides, she everywhere spreads a report that I do nothing whatever for Carl, whereas she pays everything!! As we have touched on this point, I must thank you for your most considerate letter, which in any event will be of great use to me. Pray ask Herr L.S. to be so kind as to make my excuses to his brother for not having yet called on him. Partly owing to business and also to indisposition, it has been nearly impossible for me to do so. When I think of this oft-discussed affair, I should prefer going to see him on any other subject. She has not applied to me; so it is not my business to promote a meeting between her and her son. With regard to the other matter, I am told that in _this_ case we must have recourse to compulsion, which will cost me more money, for which I have chiefly to thank Herr Adlersburg [his advocate]. As Carl’s education, however, must be carried on so far as possible independent of his mother, for the future as well as the present we must act as I have arranged. I am, with esteem, your attached friend, L. V. BEETHOVEN. 252. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. Last day of December, 1817. The old year has nearly passed away, and a new one draws near. May it bring Y.R.H. no sorrow, but rather may it bestow on you every imaginable felicity! These are my wishes, all concentrated in the one I have just expressed. If it be allowable to speak of myself, I may say that my health is very variable and uncertain. I am unhappily obliged to live at a great distance from Y.R.H., which shall not, however, prevent my having the extreme gratification of waiting on you at the first opportunity. I commend myself to your gracious consideration, though I may not appear to deserve it. May Heaven, for the benefit of so many whom you befriend, enrich each day of your life with an especial blessing! I am always, &c., &c. [K.] 253. TO G. DEL RIO. Jan. 6, 1818. To prevent any mistake I take the liberty to inform you that it is finally settled my nephew Carl should leave your excellent institution the end of this month. My hands are also tied with regard to your other proposal, as if I accepted it, my further projects for Carl’s benefit would be entirely frustrated; but I sincerely thank you for your kind intentions. Circumstances may cause me to remove Carl even before the end of the month, and as I may not be here myself, I will appoint some one to fetch him. I mention this to you now, that it may not appear strange when the time comes; and let me add, that my nephew and I shall feel grateful to you through life. I observe that Carl already feels thus, which is to me a proof that although thoughtless, his disposition is not evil; far less has he a bad heart. I am the more disposed to augur well of him from his having been for two years under your admirable guidance. I am, with esteem, your friend, L. V. BEETHOVEN. 254. TO G. DEL RIO. Vienna, Jan. 24, 1818. I do not come to you myself, as it would be a kind of leave-taking, and this I have all my life avoided. Pray accept my heartfelt thanks for the zeal, rectitude, and integrity with which you have conducted the education of my nephew. As soon as I am at all settled, we mean to pay you a visit; but on account of the mother, I am anxious that the fact of my nephew being with me should not be too much known. I send you my very best wishes, and I beg especially to thank Frau A.Z. for her truly maternal care of Carl. I am, with sincere esteem, yours, L. V. BEETHOVEN. 255. TO CZERNY. MY DEAR GOOD KIND CZERNY,–[1] I have this moment heard that you are in a position I really never suspected; you might certainly place confidence in me, and point out how matters could be made better for you (without any pretensions to patronage on my part). As soon as I have a moment to myself, I must speak to you. Rest assured that I highly value you, and am prepared to prove this at any moment by deeds. Yours, with sincere esteem, L. VAN BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Zellner, in his _Blätter für Musik_, relates what follows on Czerny’s own authority:–In 1818 Czerny was requested by Beethoven in a letter (which he presented some years ago to Cocks, the London music publisher) to play at one of his last concerts in the large _Redoutensaal_, his E flat major Concerto, Op. 73. Czerny answered, in accordance with the truth, that having gained his livelihood entirely for many years past by giving lessons on the piano, for more than twelve hours daily, he had so completely laid aside his pianoforte playing, that he could not venture to attempt playing the concerto properly within the course of a few days (which Beethoven desired). On which he received, in the above letter, a touching proof of Beethoven’s sympathy. He also learned subsequently that Beethoven had exerted himself to procure him a permanent situation.] 256. TO F. RIES,–LONDON. Vienna, March 5, 1818. MY DEAR RIES,– In spite of my wishes it was impossible for me to go to London this year [see No. 236]. I beg you will apprise the Philharmonic Society that my feeble health prevented my coming; I trust, however, I shall be entirely restored this spring, so that in the autumn I may avail myself of their offers and fulfil all their conditions. Pray request Neate, in my name, to make no public use of the various works of mine that he has in his hands, at least not until I come. Whatever he may have to say for himself, I have cause to complain of him. Potter[1] called on me several times; he seems to be a worthy man, and to have a talent for composition. My wish and hope for you is that your circumstances may daily improve. I cannot, alas! say that such is the case with my own…. I cannot bear to see others want, I must give; you may therefore believe what a loser I am by this affair. I do beg that you will write to me soon. If possible I shall try to get away from this earlier, in the hope of escaping utter ruin, in which case I shall arrive in London by the winter at latest. I know that you will assist an unfortunate friend. If it had only been in my power, and had I not been chained to this place, as I always have been, by circumstances, I certainly would have done far more for you. Farewell; remember me to Neate, Smart, and Cramer. Although I hear that the latter is a _counter subject_ both to you and to myself, still I rather understand how to manage people of that kind; so notwithstanding all this we shall yet succeed in producing an agreeable harmony in London. I embrace you from my heart. Your friend, L. VAN BEETHOVEN. Many handsome compliments to your charming, (and as I hear) handsome wife. [Footnote 1: Schindler, in his _Biography_ (Vol. II. 254), states that Cipriani Potter came to Vienna in 1817.] 257. TO THE RECHNUNGSRATH, VINCENZ HAUSCHKA.[1] 1818. First and foremost member of our society, and grand cross of the violon–cello! You wish for an _heroic_ subject, whereas I have none but a _spiritual_ one! I am contented; still, I think an infusion of the spiritual would be quite appropriate in such a mass. I have no objections to H. v. Bernard, but you must pay him; I do not speak of myself. As you call yourselves “Friends of Music,” it is only natural that you should expect a great deal to be done on the score of friendship. Now farewell, my good Hauschka! As for myself, I wander about here with music paper, among the hills and dales and valleys, and scribble a great deal to get my daily bread; for I have brought things to such a pass in this mighty and ignominious _land of the Goths and Vandals_, that in order to gain time for a great composition, I must always previously _scrawl away_ a good deal for the sake of money, to enable me to complete an important work. However, my health is much improved, and if the matter is urgent, I can do as you wish now. In haste, your friend, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Hauschka was at that time on the committee, and agent for the “Friends to Music” who commissioned Beethoven to write an Oratorio in 1815. Schindler is of opinion that the repeated performance of the Abbé Stadler’s heroic Oratorio, _Die Befreiung von Jerusalem_, was the cause of the Society in 1818 bespeaking, through Hauschka, “An oratorio of the heroic order.”] 258. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. 1819. I have the honor to send the masterly variations[1] of Y.R.H. by the copyist Schlemmer, and to-morrow I shall come in person to wait upon Y.R.H., and much rejoice at being able to serve as a companion to my illustrious pupil on the path of fame. [K.] [Footnote 1: The letters 258 and 259, allude to the pianoforte variations composed by the Archduke Rudolph and dedicated to his instructor.] 259. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. Jan. 1, 1819. All that can be comprehended in one wish, or individually named,–health, happiness, and prosperity,–all are included in the prayer I offer up for Y.R.H. on this day. May the wish that I also form for myself be graciously accepted by Y.R.H., namely, that I may continue to enjoy the favor of Y.R.H. A dreadful occurrence[1] has lately taken place in my family, which for a long time stunned my senses, and to this must be ascribed my not having waited on Y.R.H., nor taken any notice of the masterly variations of my much-honored and illustrious pupil, and favorite of the Muses. The gratitude I feel for the surprise and the honor you have done me, I dare not venture to express either verbally or in writing, for I am _too far beneath you_, even if I _could_ or wished ever so ardently _to return like for like_. May Heaven accept and listen with peculiar favor to my prayers for Y.R.H.’s health. In the course of a few days I trust I shall myself hear the masterpiece Y.R.H. has sent to me, and nothing will rejoice me more than to assist Y.R.H. as early as possible, in taking the place already prepared for you on Parnassus. [K.] [Footnote 1: The “dreadful occurrence” which took place in the end of 1818 in Beethoven’s family cannot be discovered.] 260. TO RIES. Vienna, April [March?] 30, 1819. DEAR RIES,– I am only now able to answer your letter of December 18th. Your sympathy does me good. It is impossible for me to go to London at present, being involved here in various ways; but God will, I trust, aid me, and enable me to visit London next winter, when I shall bring the new symphonies with me. I every day expect the text for a new _oratorio_, which I am to write for our Musical Society here, and no doubt it will be of use to us in London also. Do what you can on my behalf, for I greatly need it. I should have been glad to receive any commission from the Philharmonic, but Neate’s report of the all but failure of the three overtures vexed me much. Each in its own style not only pleased here, but those in E flat major and C major made a profound impression, so that the fate of those works at the Philharmonic is quite incomprehensible to me. You have no doubt received the arrangement of the Quintet [Op. 104, see No. 238] and the Sonata [Op. 106]. See that both, especially the Quintet, be engraved without loss of time. There is no such hurry about the Sonata, though I should like it to appear within two or three months. Never having received the previous letter to which you allude, I had no scruple in disposing of both works here; but for Germany only. It will be at any rate three months before the Sonata appears here, but you must make haste with the Quintet. As soon as you forward me a check for the money, I will send an authority to the publisher, securing him the exclusive right to these works for England, Scotland, Ireland, France, &c., &c. You shall receive by the next post the _Tempi_ of the Sonata marked in accordance with Maelzel’s metronome. Prince Paul Esterhazy’s courier, De Smidt, took the Quintet and the Sonata with him. You shall also have my portrait by the next opportunity, as I understand that you really wish for it. Farewell! Continue your regard for me, Your friend, BEETHOVEN. All sorts of pretty compliments to your pretty wife!!! From me!!!! 261. TO RIES. Vienna, April 16, 1819. DEAR RIES,– Here are the _Tempi_ of the Sonata. 1st Allegro, Allegro (alone), erase the _assai_. Maelzel’s metronome [half-note] = 138. 2d movement, Scherzoso. Maelzel’s metronome [half-note] = 80. 3d movement, Maelzel’s metronome [eighth-note] = 92. Observe that a previous bar is to be inserted here, namely:– [Music: New bar. Piano Staves (treble & bass), D major, 6/8 time.] 4th movement, Introduzione–largo. Maelzel’s metronome [sixteenth-note] = 76. 5th and last movement, 3/4 time. Maelzel’s metronome [half-note] = 144. [Music: Treble clef, B-flat major.] Pray forgive the confused way in which this is written. It would not surprise you if you knew my situation; you would rather marvel that I accomplish so much in spite of it. The Quintet can no longer be delayed, and must shortly appear; but not the Sonata, until I get an answer from you and the check, which I long to see. The name of the courier is De Smidt, by whom you will receive both the Quintet and Sonata. I beg you will give me an immediate answer. I will write more fully next time. In haste, your BEETHOVEN. 262. TO RIES. April 19, 1819. MY DEAR FRIEND,– I ask your forgiveness a thousand times for the trouble I cause you. I cannot understand how it is that there are so many mistakes in the copying of the Sonata. This incorrectness no doubt proceeds from my no longer being able to keep a copyist of my own; circumstances have brought this about. May God send me more prosperity, till —- is in a better position! This will not be for a whole year to come. It is really dreadful the turn affairs have taken, and the reduction of my salary, while no man can tell what the issue is to be till the aforesaid year has elapsed. If the Sonata be not suitable for London, I could send another, or you might omit the _Largo_, and begin at once with the _Fugue_ in the last movement, or the first movement, _Adagio_, and the third the _Scherzo_, the _Largo_, and the _Allegro risoluto_. I leave it to you to settle as you think best. This Sonata was written at a time of great pressure. It is hard to write for the sake of daily bread; and yet I have actually come to this! We can correspond again about my visit to London. To be rescued from this wretched and miserable condition is my only hope of deliverance, for as it is I can neither enjoy health, nor accomplish what I could do under more favorable auspices. 263. TO THE PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY IN LAIBACH.[1] Vienna, May 4, 1819. I fully appreciate the high compliment paid to me by the respected members of the Philharmonic Society, in acknowledgment of my poor musical deserts, by electing me honorary member of their Society, and sending me the diploma through Herr von Tuscher; and as a proof of my sense of this honor, I intend in due course to forward to the Society an unpublished work of mine.[2] Moreover, at any time when I can be of use to the Society, I shall be prepared to forward their wishes. I remain, the humble servant and honorary member of the Philharmonic Society, LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: In Dr. Fr. Keesbacher’s pamphlet, “_The Philharmonic Society in Laibach, from 1702 to 1862_,” he says:–“The Philharmonic Society, always anxious to add to its lustre by attracting honorary members, resolved to appoint the great master of harmony as one of these. This idea had previously occurred to them in 1808. At that time they asked Dr. Anton Schmidt whether he thought that the election of Beethoven, and also Hummel’s son, would contribute to the advancement of the Society. On that occasion the Society appear to have had recourse to Haydn for the composition of a Canon; whether they applied to him for a new one or an already existing one is not known. Schmidt replied, ‘I, for my part, with such an object in view, would prefer giving my vote for the latter, (Hummel’s son, who is second Kapellmeister, Haydn being the first, to the reigning Prince Niklas Esterhazy.) _Beethoven is as full of caprice as he is devoid of complaisance._ I have not seen Father Haydn for a long time, his residence being so distant. He is now in failing health and scarcely ever writes; I will, however, shortly call on him and make the attempt to get a Canon from him.’ This discouraging picture of Beethoven, who had indeed too often a repulsive manner, might well deprive the Society of all courage to think any more of him as one of their honorary members. On the 15th of March, 1819, however, the Society prepared the diploma for Beethoven, the usually stereotyped form being exceptionally varied in his honor, and running thus:–‘The Philharmonic Society here, whose aim it is to promote refinement of feeling and cultivation of taste in the science of music, and who strive by their incessant efforts to impart to the Society both inwardly and outwardly, by the judicious selection of new members, greater value, solidity, and distinction, are universally animated with the desire to see their list adorned by the name of Beethoven. The organ of this society, the undersigned directors, fulfil the general wish in thus performing _their most agreeable duty_, and giving you, sir, the strongest proof of their profound admiration, by appointing you one of their honorary members.–Laibach, March 15, 1819.'” A fac-simile of Beethoven’s handwriting is hung up in a frame under glass in the hall of the Society and affixed to Dr. Keesbacher’s pamphlet.] [Footnote 2: We are told, “One work alone of Beethoven’s in the collection of the Society bears visible marks of coming from his own hand, and that is the _Pastoral Symphony_.” The above-mentioned copy is a MS. score (though not in his writing); on the cover is written by himself in red pencil, now almost illegible, “Sinfonie Pastorale;” and underneath are inscribed the following words in ink by another hand: “Beethoven’s writing in red pencil.” This score contains various corrections in pencil. Two of these appear to be by Beethoven, but unluckily the pencil marks are so much effaced that it is difficult to decide as to the writing. In the scene “By the Rivulet,” where the 12/8 time begins (in B flat major), these words are written, “Violoncelli tutti con Basso.” The B especially recalls his mode of writing. Moreover the _tempo_ at the beginning of “The Shepherd’s Song,” (in F, 6/8 time,) _allegretto_, is qualified by the same hand in pencil thus, _Quasi allegro_. No direct proof exists of this being sent by him.] 264. TO F. RIES,–LONDON. Vienna, May 25, 1819. … I was at the time burdened with cares beyond all I had ever in my life known,[1] caused solely by my too lavish benefits to others. Do compose industriously! My dear pupil the Archduke Rudolph and I frequently play your works, and he says that my quondam pupil does honor to his master. Now farewell! as I hear that your wife is so handsome, I venture to embrace her in imagination only, though I hope to have that pleasure in person next winter. Do not forget the Quintet, and the Sonata, and the money, I mean the _Honoraire, avec ou sans honneur_. I hope soon to hear good news from you, not in _allegro_ time, but _veloce prestissimo_. This letter will be given to you by an intelligent Englishman; they are generally very able fellows, with whom I should like to pass some time in their own country. _Prestissimo–Responsio De suo amico e Maestro,_ BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: In Schindler’s _Beethoven’s Nachlass_ there is a large calendar of the years 1819 used by Beethoven, in which he has marked, “Arrived at Mödling May 12!!!–_miser sum pauper_.” Carl too was again ill at that time. Beethoven took him to Blöchlinger’s Institution, June 22.] 265. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. 1819. I learned with deep sorrow of your being again unwell; I trust it will only be a passing indisposition. No doubt our very variable spring is the cause of this. I intended to have brought the variations [see No. 259] yesterday; they may well boldly face the light of day, and no doubt Y.R.H. will receive an application for your consent on this point. I very much regret being only able to express a _pia desideria_ for Y.R.H’s. health. I earnestly hope the skill of your Aesculapius may at length gain the victory and procure permanent health for Y.R.H. [K.] 266. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. Mödling, July 15, 1819. I have been very ill since my last visit to Y.R.H. in town; I hope however to be much better by next week, in which case I will instantly join Y.R.H. at Baden. Meanwhile I went several times to town to consult my physician. My continued distress about my nephew, whose moral character has been almost totally ruined, has been the main cause of my illness. At the beginning of this week I was obliged to resume my guardianship, the other guardian having resigned, and much has taken place for which he has asked my forgiveness. The solicitor has also given up his office, because, having interested himself in the good cause, he has been loudly accused of partiality. Thus these endless perplexities go on, and no help, no consolation! The whole fabric that I had reared now blown away as if by the wind! A pupil of Pestalozzi, at present an inmate of the Institute where I have placed my nephew, seems to think that it will be a difficult matter for him and for my poor Carl to attain any desirable goal. But he is also of opinion that the most advisable step is the removal of my nephew to a foreign country! I hope that the health of Y.R.H., always so interesting to me, leaves nothing to be desired, and I look forward with pleasure to soon being with Y.R.H., that I may be enabled to prove my anxiety to serve you. [K.] 267. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. 1819. May I beg the favor of Y.R.H. to inform H.R.H. Archduke Ludwig of the following circumstances. Y.R.H. no doubt remembers my mentioning the necessary removal of my nephew from here, on account of his mother. My intention was to present a petition to H.R.H. Archduke Ludwig on the subject; no difficulties however have hitherto arisen on the subject, as all the authorities concerned are in my favor. Among the chief of these are the College of Privy Councillors, the Court of Guardians, and the guardian himself, who all entirely agree with me in thinking that nothing can be more conducive to the welfare of my nephew than being kept at the greatest possible distance from his mother; moreover, all is admirably arranged for the education of my nephew in Landshut, as the estimable and renowned Professor Sailer is to superintend everything connected with the studies of the youth, and I have also some relations there, so no doubt the most desirable results may be thus attained for my nephew. Having, as I already said, as yet encountered no obstacles, I had no wish whatever to trouble H.R.H. the Archduke Ludwig, but I now understand that the mother of my nephew intends to demand an audience from H.R.H. in order to _oppose_ my scheme. She will not scruple to utter all sorts of _calumnies against me_, but I trust these can be easily refuted by my well known and acknowledged moral character, and I can fearlessly appeal to Y.R.H. for a testimony on this point for the satisfaction of H.R.H. Archduke Ludwig. As for the conduct of the mother of my nephew, it is easily to be inferred from the fact of her having been declared by the Court wholly incapable of undertaking the guardianship of her son. All that she _plotted_ in order to ruin her poor child can only be credited from her own depravity, and thence arises the _unanimous agreement_ about this affair, and the boy being entirely withdrawn from her influence. Such is the natural and unnatural state of the case. I therefore beg Y.R.H. to intercede with H.R.H. Archduke Ludwig, and to warn him against listening to the slanders of the mother, who would plunge her child into an abyss whence he could never be rescued. That sense of justice which guides every party in our just Austrian land, does not entirely exclude her either; at the same time, this _very same sense of justice_ must render all her remonstrances unavailing. A religious view of the Fourth Commandment is what chiefly decides the Court to send away the son as far as possible. The difficulty those must have who conduct the boy’s education in not offending against this commandment, and the necessity that the son should never be tempted to fail in this duty or to repudiate it, ought certainly to be taken into consideration. Every effort has been made by forbearance and generosity to amend this unnatural mother, but all has been in vain. If necessary I will supply H.R.H. Archduke Ludwig with a statement on the subject, and, favored by the advocacy of my gracious master Y.R.H. the Archduke Rudolph, I shall certainly obtain justice. [K.] 268. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. 1819. I regret to say that, owing to a judicial meeting about the affairs of my nephew (being unable to alter the hour fixed), I must give up the pleasure of waiting on Y.R.H. this evening, but shall not fail to do so to-morrow at half-past four o’clock. As for the affair itself, I know that I shall be treated with indulgence. May Heaven at length bring it to a close! for my mind suffers keenly from such a painful turmoil. [K.] 269. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. Mödling, July 29, 1819. I heard with deep regret of Y.R.H.’s recent indisposition, and having received no further reliable information on the subject, I am extremely uneasy. I went to Vienna to search in Y.R.H.’s library for what was most suitable to me. The chief object must be to _hit off our idea at once_, and _in accordance with a high class of art_, unless the object in view should require different and more _practical_ treatment. On this point the ancient composers offer the best examples, as most of these possess real artistic value (though among them the _German Handel_ and Sebastian Bach can alone lay claim to _genius_); but _freedom_ and _progress_ are our true aim in the world of art, just as in the great creation at large; and if we moderns are not so far advanced as our _forefathers_ in _solidity_, still the refinement of our ideas has contributed in many ways to their enlargement. My illustrious musical pupil, himself a competitor for the laurels of fame, must not incur the reproach of _onesidedness, et iterum venturus judicare vivos et mortuos_. I send you three poems, from which Y.R.H. might select one to set to music. The Austrians have now learned that the _spirit of Apollo_ wakes afresh in the Imperial House; I receive from all sides requests for something of yours. The editor of the “Mode Zeitung” is to write to Y.R.H. on the subject. I only hope that I shall not be accused of being _bribed_–to be _at court and yet no courtier_! After that, what is not credible??!!! _I met with some opposition from His Excellency the Obersthofmeister[1] in selecting the music._ It is not worth while to trouble Y.R.H. on the subject in writing; but this I will say, that such conduct might have the effect of repelling many talented, good, and noble-minded men, who had not enjoyed the good fortune to learn from personal intercourse with Y.R.H. all the admirable qualities of your mind and heart. I wish Y.R.H. a speedy, speedy recovery, and, _for my own peace of mind_, that I may hear some good tidings of Y.R.H. [K.] [Footnote 1: Probably the Obersthofmeister, Count Laurencin, by no means approved of the manner in which Beethoven searched for music, which accounts for this outbreak on the part of the irritable _maestro_.] 270. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. 1819. I have unhappily only myself to blame! I went out yesterday for the first time, feeling pretty well, but I forgot, or rather paid no attention to the fact, that, being an invalid only just recovering, I ought to have gone home early; I have consequently brought on another attack. I think, however, that by staying at home to-day, all will be right by to-morrow, when I hope to be able to wait on my esteemed and illustrious pupil without fail. I beg Y.R.H. not to forget about Handel’s works, as they certainly offer to your mature musical genius the highest nourishment, and their study will always be productive of admiration of this great man. [K.] 271. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. Mödling, Aug. 31, 1819. I yesterday received the intelligence _of a fresh recognition and homage[1] offered to the admirable qualities of your head and heart_. I beg that Y.R.H. will graciously accept my congratulations. They spring from the heart, and do not require to be suggested! I hope things will soon go better with me also. So much annoyance has had a most prejudicial effect on my health, and I am thus far from well; so for some time past I have been obliged to undergo a course of medicine which has only permitted me to devote myself for a few hours in the day to the most cherished boon of Heaven, my art and the Muses. I hope, however, to be able to finish the Mass[2] so that it can be performed on the 19th–if that day is still fixed. I should really be in despair[3] were I prevented by bad health from being ready by that time. I trust, however, that my sincere wishes for the accomplishment of this task may be fulfilled. As to that _chef-d’oeuvre_, the variations of Y.R.H., I think they should be published under the following title:– Theme or Subject composed by L. van Beethoven, forty times varied, and dedicated to his Instructor, by the Illustrious Author. The inquiries about this work are numerous, and yet, after all, this excellent composition may be ushered into the world in mutilated copies, for Y.R.H. yourself cannot possibly resist giving it first to one person and then to another; so, in Heaven’s name, together with the great homage Y.R.H. now publicly receives, let the homage to Apollo (or the Christian Cecilia) also be made public. Perhaps Y.R.H. may accuse me of _vanity_; but I do assure you that precious as this dedication is to my heart, and truly proud of it as I am, this is certainly not my chief object. Three publishers have offered to take the work,–Artaria, Steiner, and a third whose name does not at this moment occur to me. So of the two I have named, which is to have the variations? I await the commands of Y.R.H. on this point. They are to be engraved at the cost of either of those publishers, according to their own offer. The question now is whether Y.R.H. _is satisfied with the title_. My idea is that Y.R.H. should entirely close your eyes to the fact of the publication; when it does appear, Y.R.H. may deem it a misfortune, _but the world will consider it the reverse_. May Providence protect Y.R.H., and shower down the richest blessings of His grace on Y.R.H.’s sacred head, and preserve for me your gracious regard! [On the cover] My indisposition must be my excuse with Y.R.H. for this confused letter. [K.] [Footnote 1: The Emperor Francis had sent the new Archbishop of Olmütz, Archduke Rudolph, the Grand Cross of the Order of St. Stephen.] [Footnote 2: The Mass for the solemnities of the Archduke Rudolph’s enthronization in Olmütz (March 20, 1820) was not completed by Beethoven till 1822.] [Footnote 3: Beethoven had, however, no cause for despair on the subject. The kind-hearted Archduke showed the utmost indulgence to him on this occasion as well as on many others, and even at a later period accepted the dedication of this long delayed composition.] 272.[1] TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. 1819. I perceive that Baron Schweiger has not informed Y.R.H. of the attack I had yesterday. I was suddenly seized with such sharp fever that I entirely lost consciousness; a bruised foot may have contributed to bring this on. It is therefore impossible for me to leave the house to-day. I hope, however, to be quite recovered by to-morrow, and I request Y.R.H. to appoint the orchestra to come to-morrow afternoon at a quarter to three o’clock, that the musicians may appear a little earlier, and leave sufficient time to try over the two Overtures. If Y.R.H. wishes to hear these, I shall require four horns; the Symphonies, however, require only two. For the proper performance of the Symphonies we must have at least four violins, four second, four first, two double basses, two violoncellos. I beg you will be so good as to let me know what you decide on. No pleasure can ever be greater to me than hearing my works performed before my illustrious pupil. May God speedily restore your health, which often causes me anxiety! [K.] [Footnote 1: The letters 272, 273, 274, relate to arrangements for musical meetings at which Beethoven caused his new works to be played for the Archduke.] 273. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. 1819. I beg you will be so kind as to let Herr von Wranitzky[1] know your commands about the music, and whether to bespeak two or four horns. I have already spoken with him, and suggested his only selecting musicians who can accomplish a performance, rather than a mere rehearsal. [K.] [Footnote 1: Anton Wranitzky (born 1760, died 1819), director of Prince Lobkowitz’s opera and band. His brother Paul (born 1756, died 1808) was from 1785 to 1808 Kapellmeister at the Royal Opera in Vienna.] 274. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. 1819. It is impossible to double the parts by eleven o’clock to-morrow, most of the copyists having so much to write this week. I think therefore you will perhaps appoint next Saturday for our _resurrection day_, and by that time I expect to be entirely recovered, and better able to conduct, which would have been rather an arduous task for me to-morrow, in spite of my good-will. On Friday I do hope to be able to go out and inquire for Y.R.H. [K.] 275. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. 1819. (_A Fragment._) The day when a High Mass of mine is performed in honor of the solemnities for Y.R.H. will be the most delightful of my life, and God will enlighten me so that my poor abilities may contribute to the splendors of that solemn occasion. I send you the Sonata with heartfelt gratitude; I think the violoncello part is wanting,–at least I could not lay my hand on it at the moment. As the work is beautifully engraved, I have taken the liberty to add a published copy, and also a violin quintet. In addition to the two pieces written in my hand on Y.R.H.’s name-day, there are two more; the last a grand _Fugato_, so that it forms one great sonata,[1] which is now shortly to appear, and has been long _in my heart_ dedicated to Y.R.H. _The recent occurrence connected with Y.R.H.[2] is not in the slightest degree the cause of this._ I beg you will forgive my bad writing. I implore the Lord to bestow His richest blessings on Y.R.H., whose love of humanity is so comprehensive,–one of the choicest of all qualities; and in this respect Y.R.H. will always, either in a _worldly_ or _spiritual_ point of view, be one of our brightest examples. [K.] [Footnote 1: The Grand Sonata with two movements, and two additional ones, of which the last is a grand fugued one, can scarcely be any other than the pianoforte Sonata (Op. 106) composed in 1818, dedicated to the Archduke Rudolph, and published in September, 1819.] [Footnote 2: The “recent occurrence” to which Beethoven alludes is no doubt his being appointed Archbishop.] 276. TO HERR BLÖCHLINGER. Mödling, Sept. 14, 1819. 85 florins enclosed. DEAR SIR,– I have the honor to send you payment for the ensuing month, which begins on the 22d Sept., and I add 10 florins in order to provide for any unforeseen expenses, which you will please account for to me on the 12th October. The following persons alone are to have free access to my nephew: Herr von Bernard, Herr von Oliva, Herr von Piuss. If any persons, exclusive of those I have named, wish to see my nephew, I will give them a letter to you, when you will be so obliging as to admit them; for the distance to your house is considerable, and those who go there can only do so to oblige me, as, for example, the bandage-maker, &c., &c. My nephew must never leave your house without a written permission from me. From this you will at once plainly perceive your line of conduct towards Carl’s mother. I must impress on you the necessity of these rules (proceeding from the magistrates and myself) being strictly enforced. You, dear sir, are too little experienced in these circumstances, however obvious your other merits are to me, to act on your own judgment in the matter, as you have hitherto done. Credulity can in the present instance only lead to embarrassment, the result of which might prove injurious to you rather than beneficial, and this I wish to avoid for the sake of your own credit. I hear that my nephew requires, or at all events wishes to have, a variety of things from me; he has only to apply to myself. Be so good as to forward all his letters through Herr Steiner & Co., Pater Noster Gässel, auf’m Graben. Your obedient BEETHOVEN, _Sole guardian of my nephew Carl Van Beethoven._ N.B. Any outlay will be at once repaid. 277. Vienna, Sept. 21, 1819. In honor of the visit of Herr Schlesinger of Berlin. [Music: Four staves (SATB), B-flat major, 4/4 time, repeating. Glaube und hoffe Glaube und hoffe und hoffe Glaube und hoffe, Glaube und hoffe Glaube und hoffe, ] L. V. BEETHOVEN. 278. TO HERR ARTARIA,–VIENNA. Oct. 1, 1819. MOST EXCELLENT AND MOST VIRTUOUS OF VIRTUOSI, AND NO HUMBUG! While informing you of all sorts of things from which we hope you will draw the best conclusions, we request you to send us six (say 6) copies of the Sonata in B flat major, and also six copies of the variations on the Scotch songs, as the author’s right. We beg you to forward them to Steiner, in Pater Noster Gässel, whence they will be sent to us with some other things. In the hope that you are conducting yourself with all due propriety and decorum, we are your, &c., B—-. 279. A SKETCH WRITTEN BY BEETHOVEN,– Corrected by Artaria’s Bookkeeper, Wuister. 1819. Having heard from Herr B. that Y.R. Highness [the Archduke Rudolph] has written a most masterly work, we wish to be the first to have the great honor of publishing Y.R. Highness’s composition, that the world may become acquainted with the admirable talents of so illustrious a Prince. We trust Y. Royal Highness will comply with our respectful solicitation. FALSTAFF–[1] _Ragged Rascal!_ [Footnote 1: The name Beethoven gave to Artaria’s partner, Bolderini.] 280. TO ARTARIA. Mödling, Oct. 12, 1819. Pray forgive me, dear A. (?), for plaguing you as follows:– We are coming to town the day after to-morrow, and expect to arrive at four o’clock. The two days’ festival compels us to return the same day, as Carl must prepare with his master here for the second examination, these very holidays enabling the tutor to devote more time to him; but I must soon return to town on account of the certificate of Carl’s birth, which costs more time and money than I like. I at all times dislike travelling by the _diligence_, and this one has moreover one peculiarity, that you may wish to go on what day you please, but it always turns out to be a Friday on which it sets off; and though a good Christian, still one Friday in the year is sufficient for me. I beg you will request the leader of the choir (the devil alone knows what the office is!) to be so good as to give us Carl’s _certificate of birth_ on the afternoon of the same day if possible. He might do so at seven o’clock in the morning, at the time we arrive; but he ought to be punctual, for Carl is to appear at the examination at half-past seven o’clock. So it must be _either to-morrow at_ seven, or _at all events in the afternoon_. We shall call on you to-morrow before seven o’clock to inquire about this, with the proviso of a visit later in the day. In haste, and asking your pardon, Your L. VAN BEETHOVEN. 281. PETITION TO THE MAGISTRACY.[1] Oct. 30, 1819. GENTLEMEN,– My brother, Carl van Beethoven, died on November 5, 1815, leaving a boy twelve years old,–his son Carl. In his will, by clause 5, he bequeathed to me the guardianship of the boy, and in the codicil B he expressed a wish that his widow, Johanna, should have a share in this duty, adding that, for the sake of his child, he recommended her to submit to my guidance. This explicit declaration of the father, added to my legal claim, I being the nearest relative (clause 198), entitles me clearly to the guardianship of my nephew, Carl van Beethoven; and the Court of Justice, by their Decree E, committed to me, under existing circumstances, the guardianship, to the exclusion moreover of Beethoven’s widow. A journey on business having compelled me to be for some time absent, I did not object to an official guardian supplying my place for the time, which was effected by the nomination of the Town Sequestrator, Herr Nussböck. Being now, however, finally settled here, and the welfare of the boy very precious to me, both love and duty demand that I should resume my rights; especially as this talented lad is coming to an age when greater care and expense must be bestowed on his education, on which his whole future prospects depend. This duty ought not to be confided to any woman, far less to his mother, who possesses neither the will nor the power to adopt those measures indispensable to a manly and suitable education. I am the more anxious to reclaim my guardianship of Carl, as I understand that, in consequence of want of means to defray the expenses of the school where I placed him, he is to be removed, and his mother wishes him to live with her, in order herself to spend his trifling provision, and thus save the one half of her pension, which, according to the decree, she is bound to apply to his use. I have hitherto taken a paternal charge of my nephew, and I intend to do the same in future at my own expense, being resolved that the hopes of his deceased father, and the expectations I have formed for this clever boy, shall be fulfilled by his becoming an able man and a good citizen. With this view I accordingly request that the highly respected magistrates whom I now address will be pleased to annul the Town Sequestrator Nussböck’s interim office, and forthwith transfer to me the sole guardianship of my nephew Carl van Beethoven.[2] LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Evidently drawn up by his advocate, Dr. Bach, from Beethoven’s notes.] [Footnote 2: The magisterial decree of Nov. 4, 1819, was adverse to Beethoven.] 282. TO F. RIES,–LONDON. Vienna, Nov. 10, 1819. DEAR RIES,– I write to let you know that the Sonata is already out, though only a fortnight ago, and it is nearly six months since I sent you both the Quintet and the Sonata. In the course of a few days I will send them both to you engraved, and from them you can correct the two works. Having received no letter from you on the subject, I thought the thing was at an end. I have indeed made shipwreck already with Neate this year! I only wish you could contrive to get me the fifty ducats which I have yet to receive, as I calculated on them, and really am in great want of money. I shall say no more to-day, but must inform you that I have nearly completed a _new Grand Mass_. Write to me whether you could do anything with this in London; but soon, very soon, and send the money soon also for both works. I will write more fully next time. In haste, Your true and faithful friend, BEETHOVEN. 283. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. Dec. 14, 1819. Immediately on last leaving Y.R.H. I was taken ill, of which I apprised Y.R.H., but owing to a change in my household, neither the letter in question nor another to Y.R.H. was ever sent. In it I begged Y.R.H.’s indulgence, having some works on hand that I was obliged to dispatch with all speed, owing to which I was, alas! compelled to lay aside the Mass also.[1] I hope Y.R.H. will ascribe the delay solely to the pressure of circumstances. This is not the time to enter fully into the subject, but I must do so as soon as the right moment arrives, that Y.R.H. may not form too severe or undeserved a judgment of me. My heart is always with Y.R.H., and I trust at length circumstances may in so far change, that I may be able to contribute more than I have hitherto done, to perfecting your great talent. I think, however, Y.R.H. is already aware of my good-will in this respect, and is fully convinced that insurmountable obstacles alone can ever detain me from the most excellent of all princes, so revered by me, and so entwined with every feeling of my heart. I did not till yesterday hear of the mistake about the two letters, and I now intend to bring them myself, for I have no one in my service on whom I can depend. I will present myself at your house this afternoon at half-past four o’clock. My warmest thanks for Y.R.H.’s kind letter to me. When Y.R.H. thus vouchsafes to declare your esteem for me, it only heightens and increases my impulse to all that is good. [Footnote 1: Another allusion to the Grand Mass in D, which seemed likely never to be completed.] 284. MEMORANDUM. 1822. The Mass[1] will soon be all in Y.R.H.’s hands; it ought to have been, and would have been so long ago, but–but–but–when Y.R.H. becomes acquainted with my circumstances, you will be surprised that I have even now been able to finish it. [K.] [Footnote 1: The circumstances which prevented the completion of this work were undoubtedly his perpetual state of strife with his nephew and his sister-in-law.] 285. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. I heard with heartfelt sorrow of Y.R.H.’s indisposition, but hope soon to hear of your recovery. Why am I also ill? for I might possibly discover the best mode of restoring Y.R.H. I will call again to inquire after Y.R.H., and hope to hear good news. [K.] 286. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. I have been rather an invalid all this time, though I try to think myself tolerably well. I deeply regret to hear of Y.R.H.’s attack, especially as I knew nothing of it, or I certainly should have hastened to inquire whether it was in my power in any way to alleviate your sufferings. To-morrow, in compliance with Y.R.H.’s wish, I shall certainly enjoy the pleasure of seeing my own most dear and illustrious master. [K.] 287. TO THE ROYAL AND IMPERIAL HIGH COURT OF APPEAL. Jan. 7, 1820. GENTLEMEN,– On the plea of the Decree A, I sought to have transferred to myself the guardianship of my nephew, Carl v. Beethoven, but was referred by the magistracy to the previous decision. On my consequent remonstrance the same result ensued. I find myself the more aggrieved by this, inasmuch as not only are my own rights set at naught, but even the welfare of my nephew is thus utterly disregarded. I am therefore compelled to have recourse to the highest Court of Appeal to lay before them my well-founded claim, and rightfully to demand that the guardianship of my nephew should be restored to me. My reasons are the following:– 1st. I am entitled to the guardianship of my nephew, not only by his father’s will, but by law, and this the Court of Justice confirmed to the exclusion of the mother. When business called me away from Vienna, I conceded that Herr Nussböck should act for me _ad interim_. Having now, however, taken up my residence here, the welfare of my nephew demands that I should again undertake the office of his guardian. 2d. My nephew has arrived at an age when he requires to be trained to a higher degree of cultivation. Neither his mother nor his present guardian are calculated to guide the boy in the pursuit of his studies. The former, in the first place, because she is a woman; and as to her conduct, it has been legally proved that, to say the least of it, she has no creditable testimonials to bring forward,[1] on which account she was expressly prohibited from acting by the Court of Justice. How the Honorable Magistracy could nevertheless again appoint her is quite incomprehensible. The latter is unfit; because, on the one hand, his office as sequestrator and administrator of houses and lands, occupies his time too much to enable him properly to undertake the duties of guardian to the boy; and, on the other, because his previous occupation as a paper manufacturer, does not inspire me with any confidence that he possesses the intelligence or judgment indispensable to conduct a scientific education. 3d. The welfare of my nephew is dearer to my heart than it can be to any one else. I am myself childless, and have no relations except this boy, who is full of talent, and I have good grounds to hope the best for him, if properly trained. Now I am compelled to hear that he has been delayed a whole year by remaining in his previous class, from want of means to defray the expense, and that his mother intends to remove him from his present school, and wishes him to live with her. What a misfortune to the boy, were he to become a victim to the mismanagement of his mother, who would fain squander on herself that portion of her pension which she is obliged to devote to the education of her son! I have therefore declared in due form to the Honorable Magistracy that I am myself willing to undertake the expenses of his present school, and also to provide the various masters required. Being rather deaf, which is an impediment to conversation, I have requested the aid of a colleague, and suggested for this purpose Herr Peters, Councillor of Prince Lobkowitz, in order that a person may forthwith be appointed to superintend the education and progress of my nephew, that his moral character may one day command esteem, and whose acquirements may be a sure guaranty to all those who feel an interest in the youth’s welfare, that he will undoubtedly receive the education and culture necessary to develop his abilities. My efforts and wishes have no other aim than to give the boy the best possible education,–his abilities justifying the brightest hopes,–and to fulfil the trust placed in my brotherly love by his father. The shoot is still flexible; but if longer neglected it will become crooked, and outgrow the gardener’s training hand, and upright bearing, intellect, and character, be destroyed forever. I know no duty more sacred than the education and training of a child. The chief duties of a guardian consist in knowing how to appreciate what is good, and in adopting a right course; then alone has proper attention been devoted to the welfare of his ward, whereas in opposing what is good he neglects his duty. Indeed, keeping in view what is most for the benefit of the boy, I do not object to the mother in so far sharing in the duties of a guardian that she may visit her son, and see him, and be apprised of all the measures adopted for his education; but to intrust her with the sole guardianship of the boy without a strict guardian by her side, would cause the irrevocable ruin of her son. On these cogent grounds I reiterate my well-founded solicitation, and feel the more confident of a favorable answer, as the welfare of my nephew alone guides my steps in this affair.[2] LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Schindler states that during these law proceedings the widow of Beethoven’s brother had another child.] [Footnote 2: The Court excluded Carl’s mother from all share in his education, and from all direct influence over her son, and again restored to Beethoven the full authority of a guardian.] 288. TO HIS HIGHNESS THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. [Music: Treble clef, C major. Seiner Kaiserlichen Hoheit! Dem Erzherzog Rudolph! Dem geistlichen Fürsten! Alles Gute! alles Schöne! alles Gute! alles Schöne! alles alles Gute, alles alles Schöne! alles Gute! alles Schöne! alles Gute, alles Schöne! alles alles Gute, alles Schöne! alles Gute, alles Schöne! alles Gute, alles Schöne!] From your obedient servant, L. V. BEETHOVEN. Jan. 12, 1820. 289. TESTIMONIAL IN FAVOR OF HERR V. KANDELER. It is certainly the duty of every musical composer to become acquainted with all the earlier as well as more modern poets, in order to select what is most suitable to his purpose for songs. Such, however, not being invariably the case, this present collection of Herr v. Kandeler’s cannot fail to be useful and commendable to many who wish to write songs, and also tend to induce more able poets to contribute something in the same direction. LUDWIG V. BEETHOVEN.–M.P. I entirely agree with Herr v. Beethoven. JOS. WEIGEL. 290. TO THEODORE AMADEUS HOFFMANN.[1] Vienna, March 23, 1820. I seize the opportunity through Herr N. of approaching a man so gifted as yourself. You have also written of my humble self, and Herr N.N. showed me some lines of yours about me in his album; I have, therefore, every reason to believe that you feel some interest in me. Permit me to say that, on the part of so talented a man as yourself, this is truly gratifying to me. I wish you all possible good and happiness, and remain, Sir, with esteem, your obedient BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: It is well known that Hoffmann, in the years 1809 to 1812, wrote the first really important articles on Beethoven’s works for the _Leipzig A.M. Zeitung_ on his instrumental music, his trios, and masses, &c., &c.] 291. TO HERR HASLINGER,–ADJUTANTERL. I request the Adjutant to lend me the score of the Overture in E flat, which I will return as soon as the performance is over. I also beg he will be so good as to send me Kirnberger’s work to supply the place of mine, as I am at this moment giving lessons in counterpoint, and have been unable to find my own manuscript amid my confused mass of papers. Yours, MI CONTRA FA. 292. TO TOBIAS,–ADJUTANT. MOST WORTHY ADJUTANT,– I have made a bet of ten florins, W.W., against the truth of your having been obliged to pay a compensation of 2000 florins to Artaria for the new edition of Mozart’s works, which have been again and again engraved and sold everywhere. I really wish to know the truth on this subject, for I cannot possibly believe what is said. If it be the fact that you have been so unhandsomely treated, then _Ah, dolce contento_ must pay the ten florins. Send me a true report. Farewell; be a good Christian. Your BEETHOVEN. 293. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. Vienna, April 3, 1820. YOUR ROYAL HIGHNESS,– So far as I can recollect, when I was about to wait on you, I was told that Y.R.H. was indisposed; I called on Sunday evening to inquire, having been assured that Y.R.H. did not intend to set off on Monday. In accordance with my usual custom, not to remain long in an anteroom, I hurried away after receiving this information, though I observed that the gentleman in waiting wished to say something to me. Unhappily I did not hear till Monday afternoon that Y.R.H. had really gone to Olmütz. I must confess that this caused me a very painful feeling, but my consciousness of never having neglected my duty in any respect, induced me to suppose that the same may have been the case on this occasion, as it often is in human life,–for I can easily conceive that Y.R.H., immersed in ceremonies and novel impressions, had very little time to spare in Olmütz for other things. I should otherwise certainly have anticipated Y.R.H. in writing. May I ask you graciously to inform me what length of stay you intend to make in Olmütz? It was reported that Y.R.H. intended to return here towards the end of May; but a few days ago I heard that you were to remain a year and a half in Olmütz; owing to this I may perhaps have adopted wrong measures, not with regard to Y.R.H., but myself. As soon as I receive information from you on the subject, I will enter into further explanations. May I also beg that in the mean time Y.R.H. will not listen to certain reports about me? I have heard a great deal of what may be termed gossip here, which people seem to think may be acceptable to Y.R.H. As Y.R.H. is pleased to say that I am one of those whom you esteem, I can confidently declare that Y.R.H. is the person whom I value most in the universe. Although no courtier, I believe that Y.R.H. knows me too thoroughly to believe that mere selfish interest has ever attached or attracted me towards Y.R.H., but, on the contrary, true and heartfelt affection alone. I can with truth say that a second Blondel has long since set forth on his pilgrimage, and if no Richard can be found in this world for me, God shall be my Sovereign! It seems to me that my idea of giving a quartet is the best; even though some works have been already performed on a grand scale at Olmütz, still something might thus be introduced into Moravia to attract the attention of the musical world, and for the benefit of Art. If, according to the above reports, Y.R.H. should return here in May, I advise Y.R.H. to reserve your _spiritual children_ for me [see No. 279] till then, because it would be better that I should hear them performed by yourself. But if your stay in Olmütz is really to be of such long duration, I will receive them now with the greatest pleasure, and strive to accompany Y.R.H. to the summit of Parnassus. May God preserve Y.R.H. in health for the good of humanity, and also for that of all your warm admirers. I beg you will be graciously pleased soon to write to me. Y.R.H. cannot fail to be convinced of my readiness at all times to fulfil your wishes. I am Y.R.H.’s humble and faithful servant, LUDWIG V. BEETHOVEN 294. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. Mödling, Aug. 3, 1820. I have this moment received the letter in which Y.R.H. informs me yourself of your journey hither, and I sincerely thank Y.R.H. for such a mark of attention. I intended to have hastened to town to-morrow to wait on Y.R.H., but no carriage is to be had; I expect however to get one before next Saturday, when I shall lose no time, and set off at an early hour to inquire for Y.R.H. With regard to the sacrifice Y.R.H. intends to offer up to the Muses, I will make a proposal verbally on the subject. I heartily rejoice in knowing that Y.R.H. is once more so near me. May I in all respects be enabled to assist in fulfilling your wishes! May Heaven bless Y.R.H., and mature all your plans! [K.] 295. TO HERR ARTARIA, FALSTAFF, & CO. Vienna, Oct. 26, 1820. I politely request that you will hand over to Herr Oliva the sum of 300 florins, which has no doubt already been received by you in full. Having been entirely occupied by removing to my new lodgings, I could not do myself the honor of expressing my thanks to you and Sir John Falstaff in person. Your obedient servant, LUDWIG V. BEETHOVEN. 296. TO BOLDERINI. MY VERY WORTHY FALSTAFF!– I request, with all due civility, that you will send me a copy of each of the two works for pianoforte and flute, with variations. As for the receipt, you shall have it to-morrow; and I also beg you will forward it forthwith. Give my compliments to Herr Artaria, and thank him from me for his kind offer of an advance, but as I have received from abroad the money due to me, I do not require to avail myself of his aid. Farewell, Knight Falstaff; do not be too dissipated, read the Gospel, and be converted! We remain, your well-affected BEETHOVEN. To Sir John Falstaff, Knight. To the care of Herr Artaria & Co. 297. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. Mödling, Sept. 1820. Since last Tuesday evening I have been far from well, but hoped by Friday, certainly, to have had the happiness of waiting on Y.R.H. This proved a delusion, and it is only to-day that I am able to say confidently that I expect to present myself before Y.R.H. next Monday or Tuesday at an early hour. I ascribe my illness to having taken an open _calèche_, in order not to miss my appointment with Y.R.H. The day was very wet and positively _cold_ here towards the evening. Nature seems almost to have been offended by the liberty I took, and by my audacity, and to have punished me in consequence. May Heaven bestow on Y.R.H. all that is good and holy, as well as every charm and blessing, and on _me_ your favor, _but only in so far as justice sanctions_! [K.] 298. TO HERR ARTARIA & CO. Vienna, Dec. 17, 1820. I thank you warmly for the advance of 150 florins, for which I have made out the receipt in the name of his Imperial Highness the Cardinal, and I beg, as I am in danger of losing one of my bank shares, that you will advance me another 150 florins, which I pledge myself to repay within three months at latest from this date. As a proof of my gratitude, I engage in this letter to make over to you, as your exclusive property, one of my compositions, consisting of two or more movements, without claiming payment for it hereafter. Your ever-complaisant BEETHOVEN. [L.S.] 299. TO TOBIAS V. HASLINGER. Baden, Sept. 10, 1821. MY VERY DEAR FRIEND,– On my way to Vienna yesterday, sleep overtook me in my carriage, which was by no means strange, for having been obliged to rise so early every morning, I never had a good night’s sleep. While thus slumbering I dreamt that I had gone on a far journey, to no less a place than to Syria, on to Judea, and back, and then all the way to Arabia, when at length I actually arrived at Jerusalem. The Holy City gave rise to thoughts of the Holy Books. No wonder then if the man Tobias occurred to me, which also naturally led me to think of our own little Tobias and our great Tobias. Now during my dream-journey, the following Canon came into my head:– [Music: Bass clef, F major, 2/4 time. _Lively in the upper octave._ O Tobias! O Tobias! Dominus Ha–slinger o! o! o Tobias!] But scarcely did I wake when away flew the Canon, and I could not recall any part of it. On returning here however, next day, in the same carriage, (that of a poor Austrian musician,) I resumed my dream-journey, being, however, on this occasion wide awake, when lo and behold! in accordance with the laws of the association of ideas the same Canon again flashed across me; so being now awake I held it as fast as Menelaus did Proteus, only permitting it to be changed into three parts. [Music: Treble, Tenor, and Bass clef staves, F major, 2/4 time. O Tobias! O Tobias! Dominus Ha–slinger o!] Farewell! I intend to send next something composed on Steiner’s name, to show that his is no heart of stone [Stein]. Adieu, my good friend; it is my most heartfelt wish that you may prosper as a publisher; may all credit be given to you, and yet may you never require credit. Sing daily the Epistles of St. Paul, and daily visit Father Werner, who can show you in his little book how to go straight to heaven. See, how anxious I am about the welfare of your soul! I remain always, with infinite pleasure, henceforth and forever, Your faithful debtor, BEETHOVEN. 300. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. Unterdöbling, July 18, 1821. I yesterday heard of Y.R.H.’s arrival here; joyful tidings for me, but saddened by knowing that it must be some time before I can have the good fortune to wait on Y.R.H.; having been long very ill, at last _jaundice_ declared itself, which I consider a most loathsome malady. I trust, however, I shall be so far recovered as to see Y.R.H. before you leave this. Last winter, too, I had some very severe rheumatic attacks. Much of this proceeds from the melancholy state of my family affairs; I have hitherto hoped, by every possible exertion on my part, at last to remedy these. That Providence, who searches my inmost heart, and knows that as a man I have striven sacredly to fulfil all the duties imposed on me by humanity, God, and Nature, will no doubt one day extricate me from all these troubles. The Mass [in D] will be delivered to Y.R.H. here. I hope Y.R.H. will excuse my entering into the various causes of the delay. The details could not be otherwise than painful to Y.R.H. I would often gladly have written to Y.R.H. from here, but you told me to wait till I first heard from you. What, then, was I to do? Y.R.H. might have been displeased had I not attended to your injunction, and I know that there are people who are glad to calumniate me to Y.R.H., which pains me exceedingly. I therefore often think that my sole recourse is to keep quiet till Y.R.H. expresses a wish either to see or to hear of me. I was told that Y.R.H. had been indisposed, but I hope it was nothing serious. May Heaven shower down its most precious blessings on Y.R.H.! I trust it may not be very long before I shall be so fortunate as to assure Y.R.H. how entirely I am, &c., &c. [K.] 301. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. Unterdöbling, July 18, 1821. I have written a long and minute letter to Y.R.H., which my copyist Schlemmer will deliver. I wrote it on hearing the day before yesterday of the arrival of Y.R.H. How much I grieve that the attack of jaundice with which I am affected prevents my at once hastening to Y.R.H. to express in person my joy at your arrival. May the Lord of all things, for the sake of so many others, take Y.R.H. under His protection! [K.] 302. TO THE MOST CELEBRATED MUSIC FIRM IN EUROPE, MESSRS. STEINER & CO., PATERNOSTER-(MISERERE) GÄSSEL. I request Geh’-bauer[1] to send me two tickets, as some of my friends wish to attend your hole-and-corner music. You probably have some of these worthless admission tickets; so let me have one or two. The part I send belongs to the Chorus, of which Bauer has the other portions. Your _amicus_ BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Gebauer established the “Concerts Spirituels” in 1819, and died in 1822.] 303. ADDRESS UNKNOWN. Baden, Sept. 27, 1821. I hope, sir, that you will forgive the liberty I take in thus intruding on you. The bearer of this, H. v. —-, has been commissioned by me to exchange or sell a bank-note. Being ignorant of everything connected with these matters, I beg you will be so good as to communicate your views and advice to the bearer. The two illnesses I had last winter and summer rather deranged all my calculations. I have been here since the 7th of September, and must remain till the end of October. All this costs a great deal of money, and prevents my earning it as usual. I indeed expect shortly to receive money from abroad, but as bank-notes stand so high at present, I consider this the easiest resource, and intend subsequently to purchase a new bank-note in its place. Immediate–in haste. Your friend, BEETHOVEN. [This unsealed letter was enclosed in an envelope on which was written:] You will at once see what kind of commercial genius I am. After writing the enclosed, I for the first time consulted a friend about the note, who pointed out to me that all I had to do was to cut off a _coupon_, and the affair was completed. I rejoice, therefore, not to be obliged to plague you further on the subject. Yours, BEETHOVEN. 304. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. Feb. 27, 1822. I went to-day early to the Palace, not, indeed, with the intention of meeting Y.R.H., (not being yet dressed), but only to beg Zips to mention that I had called, and was sincerely rejoiced at your arrival here; but I could no longer discover Y.R.H.’s apartments, and wherever I knocked in the hope of finding Y.R.H., my dress seemed to be so closely scrutinized that I hurried away, and write to-day to recommend myself to Y.R.H. To-morrow I intend to pay my respects to Y.R.H., when I hope also to hear whether the usual _musical and intellectual meetings_ are to continue, and when they are to take place. My not having written all this time to Y.R.H. has indeed a very bad appearance, but I delayed from day to day, hoping always to send the Mass, the mistakes in which were really quite dreadful; so much so that I was obliged to revise _every part_, and thus the delay occurred. Other pressing occupations and various circumstances tended to impede me, which is often the case when a man least expects it. That Y.R.H., however, was ever present with me is shown by the following copies of some novelties,[1] which have been lying finished by me for some time for Y.R.H., but I resolved not to forward them till I could at the same time send the Mass. The latter now only requires binding, when it shall be respectfully delivered to Y.R.H. by myself. Sincerely rejoiced at the hope of soon personally waiting on Y.R.H., I remain, with devoted homage, yours till death. [K.] [Footnote 1: The _novelties_ which Beethoven sends to the Archduke are:– Six _bagatelles_ for the pianoforte, Op. 126 (composed in 1821). Sonata for pianoforte in E major ” 109 ( ” ” ?1821). ” ” ” A flat major ” 110 ( ” ” 1821).] 305. TO F. RIES,–LONDON. Vienna, April 6, 1822. MY DEAREST AND BEST RIES,– Having been again in bad health during the last ten months, I have hitherto been unable to answer your letter. I duly received the 26l. sterling, and thank you sincerely; I have not, however, yet got the sonata you dedicated to me. My greatest work is a _Grand Mass_ that I have recently written. As time presses, I can only say what is most urgent. What would the Philharmonic give me for a symphony? I still cherish the hope of going to London next spring, if my health admits of it! You will find in me one who can thoroughly appreciate my dear pupil, now become a great master, and who can tell what benefit art might derive from our conjunction! I am, as ever, wholly devoted to my Muse, who constitutes the sole happiness of my life, and I toil and act for others as I best can. You have two children; I only one (my brother’s son); but you are married, so both yours will not cost you so much as my one costs me. Now farewell! kiss your handsome wife for me until I can perform this solemn act in person. Your attached BEETHOVEN. Pray send me your dedication, that I may strive to return the compliment, which I mean to do as soon as I receive your work. 306. TO HERREN PETERS & CO., MUSIC PUBLISHERS,–LEIPZIG. Vienna, June 5, 1822. GENTLEMEN,– You did me the honor to address a letter to me at a time when I was much occupied, and I have also been extremely unwell for the last five months. I now only reply to the principal points. Although I met Steiner by chance a few days ago, and asked him jestingly what he had brought me from Leipzig, he did not make _the smallest_ allusion to _your commission or to yourself_. He urged me, however, in the very strongest manner, to _pledge myself to give him the exclusive right of publishing all my works, both present and future_,–and indeed to _sign a contract to that effect_,–which I declined. This _trait_ sufficiently proves to you why I often give the preference to other publishers both home and foreign. I love uprightness and integrity, and am of opinion that no one should drive a hard bargain with artists, for, alas! however brilliant the exterior of Fame may appear, an artist does not enjoy the privilege of being the daily guest of Jupiter on Olympus; unhappily commonplace humanity only too often unpleasantly drags him down from these pure ethereal heights. The _greatest_ work I have hitherto written is a _Grand Mass_ with Choruses, and four _obbligati_ voice parts, and full orchestra. Several persons have applied to me for this work, and I have been offered 100 Louis d’or, hard cash, for it; but I demand at least 1000 florins C.M. [20 florins to the mark], for which sum I will also furnish a pianoforte arrangement. Variations on a waltz [Diabelli’s] for the piano (they are numerous), 30 ducats in gold,–N.B. Vienna ducats. With regard to songs, I have several rather important descriptive ones: as, for example, a comic Aria, with full orchestra, on Goethe’s text, “Mit Mädeln sich vertragen;” and another Aria, in the same style, 16 ducats each (furnishing also a pianoforte arrangement if required); also several descriptive songs, with pianoforte accompaniment, 12 ducats each; among these is a little Italian Cantata, with Recitative; there is also a Song with recitative among the German ones. A Song with pianoforte accompaniment, 8 ducats. An Elegy, four voices, with the accompaniment of _two violins, viola, and violoncello_, 24 ducats. A Dervise Chorus, with full orchestra, 20 ducats. Also the following instrumental music: a Grand March for full orchestra, with pianoforte accompaniment, 12 ducats, written for the tragedy of “Tarpeia.” Romance for the violin (a solo with full orchestra), 15 ducats. Grand Terzet for two oboes, and one English horn (which might be arranged for other instruments), 30 ducats. Four military Marches with Turkish music; when applied for, I will name the sum. _Bagatelles_, or minor pianoforte solos, the price to be fixed when required. The above works are all completed. Solo pianoforte Sonata, 40 ducats (which could soon be delivered); Quartet for _two violins, tenor, and violoncello_, 50 ducats (this will also soon be ready). I am by no means so anxious about these, however, as about _a full and complete edition of my works_, being desirous to edit them during my lifetime. I have indeed received many proposals on this subject, but accompanied by stipulations to which I could scarcely agree, and which I neither could nor would fulfil. I am willing to undertake, in the course of two years, or possibly a year, or a year and a half, with proper assistance, to edit and superintend a complete edition of my works, and to furnish a new composition in each style; namely, a new work in the style of variations, one in the sonata style, and so on in every separate class of work that I have ever composed, and for the whole combined I ask 10,000 florins C.M. I am no man of business, and only wish I were; as it is, I am guided by the offers made to me by different competitors for my works, and such a competition is rather strong just now. I request you to say nothing on the subject, because, as you may perceive from the proceedings of these gentlemen, I am exposed to a great deal of annoyance. When once my works appear published by you, I shall no longer be plagued. I shall be very glad if a connection be established between us, having heard you so well spoken of. You will then also find that I infinitely prefer dealing with _one_ person of your description than with a variety of people of the ordinary stamp. Pray, let me have an immediate answer, as I am now on the verge of deciding on the publication of various works. If you consider it worth while, be so good as to send me a duplicate of the list with which you furnished Herr Steiner. In the expectation of a speedy reply, I remain, with esteem, Your obedient LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN. 307. TO HERREN PETERS & CO. Vienna, July 26, 1822. I write merely to say that I agree to give you the Mass and pianoforte arrangement of it for 1000 florins C.M. You shall receive the above, written out in score, by the end of July, perhaps a few days sooner or later. As I am always very much occupied, and have been indisposed for the last five months, and works to be sent to a distance requiring the most careful supervision, I must proceed rather more slowly than usual. At all events, Steiner shall get nothing further from me, as he has just played me a most Jewish trick; so he is not one of those who might have had the Mass. The competition for my works is at present very great, for which I thank the Almighty, as I have hitherto been such a loser. I am the foster-father of my brother’s destitute child, a boy who shows so much aptitude for scientific pursuits that not only does his study of these, and his maintenance, cost a great deal of money, but I must also strive to make some future provision for him; being neither Indians nor Iroquois, who, as we know, leave everything to Providence, whereas we consider a pauper’s existence to be a very sad one. I assure you on my honor, which, next to God, is what I prize most, that I authorized no one to accept commissions for me. My fixed principle has always been never to make any offer to publishers; not from pride, but simply from a wish to ascertain how far the empire of my small talents extended. I must conclude for to-day, and wishing you every success, I am, with esteem, Your obedient BEETHOVEN. 308.[1] TO HERR PETERS. Vienna, August 3, 1822. I already wrote to you that my health was still far from being quite restored. I am obliged to have recourse to baths and mineral waters as well as to medicine; all this makes me rather unpunctual, especially as I must go on writing; corrections, too, run away with a great deal of time. As to the songs and marches and other trifles, my choice is still undecided, but by the 15th of this month everything shall be ready to be sent off. I await your orders on the subject, and in the mean time shall make no use of your bill of exchange. As soon as I know that the money for the Mass and the other works has arrived here, all shall be ready for delivery by the 15th; and after that date I must set off to some mineral waters near this, when it will be most desirable for me to avoid all business for a time. More as to other matters when less occupied. Pray, do not suspect me of any ignoble motives. It pains me when I am obliged to bargain. In haste. With esteem, yours, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Schindler states that the advance of 360 florins C.M. was made to Beethoven in August, 1822. The receipt is dated Nov. 30, 1825.] 309. TO HERR ARTARIA. August 22, 1822. Being overwhelmed with work, I can only briefly say that I will always do what I can to repay your obliging kindness to me. With regard to the Mass, I have been offered 1000 florins (C.M.) for it. My circumstances do not permit me to accept a less sum from you; all that I can do is to give you the preference. Rest assured that I do not ask you one farthing more than others have offered me, which I can prove to you by written documents. You can consider about this, but I must request you to send me an answer on the subject to-morrow, it being a post-day, and my decision expected elsewhere. With regard to the 150 florins for which I am your debtor, I intend to make you a proposal, as I stand in great need of the 1000 florins. I beg you will observe strict secrecy as to the Mass. Now, as ever, Your grateful friend, BEETHOVEN. 310. TO HERR PETERS,–LEIPZIG Vienna, November 22, 1822. I now reply to your letter of the 9th November, in which I expected to find just reproaches for my apparent negligence, you having sent me the money and as yet received nothing in return. Unfair as this may appear, I know you would be mollified towards me in a few minutes were we to meet. Everything is now ready for you, except selecting the songs, but at all events you shall receive one more than our agreement. I can send you more _bagatelles_ than I promised, as I have got ten others beside; if you write to me immediately, I will send you these, or as many as you wish for, along with the rest. My health, indeed, is not entirely reestablished by the baths, yet on the whole I think I have improved. I had another annoyance here, owing to a person having engaged an unsuitable lodging for me, which is hard on me, as I cannot yet accustom myself to it, and my occupations are thus sadly deranged. The case with regard to the Mass stands thus: I finished one long ago, and another is in progress. There is always a certain degree of gossip about people of our class, which has, no doubt, misled you. I don’t yet know which you are to get. Besieged on all sides, I am almost forced to testify the reverse of the _dictum_ that “the spirit cannot be weighed.” I send you my best wishes, and trust that time will foster a beneficial and honorable connection between us. BEETHOVEN. 311. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. I was extremely unwell both yesterday and the day before; unfortunately there was no one whom I could send to apprise Y.R.H. of the fact. As I felt better towards evening, I went into the town to make Schlemmer correct the Sonata.[1] He was not at home, so I requested him to come here to-day. I send the Sonata by him, and will come in to-day before four o’clock to wait on Y.R.H. [K.] [Footnote 1: The C minor pianoforte Sonata, Op. 111?] 312. TO HERR PETERS. Vienna, December 20, 1822. I take advantage of a moment’s leisure to-day to answer your letter. Not one of all the works that are your property is unfinished, but time is too precious to particularize all the details that prevent the copying and sending off the music to you. I recollect in a former letter having offered you some more _bagatelles_, but I by no means press you to take them. If you wish only to have the four, so be it; but in that case I must make a different selection. Herr —- has not as yet got anything from me. Herr —- begged me to make him a present of the songs for the “Journal de la Mode,” which, in fact, I did not write for money; indeed, I find it quite impossible to act in every case according to so much _per cent_. It is painful for me to calculate in this manner oftener than is absolutely necessary. My position is far from being so brilliant as you think, &c., &c. It is not possible to listen to all these proposals at once, being far too numerous, but many cannot be refused. A commission is not always quite in accordance with the inclinations of an author. If my salary were not so far reduced as to be no salary at all,[1] I would write nothing but symphonies for a full orchestra, and church music, or at most quartets. Of my minor works, you can still have Variations for two oboes and one English horn, on the theme from “Don Giovanni,” “_La ci darem la mano_,” and a Gratulation Minuet for a full orchestra. I should be glad, likewise, to have your opinion about the full edition of my works. In the most desperate haste, your obedient BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: It was reduced from 4000 gulden to 800.] 313. TO F. RIES,–LONDON Vienna, December 20, 1822. MY DEAR RIES,– I have been so overburdened with work that I am only now able to reply to your letter of November 15. I accept with pleasure the proposal to write a new symphony for the Philharmonic Society. Although the prices given by the English cannot be compared with those paid by other nations, still I would gladly write even gratis for those whom I consider the first artists in Europe–were I not still, as ever, the poor Beethoven. If I were only in London, what would I not write for the Philharmonic! For Beethoven, thank God! can write–if he can do nothing in the world besides! If Providence only vouchsafes to restore my health, which is at least improving, I shall then be able to respond to the many proposals from all parts of Europe, and even North America, and may thus perhaps be some day in clover. 314. TO IGNAZ RITTER VON SEYFRIED. 1822. MY DEAR AND WORTHY BROTHER IN APOLLO,– I heartily thank you for the trouble you have taken in aiding my _charitable work_.[1] I rejoice that its success is universally admitted, and hope you will never fail to let me know when it is in my power to serve you by my poor talents. The worthy municipal corporation is, no doubt, thoroughly convinced of my good-will; in order to give fresh proofs of it, we ought to have a friendly interview as to the mode in which I can best serve the corporation. When such a master as yourself takes an interest in us, our pinions ought never to droop. I am, with the warmest esteem, Your friend, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Seyfried, at a concert for the benefit of the Burgher Hospital, performed Beethoven’s grand fugue _Fest Ouverture_ (in C major, in Op. 124), 1822, in celebration of the opening of the new Josephstadt Theatre. The written parts were returned to him with the grateful thanks of the committee.] THIRD PART LIFE’S TROUBLES AND CLOSE. 1823 TO 1827. 315. TO ZELTER.[1] Vienna, Feb. 8, 1823. MY BRAVE COLLEAGUE IN ART,– I write, having a favor to ask of you, for we are now so distant from each other that we can no longer converse together, and, indeed, unhappily, we can seldom write either. I have written a grand mass, which might also be given as an oratorio (for the benefit of the poor, a good established custom here). I do not wish to publish it in the usual way, but to dispose of it to some of the leading courts alone. I ask fifty ducats for it. No copies are to be sold except those subscribed for, so that the mass will be, as it were, in manuscript; but there must be a fair number of subscribers, if any profit is to accrue to the author. I have made an application to the Prussian embassy here, to know if the King of Prussia would vouchsafe to take a copy, and I have also written to Prince Radziwill, to ask him to interest himself in the affair. I beg you likewise to do what you can for me. It is a work that might likewise be useful to the Academy of Singing, for there is scarcely any portion of it that could not be almost entirely executed by voices. The more these are increased and multiplied in combination with instruments, the more effective would be the result. It ought to be appropriate also as an oratorio, for such societies as those for the benefit of the poor require marks of this kind. Having been an invalid for some years past, and consequently my position anything but brilliant, I have had recourse to this scheme. I have written much; but as to profits, they are nearly _nil_! The more do I look upwards; but both for his own sake, and that of others, man is obliged to turn his eyes earthwards; for this, too, is part of the destiny of humanity. I embrace you, my dear fellow-artist, and am, with sincere esteem, Your friend, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Zelter was in Vienna in 1819.] 316. TO F. RIES,–LONDON. … Manage this as soon as you can for your poor friend. I also expect my travelling route from you. Things have become quite too bad here, and I am fleeced worse than ever. If I do not go at all, lo! and behold a _crimen laesae_!… As it seems that you wish soon to have a dedication from me, I gladly comply with your request, much more so than with that of any great man; though, _entre nous_, the devil alone can tell how soon one may fall into their hands! The dedication to you will be written on the new symphony; and I hope I shall at length receive yours to me. B. is to open the letter he took charge of for the King [George IV.], in which he will see what I have written to His Majesty on the subject of the “Battle of Vittoria.” The tenor of the enclosed is the same; but not a word as to the mass.[1] Our amiable friend B. must try to get me at least a battle-axe or a turtle for it! The engraved copy of the score of “The Battle” must also be presented to the King. This letter will cost you a good deal [seventeen shillings]; but I beg you will deduct it from your remittance to me. How much I regret being so troublesome! May God prosper you! Say all that is amiable to your wife till I come myself. Beware! you think me old; but I am a young veteran! Yours, as ever, B. [Footnote 1: On February 24, 1823, Beethoven wrote to the King of England that, so far back as 1813, he had sent him “Wellington’s Victory,” but never had received any communication on the subject; he, therefore, now sent an engraved copy of the work, which had been intended for him since 1815. He closed the letter by saying: “Convinced of the discrimination and kindness which your Majesty has always evinced in protecting and encouraging art and artists, the undersigned ventures to hope that your Majesty will graciously take the matter into consideration, and vouchsafe to comply with his respectful solicitation.”] 317. TO SCHINDLER. MY VERY BEST OPTIMUS OPTIME,– Pray try to hunt out a philanthropist who will advance me some money on a bank-share, that I may not put the generosity of my friends too much to the test, nor myself be placed in difficulty by the delay of this money, for which I have to thank the fine plans and arrangements of my precious brother. You must not let it appear that this money is really wanted. 318. TO SCHINDLER. DEAR SCHINDLER,– Don’t forget the bank-share. It is greatly needed; it would be very annoying to be brought into court; indeed, I would not be so for the whole world. My brother’s conduct is quite worthy of him. The tailor is appointed to come to-day, still I hope to be able to get rid of him for the present by a few polite phrases. 319. TO HERR KIND. DEAR KIND,– I intend to call on you at latest on Wednesday afternoon at four o’clock, when I will settle everything. Your obedient BEETHOVEN. 320. TO CHERUBINI.[1] March 15, 1823. HIGHLY ESTEEMED SIR,– I joyfully take advantage of this opportunity to address you. I have done so frequently in spirit, as I prize your theatrical works beyond others. The artistic world has only to lament that, in Germany at least, no new dramatic piece of yours has appeared. Highly as all your works are valued by true connoisseurs, still it is a great loss to art not to possess any fresh production of your great genius for the theatre. True art is imperishable, and the true artist feels heartfelt pleasure in grand works of genius, and that is what enchants me when I hear a new composition of yours; in fact, I take greater interest in it than in my own; in short, I love and honor you. Were it not that my continued bad health prevents my going to see you in Paris, with what exceeding delight would I discuss questions of art with you! Do not think that this is merely intended to serve as an introduction to the favor I am about to ask of you. I hope and feel convinced that you do not for a moment suspect me of such base sentiments. I recently completed a grand solemn mass, and have resolved to offer it to the various European courts, as it is not my intention to publish it at present. I have therefore solicited the King of France, through the French embassy here, to subscribe to this work, and I feel certain that his Majesty would, at your recommendation, agree to do so. _Ma situation critique demande que je ne fixe pas seulement, comme ordinnaire, mes voeux au ciel; au contraire, il faut les fixer aussi_ [“_aussi_” in Beethoven’s hand] _en bas pour les nécessités de la vie._ Whatever may be the fate of my request to you, I shall forever continue to love and esteem you, _et vous resterez toujours celui de mes contemporains que je l’estime le plus. Si vous me voulez faire un extrême plaisir, c’était si vous m’écrivez quelques lignes, ce que me soulagera bien. L’art unit tout le monde_, how much more, then, true artists, _et peut-être vous me dignez aussi_ to include me in that number. _Avec le plus haut estime_, _Votre ami et serviteur_, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Cherubini declared that he never received this letter.] 321. TO SCHINDLER.[1] DEAR SCHINDLER,– I am not sure whether the other copy was corrected or not, so I send you this one instead. As to N. in S—-, I beg you not to say a word; Bl. is already very uneasy on the subject. In haste, your friend, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: We cannot understand what induced Beethoven, who lived in the same house with Schindler, to write to him; but he often did so to persons with whom he could easily have spoken, partly in order to get rid of the matter while it was in his thoughts, and also because he was a great deal from home; that is, going backwards and forwards from one lodging to another, having often several at the same time.] 322. TO HERR PETERS,–LEIPZIG. Vienna, March 20, 1823. The other three marches are only to be sent off to-day, as I missed the post last week. Irregular as I have been on this occasion in our transactions, you would not think me so culpable if you were here, and aware of my position, a description of which would be too tedious both for you and me. I have now an observation to make with regard to what I have sent off to you. Several sets of wind instruments may combine in the performance of the Grand March, and if this cannot be done, and a regimental band is not strong enough for its present arrangement, any bandmaster can easily adapt it by omitting some of the parts. You can, no doubt, find some one in Leipzig to show you how this can be managed with a smaller number, although I should regret if it were not to appear engraved exactly as it is written. You must forgive the numerous corrections in the works I send; my old copyist no longer sees distinctly, and the younger one has yet to be trained, but at all events there are no errors left. It is impossible for me to comply at once with your request for a stringed and a pianoforte quartet, but if you will write to me fixing the time you wish to have both works, I will do what I can to complete them. I must, however, apprise you that I cannot accept less than 50 ducats for a stringed quartet, and 70 for a pianoforte one, without incurring loss; indeed, I have repeatedly been offered more than 50 ducats for a violin quartet. I am, however, always unwilling to ask more than necessary, so I adhere to the sum of 50 ducats, which is, in fact, nowadays the usual price. The other commission is indeed an uncommon one, and I, of course, accept it, only I must beg you to let me know soon when it is required; otherwise, willing as I am to give you the preference, I might find it almost impossible to do so. You know I wrote to you formerly that quartets were precisely what had risen most in value, which makes me feel positively ashamed when I have to ask a price for a _really great work_. Still, such is my position that it obliges me to secure every possible advantage. It is very different, however, with the work itself; when I never, thank God, think of _profit_, but solely of _how I write it_. It so happens that two others besides yourself wish to have a mass of mine, and I am quite disposed to write at least three. The first has long been finished, the second not yet so, and the third not even begun. But in reference to yourself, I must have a certainty, that I may in any event be secure. More of this next time I write; do not remit the money, at any rate till you hear from me that the work is ready to be sent off. I must now conclude. I hope your distress is, by this time, in some degree alleviated. Your friend, BEETHOVEN. 323. TO ZELTER. Vienna, March 25, 1823. SIR,– I avail myself of the present opportunity to send you my best wishes. The bearer of this asked me to recommend her to you; her name is Cornega; she has a fine _mezzo soprano_, and is a very artistic singer, and has, moreover, been favorably received in several operas. I have also specially considered your proposals about your Academy for Singing. If the Mass is ever published, I will send you a copy free of all charge. There is no doubt that it might be almost entirely executed _à la capella_; in which case, however, the work would have to be arranged accordingly; perhaps you have patience to do this. Besides, there is already a movement in the work quite _à la capella_, and that style may be specially termed the true church style. Thanks for your wish to be of service to me, but never would I accept anything whatever from so highly esteemed an artist as yourself. I honor you, and only wish I could have an opportunity to prove this by my actions. I am, with high consideration, Your friend and servant, BEETHOVEN. 324. TO HIS IMPERIAL HIGHNESS THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. The Spring of 1823. YOUR IMPERIAL HIGHNESS,– It must still be some days before I can wait on you again, as I am in the greatest hurry to send off the works that I named to your R.H. yesterday, for if they are not punctually dispatched, I might lose all profit. Your R.H. can easily understand how much time is occupied in getting copies made, and looking through every part; indeed, it would not be easy to find a more troublesome task. Your R.H. will, I am sure, gladly dispense with my detailing all the toil caused by this kind of thing, but I am compelled to allude to it candidly, though only in so far as is absolutely necessary to prevent your R.H. being misled with regard to me, knowing, alas! only too well what efforts are made to _prejudice your R.H. against_ me. But time will prove that I have been in all respects most faithful and attached to your R.H., and if my position were only as great as my zeal to serve your R.H., no happier man than myself would exist. I am your R.H.’s faithful and obedient servant, BEETHOVEN. 325. TO SCHINDLER. _Imprimis._–Papageno, not a word of what I said about Prussia. No reliance is to be placed on it; Martin Luther’s table-talk alone can be compared to it. I earnestly beg my brother also not to remove the padlock from his lips, and not to allow anything to transpire beyond the Selchwurst-Gasse.[1] _Finis._–Inquire of that arch-churl Diabelli when the French copy of the Sonata in C minor [Op. 111] is to be published. I stipulated to have five copies for myself, one of which is to be on fine paper, for the Cardinal [the Archduke Rudolph]. If he attempts any of his usual impertinence on this subject, I will sing him in person a bass aria in his warehouse which shall cause it and all the street (Graben) to ring![2] [Footnote 1: Schindler relates: “The royal decision (to subscribe for a copy of the mass) was brought to Beethoven by the Chancellor of the Embassy, Hofrath Wernhard. Whether Prince Hatzfeld [the Ambassador] made the following offer from his own impulse, or in consequence of a commission from Berlin, is not known. At all events, the Hofrath put this question in the name of the prince to the great composer, ‘Whether he would be disposed to prefer a royal order to the fifty ducats’ [the sum demanded for the mass]. Beethoven replied at once, ‘The fifty ducats.’ Scarcely had the Chancellor left the room when Beethoven, in considerable excitement, indulged in all kinds of sarcastic remarks on the manner in which many of his contemporaries hunted after orders and decorations, these being in his estimation generally gained at the cost of the sanctity of art.”] [Footnote 2: Schindler relates that Diabelli had refused to let Beethoven again have the MS. of the Sonata, which he had repeatedly sent for when in the hands of the engraver, in order to correct and improve it. Diabelli therefore coolly submitted to all this abuse of the enraged composer, and wrote to him that he would note down the threatened bass aria, and publish it, but would give him the usual gratuity for it, and that Beethoven had better come to see him. On this Beethoven said no more. This Sonata is dedicated to the Archduke Rudolph, and is also published by Schlesinger.] 326. TO F. RIES,–LONDON. Vienna, April 25, 1823. DEAR RIES,– The Cardinal’s stay here of a month robbed me of a great deal of time, being obliged to give him daily lessons of two or three hours each; and after such lessons I was scarcely able next day to think, far less to write. My continued melancholy situation compels me, however, to write immediately what will bring me in sufficient money for present use. What a sad revelation is this! I am, besides, far from well, owing to my many troubles,–weak eyes among others. But do not be uneasy, you shall shortly receive the Symphony; really and truly, my distressing condition is alone to blame for the delay. In the course of a few weeks you shall have thirty-three new variations on a theme [Valse, Op. 120] dedicated to your wife. Bauer [First Secretary to the Austrian Embassy] has the score of the “Battle of Vittoria,” which was dedicated to the then Prince Regent, and for which I have still to receive the costs of copying. I do beg you, my dear friend, to remit me as soon as possible anything you can get for it. With regard to your tender conjugal discussion, you will always find an opponent in me,–that is, not so much an opponent of yours as a partisan of your wife’s. I remain, as ever, your friend, BEETHOVEN. 327. TO HERR LISSNER,–PETERSBURG. Vienna, May 7, 1823. SIR,– Herr v. Schuppanzigh assured me, when he was here, that you were anxious to acquire some of my productions for your house. Perhaps the following works might suit your purpose, namely: six _bagatelles_ for pianoforte, 20 gold ducats; thirty-five variations on a favorite theme for pianoforte, forming one entire work, 30 gold ducats; two grand airs with chorus, the poetry by Goethe and Matthisson, which can be sung either with instrumental or pianoforte accompaniment, 12 gold ducats. I request an answer as soon as possible, for others also wish to have my works. I am, sir, your obedient LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN. 328.[1] TO SCHINDLER. Hetzendorf, 1823. SAMOTHRACIAN VAGABOND!–[2] You must hunt out from Schlemmer [the copyist] what is still wanting in the “Kyrie;” show him the postscript, and so, _satis_, no more of such a wretch! Farewell! arrange everything; I am to bind up my eyes at night, and to spare them as much as possible; otherwise, says Smetana, I shall write little more music in the time to come. [Footnote 1: “We arrived at Hetzendorf on May 17” is written by Carl in Beethoven’s note-book of 1823; and on this note is written, in the “scamp’s” hand, Hetzendorf, 1823.] [Footnote 2: “By the word ‘Samothracian,’ Beethoven alludes to the Samothracian Mysteries, partly grounded on music. Their mutual participation in the Beethoven Mysteries is intended to be thus indicated. Among the initiated were also Brunswick, Lichnowsky, and Zmeskall.” [From a note of Schindler’s on the subject.]] 329. TO SCHINDLER. Hetzendorf, 1823 (?). Pray, forward the packet to-day, and inquire this afternoon, if possible, about the housekeeper in the Glockengasse, No. 318, 3d Étage. She is a widow, understands cookery, and is willing to serve merely for board and lodging, to which, of course, I cannot consent, or only under certain conditions. My present one is too shameful. I cannot invite you here, but be assured of my gratitude. 330. TO SCHINDLER.[1] Hetzendorf, 1823. I enclose the letter to Herr v. Obreskow [Chargé d’Affaires of the Russian Legation]; as soon as I receive the money, I will immediately send you 50 florins for your trouble. Not a word more than what is absolutely necessary! I have advertised your house. You can mention, merely as a casual remark at the right moment, that France also remitted the money to you. Never forget that such persons represent Majesty itself. [Footnote 1: Louis VIII. sent a gold medal for his subscription copy of the Mass on February 20, 1824.] 331. TO SCHINDLER. I beg you will kindly write out the enclosed invitation neatly for me on the paper I send you, for Carl has too much to do. I wish to dispatch it early on Wednesday. I want to know where Grillparzer lives; perhaps I may pay him a visit myself.[1] You must have a little patience about the 50 florins; as yet it is impossible for me to send them, for which you are as much to blame as I am. [Footnote 1: It is well known that in the winter of 1822-23 Beethoven was engaged in the composition of an opera for the Royal Theatre; for which purpose Grillparzer had given him his _Melusina_.] 332. TO SCHINDLER. I send K.’s [Kanne’s] book [libretto]. Except the first act, which is rather insipid, it is written in such a masterly style that it does not by any means require a first-rate composer. I will not say that on this very account it would be the more suitable for me; still, if I can get rid of previous engagements, who knows what may or will happen! Please acknowledge the receipt of this. 333. TO SCHINDLER. I wish to know about Esterhazy, and also about the post. A letter-carrier from the Mauer [a place near Hetzendorf] was here; I only hope the message has been properly delivered. Nothing as yet from Dresden [see No. 330]. I mean to ask you to dine with me a few days hence, for I still suffer from my weak eyes; to-day, however, for the first time, they seem to improve, but I scarcely dare make any use of them as yet. Your friend, BEETHOVEN. P.S. As for the Tokay,[1] it is better adapted for _summer_ than for _autumn_, and also for some fiddler who could _respond_ to its noble fire, and yet _stand firm as a rock_. [Footnote 1: A musical friend had sent the _maestro_ six bottles of genuine Tokay, expressing his wish that it might tend to restore his strength. Schindler, he says, wrote to Beethoven at Hetzendorf, to tell him of this, and received the above answer, and the order through “Frau Schnaps” to do as he pleased with the wine. He sent one bottle of it to Hetzendorf, but Beethoven at that time had inflamed eyes.] 334. TO SCHINDLER. I cannot at present accept these tempting invitations [from Sonntag and Unger]; so far as my weak eyes permit, I am very busy, and when it is fine, I go out. I will myself thank these two fair ladies for their amiability. No tidings from Dresden. I shall wait till the end of this month, and then apply to a lawyer in Dresden. I will write about Schoberlechner to-morrow. 335. TO SCHINDLER. June 18, 1823. You ought to have perfectly well known that I would have nothing to do with the affair in question. With regard to my being “liberal,” I think I have shown you that I am so on principle; indeed, I suspect you must have observed that I even have gone _beyond_ these principles. _Sapienti sat._[1] [Footnote 1: Franz Schoberlechner, pianist in Vienna, wrote to Beethoven on June 25, 1823, to ask him for letters of introduction to Leipzig, Dresden, Berlin, and Russia, etc. The _maestro_, however, wrote across the letter, “An active fellow requires no other recommendation than from one respectable family to another,” and gave it back to Schindler, who showed it to Schoberlechner, and no doubt at his desire urged Beethoven to comply with his request. Beethoven, however, did not know Schoberlechner, and had no very high opinion of him, as he played chiefly _bravura_ pieces, and, besides, on the bills of his concerts, he pompously paraded all his titles, decorations, and as member of various societies, which gave ample subject for many a sarcastic remark on the part of Beethoven.] 336. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. Vienna, June 1, 1823. I have been always ailing since Y.R.H. left this, and latterly afflicted by severe inflammation of the eyes, which has now in so far subsided that for the last eight days I have been able once more to use my sight, though very sparingly. Y.R.H. will perceive from the enclosed receipt of June 27, the dispatch of some music. As Y.R.H. seemed to take pleasure in the C minor Sonata,[1] I thought I did not take too much on myself by surprising Y.R.H. with the dedication. The Variations[2] have been written out for at least five or six weeks past, but the state of my eyes did not permit me to revise them thoroughly myself. My hope of being entirely restored proved vain. At last I made Schlemmer look them over, so, though they may not look very neat, still they are correct. The C minor Sonata was engraved in Paris in a very faulty manner, and being engraved here from that copy, I tried to make it as correct as possible. I intend shortly to send you a beautifully engraved copy of the Variations. With regard to the Mass[3] that Y.R.H. wished should be more generally known, my continued bad health for some years past, causing me to incur heavy debts, and compelling me to give up my intention of going to England, induced me to ponder on some mode of improving my condition. This Mass seemed well adapted to my purpose. I was advised to offer it to different courts. Painful as this was to me, I felt that I should have cause for self-reproach if I neglected doing so. I therefore applied to various courts to subscribe to the Mass, fixing the price at fifty ducats; the general opinion being that this was not too much, and if there were a good many subscribers, the scheme would not be unprofitable. Hitherto the subscription is indeed flattering to me, as their Majesties of France and Prussia have each taken a copy. I also received a letter from my friend Prince Nicolaus Gallizin a few days ago, from Petersburg, in which this most amiable Prince mentions that H.M. the Emperor of Russia had become a subscriber, and that I should soon hear further on the subject from the Imperial Russian Embassy. Notwithstanding all this (and though there are some other subscribers), I have not yet realized as much as the sum a publisher offered me for it; the only advantage being that the work remains _mine_. The costs of copying are also great, and further increased by three new pieces being added, which, as soon as they are completed, I will send to Y.R.H. Perhaps you would not think it too much trouble to apply to H.R.H. the Grand Duke of Tuscany to take a copy of this Mass. The application was indeed made some time ago to the Grand Duke of Tuscany through the agent here, V. Odelga, who faithfully assured me that the proposal would be graciously accepted. I place no great faith, however, in this, as some months have elapsed, and no notice has been again taken of the application. As the affair is now set agoing, it is but natural that I should do all I can to attain my desired object. The undertaking was from the first disagreeable to me, and still more so to mention it to Y.R.H., or to allude to it at all, but “_necessity has no law_.” I only feel grateful to Him who dwells above the stars that I now begin once more to be able to use my eyes. I am at present writing a new symphony for England,[4] bespoken by the Philharmonic Society, and hope it will be quite finished fourteen days hence. I cannot strain my eyes as yet long at a time; I beg therefore Y.R.H.’s indulgence with regard to your Variations,[5] which appear to me very charming, but still require closer revision on my part. Y.R.H. has only to persevere, especially to accustom yourself to write down your ideas at once at the piano, quickly and briefly. For this purpose a small table ought to be placed close beside the piano. By this means not only is the imagination strengthened; but you learn instantly to hold fast the most fugitive ideas. It is equally necessary to be able to write without any piano; and sometimes a simple choral melody, to be carried out in simple or varied phrases, in counterpoint, or in a free manner, will certainly entail no headache on Y.R.H., but rather, in finding yourself thus right amid the centre of art, cause you very great pleasure. The faculty of representing precisely what we wish and feel comes by degrees; an essential _desideratum_ for a noble-minded man. My eyes warn me to conclude. With every kind and good wish for Y.R.H., I remain, &c., &c. [K.] POSTSCRIPT. If Y.R.H. should confer the happiness of a letter on me, I beg you will address to me at Vienna, for I shall receive all my letters here safely forwarded by the post from there. If agreeable to Y.R.H., I would beg you to recommend the Mass to Prince Anton in Dresden,[6] so that the King of Saxony may subscribe to it, which he will, no doubt, do if Y.R.H. shows any interest in the matter. As soon as I know that you have actually done me this favor, I will forthwith apply to the General-Director there[7] of the Royal Theatre and of Music, whose office it is to arrange these things, and send him a request to procure a subscription from the King of Saxony, which I am reluctant to do without a recommendation from Y.R.H. My opera, “Fidelio,” was performed with much applause in Dresden at the festivities there in honor of the visit of the King of Bavaria, when their Majesties were all present. I received this intelligence from the above-named director-general, who asked me for the score through Weber, and afterwards sent me really a very handsome present in return. I hope Y.R.H. will excuse my intruding such a request on you, but Y.R.H. knows that I am not usually importunate. Should, however, the slightest obstacle arise to render my request disagreeable to you, I shall not be the less convinced of your generosity and kindness. Neither avarice, nor the love of speculation, which I have always avoided, prompted this scheme; but necessity compels me to use every effort to rescue my self from my present condition. Candor is best, for it will prevent my being too hardly judged. Owing to constant ill health, which has prevented my writing as usual, I have incurred a debt of 200 to 300 florins C.M.,[8] which can only be discharged by vigorous exertions on my part. If my subscription succeeds better than it has hitherto done, it will be an effectual help, and if my health improves, of which there is every hope, I shall be able once more to resume my compositions with fresh energy. In the mean time I trust Y.R.H. will not be offended by my candor. Had it not been the fear of being accused of not sufficiently _bestirring_ myself, I would have persevered in my usual silence. As to the recommendation, I am at all events convinced that Y.R.H. is always glad to effect good results for others when _possible_, and that you are not likely to make any exception in my case. [Footnote 1: This Sonata, Op. 111, dedicated to the Archduke Rudolph, was composed in 1822, and published by Schlesinger in the beginning of 1823.] [Footnote 2: These _Variations_ are, no doubt, the 33 C major Variations for pianoforte, Op. 120, on a waltz of Diabelli’s, dedicated to Madame Brentano, composed in 1823, and published in the June of the same year.] [Footnote 3: The Grand Mass in D.] [Footnote 4: The symphony which Beethoven declared he had completed in fourteen days was the 9th in D minor, composed in 1822 or 1823, first performed on the 7th May, and published in 1826.] [Footnote 5: The Archduke’s Variations alluded to by Beethoven are not published or now known.] [Footnote 6: In a letter from the Archduke Rudolph of July 31, 1823, he says, “My brother-in-law, Prince Anton, has written to me that the King of Saxony is expecting your beautiful Mass.”] [Footnote 7: The director-general of the musical Court band and opera in Dresden (1823) was Von Könneritz.] [Footnote 8: This debt of 200 to 300 florins had only been incurred by Beethoven in order not to sell out his shares in the Austrian Loan; he was in no need.] 337. TO SCHINDLER. Hetzendorf, July 1, 1823. I am myself writing to Wocher [cabinet courier to Prince Esterhazy? No. 333], and for more speed I send by Carl, who chances to be driving in, the application to Prince E. Be so good as to inquire the result; I doubt its being favorable, not expecting much kindly feeling on his part towards me, judging from former days.[1] I believe that female influence alone ensures success with him in such matters; at all events, I now know, by your obliging inquiries, how I can safely write to this Scholz. The bad weather, and more especially the bad atmosphere, prevented my paying her [Countess Schafgotsch] a visit about this affair.[2] Your _amicus_, BEETHOVEN. P.S. Nothing yet from Dresden! Schlemmer [the copyist] has just been here asking again for money. I have now advanced him 70 Gulden. Speculations are for commercial men, and not for poor devils like myself. Hitherto the sole fruit of this unlucky speculation [a subscription for his Mass] are only more debts. You have, no doubt, seen that the “Gloria” is completed. If my eyes were only strong again, so that I could resume my writing, I should do well enough. [Written on the cover:] Are the Variations [Op. 120] sent off yet to London? N.B.–So far as I can remember, it was not mentioned in the application to Prince Esterhazy that the Mass was to be delivered in manuscript only. What mischief may ensue from this! I suspect that such was the intention of Herr Artaria in proposing to present the Mass _gratis_ to the Prince, as it would give Artaria an opportunity for the third time to steal one of my works. Wocher’s attention must be called to this. Of course, there is nothing obligatory on Papageno in the matter. [Footnote 1: Beethoven wrote the Mass in C for him in the year 1807, which was by no means satisfactory to the prince when performed at Eisenstadt in the year following, and conducted by Beethoven himself.] [Footnote 2: Scholz, music director at Warmbrunn in Silesia, had written a German text for the Mass in C. Beethoven also wished to have from him a German translation from the Latin words adapted to the music of the Grand Mass. Schindler says, that the words “prevented my visiting her” refer to Countess Schafgotsch, whom Beethoven wished to see on account of Scholz, who unhappily died in the ensuing year. His text, however, is given in the _Cecilia_, 23-54.] 338. TO PILAT, EDITOR OF THE “AUSTRIAN OBSERVER.” SIR,– I shall feel highly honored if you will be so good as to mention in your esteemed journal my nomination as an honorary member of the Royal Swedish Musical Academy. Although neither vain nor ambitious, still I consider it advisable not wholly to pass over such an occurrence, as in practical life we must live and work for others, who may often eventually benefit by it. Forgive my intrusion, and let me know if I can in any way serve you in return, which it would give me much pleasure to do. I am, sir, with high consideration, Your obedient BEETHOVEN. 339. TO SCHINDLER. Hetzendorf, July, 1823. MOST WORTHY RAGAMUFFIN OF EPIRUS AND BRUNDUSIUM!– Give this letter to the editor of the “Observer,” but write the address on it first; ask him at the same time whether his daughter makes great progress on the piano, and if I can be of any use to her by sending her a copy of one of my compositions. I wrote that I was an “_honorary_ member;” I don’t know, however, whether this is correct; perhaps I ought to have said, “a corresponding member;” neither knowing nor caring much about such things. You had also better say something on the subject to _Bernardum non sanctum_ (editor of the “Vienna Zeitschrift”). Make inquiries, too, from Bernard about that knave Ruprecht; tell him of this queer business, and find out from him how he can punish the villain. Ask both these philosophical newspaper scribes whether this may be considered an honorable or dishonorable nomination. 340. TO SCHINDLER. Master flash in the pan, and wide of the mark! full of reasons, yet devoid of reason!–Everything was ready yesterday for Gläser (the copyist). As for you, I shall expect you in Hetzendorf to dinner at half-past two o’clock. If you come later, dinner shall be kept for you. 341. TO SCHINDLER. Hetzendorf, July 2, 1823. WORTHY HERR V. SCHINDLER,– The incessant insolence of my landlord from the hour I entered his house up to the present moment compels me to apply for aid to the police; so I beg you will do so for me at once. As to the double winter windows, the housekeeper was desired to see about them, and especially to state if they were not necessary after such a violent storm, in case of the rain having penetrated into the room; but her report was that the rain had not come in, and, moreover, that it could not possibly do so. In accordance with her statement, I locked the door to prevent this rude man entering my room during my absence (which he had threatened). Say also further what his conduct to you was, and that he put up a placard of the lodgings being to let, without giving me notice, which, besides, he has no right to do till St. James’s Day. He is equally unfair in refusing to give up the receipt from St. George’s Day till St. James’s, as the enclosure shows; I am charged, too, for lighting, of which I know nothing. This detestable lodging,[1] without any open stove, and the principal flue truly abominable, has cost me (for extra outlay, exclusive of the rent) 259 florins, in order merely to keep me alive while I was there during the winter. It was a deliberate fraud, as I never was allowed to see the rooms on the first floor, but only those on the second, that I might not become aware of their many disagreeable drawbacks. I cannot understand how a flue _so destructive to health can be tolerated by the Government_. You remember the appearance of the walls of your room owing to smoke, and the large sum it cost even to lessen in any degree this discomfort, although to do away with it wholly was impossible. My chief anxiety at present is that he may be ordered to take down his placard, and to give me a receipt for the house-rent I have paid; but nothing will induce me to pay for the abominable lighting, without which it cost me enough actually to preserve my life in such a lodging. My eyes do not yet suffer me to encounter the town atmosphere, or I would myself apply in person to the police. Your attached BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: The Pfarrgasse, in the Laimgrube, where Schindler lived with him.] 342. TO SCHINDLER. I must have an attested copy of all the writings; I send you 45 kreutzers. How could you possibly accept such a proposal from our churlish landlord when accompanied by a threat? Where was your good sense? Where it always is. To-morrow early I shall send for the Variations, copy and originals. It is not certain whether the Pr. comes or not; so be so good as to stay at home till eight o’clock. You can come to dinner either to-day or to-morrow; but you must settle which you mean to do, as it is not easy _for me_ to provide provisions. Not later than half-past two o’clock. The housekeeper will tell you about a lodging in the Landstrasse. It is high time, truly! As soon as you hear of anything to be had on the Bastei or the Landstrasse, you must at once give me notice. We must find out what room the landlord uses on account of the well.–_Vale!_ 343. TO SCHINDLER.[1] Hetzendorf, 1823. SAMOTHRACIAN VAGABOND!– You were dispatched yesterday to the South Pole, whereas we went off to the North Pole, a slight difference now equalized by Captain Parry. There were, however, no mashed potatoes there. Bach [his lawyer], to whom I beg my best regards, is requested to say what the lodging in Baden is to cost; we must also try to arrange that Carl should come to me once every fortnight there (but cheaply; good heavens! poverty and economy!). I intrust this matter to you, as you have your friends and admirers among the drivers and liverymen. If you get this in time, you had better go to Bach to-day, so that I may receive his answer to-morrow forenoon. It is almost too late now. You might also take that rascal of a copyist by surprise; I don’t expect much good from him. He has now had the Variations for eight days. Your [“friend” stroked out] _amicus_, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: He no doubt alludes to Captain Parry, the celebrated traveller, who wrote an article in the _A.M. Zeitung_ on the music of the Esquimaux.] 344. TO SCHINDLER.[1] June, 1823. SAMOTHRACIAN!– Don’t trouble yourself to come here till you receive a _Hati Scherif_. I must say you do not deserve the _golden_ cord. My fast-sailing frigate, the worthy and well-born Frau Schnaps, will call every three or four days to inquire after your health. Farewell! Bring _no one whatever_ with you: farewell! [Footnote 1: Schindler says in his _Biography_: “These _Variations_ [Op. 120] were completed in June, 1823, and delivered to the publisher, Diabelli, without the usual amount of time bestowed on giving them the finishing touches; and now he set to work at once at the ninth Symphony, some jottings of which were already written down. Forthwith all the gay humor that had made him more sociable, and in every respect more accessible, at once disappeared. All visits were declined,” &c.] 345. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. Hetzendorf, July 15, 1823. I trust that you are in the best possible health. As for my eyes, they are improving, though slowly, and in six or seven days at most I hope to have the good fortune to wait on Y.R.H. If I were not obliged to use spectacles, I should get better sooner. It is a most distressing occurrence, and has thrown me back in everything. What soothes my feelings, however, is Y.R.H. being fully aware that I am always to be of service to you. I have another favor to ask of Y.R.H., which I hope you will graciously accede. Will Y.R.H. be so kind as to grant me a testimonial to the following effect: “That I wrote the Grand Mass expressly for Y.R.H.; that it has been for some time in your possession; and that you have been pleased to permit me to circulate it.” This ought to have been the case, and being no untruth, I hope I may claim this favor. Such a testimonial will be of great service to me; for how could I have believed that my slight talents would have exposed me to so much envy, persecution, and calumny. It has always been my intention to ask Y.R.H.’s permission to circulate the Mass, but the pressure of circumstances, and above all my inexperience in worldly matters, as well as my feeble health, has caused this confusion. If the Mass is engraved hereafter, I hope to dedicate it to Y.R.H. when published,[1] and not till then will the limited list of royal subscribers appear. I shall ever consider Y.R.H. as my most illustrious patron, and make this known to the world whenever it is in my power. In conclusion, I entreat you again not to refuse my request about the testimonial. It will only cost Y.R.H. a few lines, and ensure the best results for me. I will bring the Variations[2] of Y.R.H. with me. They require little alteration, and cannot fail to become a very pretty pleasing work for all lovers of music. I must indeed appear a most importunate suitor. I beg you will kindly send me the testimonial as soon as possible, for I require it. [K.] [Footnote 1: The Grand Mass (_Op._ 123) was published in 1827.] [Footnote 2: The _Variations_ composed by the Archduke Rudolph, mentioned in the letters 345 and 351, are not the same as the published ones, and are unknown.] 346. TO F. RIES. Hetzendorf, July 16, 1823. MY DEAR RIES,– I received your letter with much pleasure the day before yesterday. The Variations have, no doubt, arrived by this time. I could not write the dedication to your wife, not knowing her name; so I beg you will write it yourself on the part of your wife’s friend and your own; let it be a surprise to her, for the fair sex like that.–_Entre nous_, surprise is always the greatest charm of the beautiful! As for the _Allegri di Bravura_, I must make allowance for yours. To tell you the truth, I am no great friend to that kind of thing, as it is apt to entail too much mere mechanism; at least, such is the case with those I know. I have not yet looked at yours, but I shall ask —- about them. I recommend you to be cautious in your intercourse with him. Could I not be of use to you in many ways here? These printers, or rather _misprinters_, as they ought to be called to deserve their names, pirate your works, and give you nothing in return; this, surely, might be differently managed. I mean to send you some choruses shortly, even if obliged to compose some new ones, for this is my favorite style. Thanks for the proceeds of the _bagatelles_, with which I am quite satisfied. Give nothing to the King of England. Pray accept anything you can get for the Variations. I shall be perfectly contented. I only must stipulate to take no other reward for the dedication to your wife than the kiss which I am to receive in London. You name _guineas_, whereas I only get _pounds sterling_, and I hear there is a difference between these. Do not be angry with _un pauvre musicien autrichien_, who is still at a very low ebb. I am now writing a new violin quartet. Might not this be offered to the musical or unmusical London Jews?–_en vrai Juif_. I am, with cordial regard, Your old friend, BEETHOVEN. 347. TO HERR GEHEIMRATH VON KÖNNERITZ,–DRESDEN,[1] DIRECTOR OF THE ROYAL ORCHESTRA AND THEATRE IN SAXONY. Hetzendorf, July 17, 1823. SIR,– I have too long deferred sending you a signed receipt and thanks, but I feel sure you will pardon the delay from my great pressure of business, owing to my health having improved, and God knows how long this may continue. The description given by my dear friend Maria Weber[2] of your generous and noble disposition encourages me to apply to you on another subject, namely, about a Grand Mass which I am now issuing in manuscript. Though I have met with a previous refusal on this matter [337], still, as my esteemed Cardinal, H.R. Highness the Archduke Rudolph, has written to H.R.H. Prince Anton, requesting him to recommend the Mass to his Majesty the King of Saxony, I think this fresh application might at all events be made, as I should consider it a great honor to number among my distinguished subscribers (such as the King of Prussia, the Emperor of Russia, the King of France, &c.) so great a connoisseur in music as the King of Saxony. I leave it to you, sir, to decide from this statement how and when you can best effect my purpose. I am unable to send you to-day the application for a subscription to my Mass to H.M. the King of Saxony, but I will do so by the next post. In any event I feel assured that you will not think I am one of those who compose for the sake of paltry gain; but how often do events occur which constrain a man to act contrary to his inclinations and his principles? My Cardinal is a benevolent Prince, but means are wanting! I hope to receive your forgiveness for my apparent importunity. If my poor abilities can in any way be employed in your service, what extreme pleasure it would give me. I am, sir, with esteem, Your expectant BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: The director-general of the Dresden theatre at that time was Von Könneritz, who sent Beethoven forty ducats (requesting a receipt) for his opera of _Fidelio_, performed with great applause April 29, 1823, and conducted by C.M. von Weber. Madame Schröder-Devrient made her _début_ in the character of Leonore.] [Footnote 2: In Weber’s _Biography_ it is stated (Vol. II. p. 465) that Beethoven and Weber exchanged several letters about the performance of _Fidelio_, and in fact Weber did receive letters from Beethoven on February 16, April 10, and June 9. Unhappily, no part of this correspondence has yet been discovered, except a fragment of the sketch of a letter written by Weber of January 28, 1823, which sufficiently proves that Beethoven was right in calling him his _friend_. It is as follows:–“This mighty work, teeming with German grandeur and depth of feeling, having been given under my direction at Prague, had enabled me to acquire the most enthusiastic and instructive knowledge of its inner essence, by means of which I hope to produce it before the public here with full effect, provided as I am with all possible accessories for the purpose. Each performance will be a festival to me, permitting me to pay that homage to your mighty spirit which dwells in the inmost recesses of my heart, where love and admiration strive for the mastery.” On October 5 of this year, Weber visited Beethoven in Baden, with Haslinger and Benedict.] 348. TO HERR V. KÖNNERITZ,–DRESDEN. Vienna, July 25, 1823. SIR,– Forgive my importunity in sending to your care the enclosed letter from me to his R.H. Prince Anton of Saxony; it contains an application to his Majesty the King of Saxony to subscribe to a mass of mine. I recently mentioned to you that the Cardinal Archduke Rudolph had written to his M. the King of Saxony about this Mass; I entreat you to use all your influence in this matter, and I leave it entirely to your own judgment and knowledge of local matters to act as you think best. Although I do not doubt that the recommendation of my Cardinal will have considerable weight, still the decision of his Majesty cannot fail to be much influenced by the advice of the Administrator of objects connected with the fine arts. Hitherto, in spite of apparent brilliant success, I have scarcely realized as much as a publisher would have given me for the work, the expenses of copying being so very great. It was the idea of my friends to circulate this Mass, for, thank God! I am a mere novice in all speculations. In the mean time, there is not a single _employé_ of our Government who has not been, like myself, a loser. Had it not been for my continued bad health for many years past, a foreign country would at least have enabled me to live free from all cares except those for art. Judge me kindly, and not harshly; I live only for my art, and my sole wish is to fulfil my duties as a man; but this, alas! cannot always be accomplished without the influence of the _subterranean powers_. While commending my cause to you, I also venture to hope that your love of art, and above all your philanthropy, will induce you to be so good as to write me a few lines, informing me of the result as soon as you are acquainted with it. I am, sir, with high consideration, Your obedient BEETHOVEN. 349. TO SCHINDLER. August, 1823. YOU SAMOTHRACIAN VILLAIN!– Make haste and come, for the weather is just right. Better early than late–_presto, prestissimo_! We are to drive from here.[1] [Footnote 1: Beethoven had apartments in a summer residence of Baron Pronay’s on his beautiful property at Hetzendorf. Suddenly, however, the _maestro_, deeply immersed in the _Ninth Symphony_, was no longer satisfied with this abode, because “the Baron would persist in making him profound bows every time that he met him.” So, with the help of Schindler and Frau Schnaps, he removed to Baden in August, 1823.] 350. TO HIS NEPHEW. Baden, August 16, 1823. MY DEAR BOY,– I did not wish to say anything to you till I found my health improving here, which, however, is scarcely even yet the case. I came here with a cold and catarrh, which were very trying to me, my constitution being naturally rheumatic, which will, I fear, soon cut the thread of my life, or, still worse, gradually wear it away. The miserable state of my digestive organs, too, can only be restored by medicines and diet, and for this I have to thank my _faithful_ servants! You will learn how constantly I am in the open air when I tell you that to-day for the first time I properly (or improperly, though it was involuntary) resumed my suit to my Muse. I _must_ work, but do not wish it to be known. Nothing can be more tempting (to me at least) than the enjoyment of beautiful Nature at these baths, but _nous sommes trop pauvres, et il faut écrire ou de n’avoir pas de quoi_. Get on, and make every preparation for your examination, and be unassuming, so that you may prove yourself higher and better than people expect. Send your linen here at once; your gray trousers must still be wearable, at all events at home; for, my dear son, you are indeed very _dear_ to me! My address is, “At the coppersmith’s,” &c. Write instantly to say that you have got this letter. I will send a few lines to that contemptible creature, Schindler, though I am most unwilling to have anything to do with such a wretch. If we could write as quickly as we think and feel, I could say a great deal not a little remarkable; but for to-day I can only add that I wish a certain Carl may prove worthy of all my love and unwearied care, and learn fully to appreciate it. Though not certainly exacting, as you know, still there are many ways in which we can show those who are better and nobler than ourselves that we acknowledge their superiority. I embrace you from my heart. Your faithful and true FATHER. 351. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. August, 1823. I am really very ill, and not suffering from my eyes alone. I intend to drag myself to-morrow to Baden, to look out for a lodging, and to go there altogether in the course of a few days. The air in town has a very bad effect on my whole organization, and has really injured my health, having gone twice to town to consult my physicians. It will be easier for me to repair to Y.R.H. in Baden. I am quite inconsolable, both on account of Y.R.H. and myself, that my usefulness is thus limited. I have marked some things in the Variations, but I can explain these better verbally. [K.] 352. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. Baden, August 22, 1823. Your gracious letter led me to believe that Y.R.H. intended to return to Baden, where I arrived on the 13th, very ill; but I am now better. I had recently another inflammatory cold, having just recovered from one. My digestion, too, was miserable, and my eyes very bad; in short, my whole system seemed impaired. I was obliged to make the effort to come here, without even being able to see Y.R.H. Thank God, my eyes are so much better that I can again venture to make tolerable use of them by daylight. My other maladies, too, are improving, and I cannot expect more in so short a period. How I wish that Y.R.H. were only here, when in a few days we could entirely make up for lost time. Perhaps I may still be so fortunate as to see Y.R.H. here, and be able to show my zeal to serve Y.R.H. How deeply does this cause me to lament my unhappy state of health. Much as I wish for its entire restoration, still I greatly fear that this will never be the case, and on this account I hope for Y.R.H.’s indulgence. As I can now at length prove how gladly I place myself at Y.R.H.’s disposal, my most anxious desire is that you would be pleased to make use of me. [K.] 353. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. 1823. I have just been enjoying a short walk and composing a Canon, “Grossen Dank, ÷ ÷ ÷,” when, on returning home, with the intention of writing it out for Y.R.H., I find a petitioner who is under the delusion that his request will be better received if made through me. What can I do? A good action cannot be too soon performed, and even a whim must be sometimes humored. The bearer of this is Kapellmeister Drechsler, of the Josephstadt and Baden Theatre; he wishes to obtain the situation of second Court organist. He has a good knowledge of thorough bass, and is also a good organist, besides being favorably known as a composer,–all qualities that recommend him for this situation. He _rightly_ thinks that the best recommendation to secure him the appointment is that of Y.R.H., who, being yourself so great a connoisseur and performer, know better than any one how to appreciate true merit; and assuredly H.I. Majesty would prefer such testimony to every other. I therefore add my entreaties, though with some hesitation, to those of Herr D., relying on the indulgence and kindness of Y.R.H., and in the hope that the illustrious patron and protector of all that is good will do what lies in his power to be of use on this occasion. My Canon shall be sent to-morrow,[1] together with the confession of my sins, intentional and unintentional, for which I beg your gracious absolution. My eyes, alas! prevent me from saying to-day as I could wish my hopes and desires that all good may attend you. P.S. I ought also to mention that Herr Drechsler is the unsalaried professor of thorough bass at St. Anna’s, and has been so for the last ten years. [K.] [Footnote 1: The Canon, _Grossen Dank, ÷ ÷ ÷_, is not to be found in either Breitkopf & Härtel’s or Thayer’s catalogue, nor anywhere else.] 354. TO F. RIES. Baden, September 5, 1823. MY DEAR FRIEND,– You advise me to engage some one to look after my affairs; now I did so as to the Variations; that is, my brother and Schindler took charge of them, but how? The Variations were not to have appeared here till after being published in London; but everything went wrong. The dedication to Brentano [Antonie v. Brentano, _née_ Edlen von Birkenstock] was to be confined to Germany, I being under great obligations to her, and having nothing else to spare at the moment; indeed, Diabelli, the publisher, alone got it from me. But everything went through Schindler’s hands. No man on earth was ever more contemptible,–an arch villain; but I soon sent him packing! I will dedicate some other work to your wife in the place of this one. You, no doubt, received my last letter [No. 346]. I think thirty ducats would be enough for one of the _Allegri di Bravura_, but I should like to publish them here at the same time, which might easily be arranged. Why should I give up so much profit to these rogues here? It will not be published here till I am told that it has arrived in London; moreover, you may yourself fix the price, as you best know London customs. The copyist to-day at last finished the score of the Symphony; so Kirchhoffer and I are only waiting for a favorable opportunity to send it off. I am still here, being very ill when I arrived, and my health still continues in a most precarious condition, and, good heavens! instead of amusing myself like others at these baths, my necessities compel me to write every day. I am also obliged to drink the mineral waters besides bathing. The copy will shortly be sent off; I am only waiting till I hear of an opportunity from Kirchhoffer, for it is too bulky to forward by post. My last letter must have given you an insight into everything. I will send you some choruses; let me have any commissions for oratorios as soon as you can, that I may fix the time at once. I am sorry about the Variations on account of —-, as I wrote them more for London than here. This is not my fault. Answer me very soon, both as to particulars and time. Kind regards to your family. 355. TO F. RIES,–LONDON. Baden, September 5, 1823. MY DEAR KIND RIES,– I have still no tidings of the Symphony, but you may depend on its soon being in London. Were I not so poor as to be obliged to live by my pen, I would accept nothing from the Philharmonic Society; but as it is, I must wait till the money for the Symphony is made payable here; though as a proof of my interest and confidence in that Society, I have already sent off the new Overture, and I leave it to them to settle the payment as they please. My brother, who keeps his carriage, wished also to profit by me; so without asking my permission, he offered this Overture to Boosey, a London publisher. Pray, tell him that my brother was mistaken with regard to the Overture. I see now that he bought it from me in order to practise usury with it. _O Frater!!_ I have never yet received the Symphony you dedicated to me. If I did not regard this dedication as a kind of challenge to which I am bound to respond, I would ere this have dedicated some work to you. I always, however, wished first to see yours, and how joyfully would I then testify my gratitude to you in one way or another. I am, indeed deeply your debtor for your kind services and many proofs of attachment. Should my health improve by my intended course of baths, I hope to kiss your wife in London in 1824. Yours, ever, BEETHOVEN. 356. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. 1823. I have just heard that Y.R.H. is expected here to-morrow. If I am still unable to follow the impulse of my heart, I hope you will ascribe it to the state of my eyes. I am better, but for some days to come I dare not breathe the town air, so prejudicial to my eyes. I only wish that the next time Y.R.H. returns from Baden, you would be so good as to let me know, and also name the hour at which I am to present myself, and once more have the good fortune to see my gracious master. But as it is probable Y.R.H. will not long remain here, it is the more incumbent on us to take advantage of the short time at our disposal to carry out our artistic discussions and practice. I will myself bring “Grossen Dank, ÷ ÷ ÷,” as it must be sent to Baden. Herr Drechsler thanked me to-day for the _liberty_ I had taken in recommending him to Y.R.H., who received him so graciously that I beg to express my warmest gratitude for your kindness. I trust that Y.R.H. will continue firm, for it is said that Abbé Stadler is endeavoring to procure the situation in question for some one else. It would also be very beneficial to Drechsler if Y.R.H. would vouchsafe to speak to Count Dietrichstein[1] on the subject. I once more request the favor of being told the date of your return from Baden, when I will instantly hasten into town to wait on the best master I have in this world. Y.R.H.’s health seems to be good; Heaven be praised that it is so, for the sake of so many who wish it, and among this number I may certainly be included. [K.] [Footnote 1: Count Moritz Dietrichstein was in 1823 Court director of the royal band.] 357. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. I was very much affected on receiving your gracious letter yesterday. To flourish under the shade of a stately verdant fruit-tree is refreshing to any one capable of elevated thought and feeling, and thus it is with me under the aegis of Y.R.H. My physician assured me yesterday that my malady was disappearing, but I am still obliged to swallow a whole bottle of some mixture every day, which weakens me exceedingly, and compels me, as Y.R.H. will see from the enclosed instructions of the physician, to take a great deal of exercise. I have every hope, however, that soon, even if not entirely recovered, I shall be able to be a great deal with Y.R.H. during your stay here. This hope will tend to recruit my health sooner than usual. May Heaven bestow its blessings on me through Y.R.H., and may the Lord ever guard and watch over you! Nothing can be more sublime than to draw nearer to the Godhead than other men, and to diffuse here on earth these godlike rays among mortals. Deeply impressed by the gracious consideration of Y.R.H. towards me, I hope very soon to be able to wait on you. [K.] 358. TO SCHINDLER. Baden, September, 1823. SIGNORE PAPAGENO,– That your scandalous reports may no longer distress the poor Dresdener, I must tell you that the money reached me to-day, accompanied by every possible mark of respect to myself. Though I should have been happy to offer you a _substantial_ acknowledgment for the [illegible, effaced by Schindler] you have shown me, I cannot yet accomplish to the full extent what I have so much at heart. I hope to be more fortunate some weeks hence. [See No. 329.] _Per il Signore Nobile, Papageno Schindler._ 359. TO SCHINDLER. 1823. The occurrence that took place yesterday, which you will see in the police reports, is only too likely to attract the notice of the established police to this affair. The testimony of a person whose name is not given entirely coincides with yours. In such a case private individuals cannot act; the authorities alone are empowered to do so.[1] Yours, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Schindler says, “Brother Johann, the apothecary, was ill in the summer of 1823, and during that time his disreputable wife visited her lover, an officer, in the barracks, and was often seen walking with him in the most frequented places, besides receiving him in her own house. Her husband, though confined to bed, could see her adorning herself to go in search of amusement with her admirer. Beethoven, who was informed of this scandal from various quarters, appealed vigorously to his brother, in the hope of persuading him to separate from his ill-conducted wife, but failed in his attempt, owing to the indolence of this ill-regulated man.” It was Schindler, too, who prevented Beethoven making any further application to the police. The following note probably refers to this. In his note-book of November, 1823, is a Canon written by Beethoven on his brother Johann and his family, on these words, “Fettlümerl Bankert haben triumphirt,” no doubt an allusion to the disgraceful incident we have mentioned. Brother Johann’s wife had a very lovely daughter before she married him.] 360. TO SCHINDLER. WISEACRE! I kiss the hem of your garment! 361. TO HERR GRILLPARZER, COURT COMPOSER. ESTEEMED SIR,– The directors wish to know your terms with regard to “Melusina.” [See No. 331.] In so far she has asserted herself, which is certainly better than being obliged to importune others on such matters. My household has been in great disorder for some time past, otherwise I should have called on you, and requested you to visit me in return.[1] Pray, write your conditions at once, either to the directors or to myself, in which case I will undertake to deliver them. I have been so busy that I could not call on you, nor can I do so now, but hope to see you before long. My number is 323. In the afternoons you will find me in the coffee-house opposite the “Goldene Birne.” If you do come, I beg that you may be _alone_. That obtrusive appendage, Schindler, has long been most obnoxious to me, as you must have perceived when at Hetzendorf,[2] _otium est vitium_. I embrace and esteem you from my heart. Yours, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: In the note-book of 1823 is written, in Beethoven’s hand: 8th or 9th November, bad humor. Another bad day. Another bad day. And underneath, in Schindler’s hand: Devil take such a life!] [Footnote 2: The _Elegante Zeitung_ of 1858, No. 73, relates the following anecdote about this visit:–“During the composition of the Opera many conferences took place between the two artistic colleagues, when the new work was zealously discussed on both sides. On one occasion the poet drove out to visit the composer in the country. Beethoven’s writing-desk was placed somewhat like a sentry-box opposite a cupboard for provisions, the contents of which compelled the housekeeper to be perpetually coming and going, attracting thereby many an admonitory look askance in the midst of his conversation from the deaf _maestro_. At last the clock struck the dinner-hour. Beethoven went down to his cellar, and soon after returned carrying four bottles of wine, two of which he placed beside the poet, while the other two were allotted to the composer himself and a third guest. After dinner Beethoven slipped out of the room, and held a short parley with the coachman hired for the occasion, who was still waiting at the door. When the time arrived for returning to town, Beethoven proposed driving part of the way with his guests, and did not get out of the carriage till close to the Burgthor. Scarcely was he gone when the companions he had just quitted found some papers lying on the seat he had vacated, which proved to be six _gulden_, the amount of the carriage-hire. They instantly stopped the carriage, and shouted to their friend (who was making off as quick as he could) that he had forgotten some money; but Beethoven did not stand still till he was at a safe distance, when he waved his hat, rejoicing with the glee of a child at the success of his trick. There was no possibility of refusing his _naïf_ generosity, and they had sufficient delicacy of feeling not to poison his enjoyment by any untimely remonstrances.”] 362. TO PROBST, MUSIC PUBLISHER,–LEIPZIG. Vienna, March 10, 1824. … These are all I can at present give you for publication. I must, alas! now speak of myself, and say that this, the greatest work I have ever written, is well worth 1000 florins C.M. It is a new grand symphony, with a finale and voice parts introduced, solo and choruses, the words being those of Schiller’s immortal “Ode to Joy,” in the style of my pianoforte Choral Fantasia, only of much greater breadth. The price is 600 florins C.M. One condition is, indeed, attached to this Symphony, that it is not to appear till next year, July, 1825; but to compensate for this long delay, I will give you a pianoforte arrangement of the work gratis, and in more important engagements you shall always find me ready to oblige you. 363. TO SCHINDLER. 1824. Frau S. [Schnaps] will provide what is required, so come to dinner to-day at two o’clock. I have good news to tell you,[1] but this is quite _entre nous_, for the _braineater_ [his brother Johann] must know nothing about it. [Footnote 1: This no doubt refers to a letter from Prince Gallizin, March 11, 1824:–“I beg you will be so good as to let me know when I may expect the Quartet, which I await with the utmost impatience. If you require money, I request you will draw on Messrs. Stieglitz & Co., in St. Petersburg, for the sum you wish to have, and it will be paid to your order.”] 364. TO HERR V. RZEHATSCHEK. 1824. MY WORTHY HERR V. RZEHATSCHEK,– Schuppanzigh assures me that you intend to be so kind as to lend me the instruments required for my concert;[1] thus encouraged, I venture to ask you to do so, and hope not to meet with a refusal when thus earnestly soliciting you to comply with my request. Your obedient servant, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: It seems highly probable that this concert is the celebrated one in the spring of 1824, when the Ninth Symphony and a portion of the Grand Mass were performed.] 365. TO THE HIGH CHAMBERLAIN PRINCE TRAUTMANNSDORF.[1] I am deeply indebted to your Highness for your invariable politeness, which I prize probably the more from Y.H. being by no means devoid of sympathy for my art. I hope one day to have the opportunity of proving my esteem for your H. [Footnote 1: Enclosed in a note to Schindler, who was to apply for the great _Redoutensaal_ for the concert on April 8, 1824.] 366. TO COUNT MORITZ LICHNOWSKY.[1] Insincerity I despise; visit me no more; my concert is not to take place. BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: The originals of these three well-known notes were found by Schindler on the piano, where Beethoven usually left things of the kind, which he intended his amanuensis to take charge of. Lichnowsky, Schuppanzigh, and Schindler had all met at Beethoven’s, as if by chance, in order to discuss with him some difficulties which stood in the way of the concert. The suspicious _maestro_ saw only collusion and treachery in this, and wrote these notes, which Schindler did not allow to be sent.] 367. TO HERR SCHUPPANZIGH. Come no more to see me. I give no concert. BEETHOVEN. 368. TO HERR SCHINDLER. Do not come to me till I summon you. No concert. BEETHOVEN. 369. TO HERR V. SARTORIUS, ROYAL CENSOR. SIR,– As I hear that obstacles are likely to arise on the part of the royal censorship to a portion of sacred music being given at an evening concert in the Theatre “an der Wien,” I must inform you that I have been particularly requested to give these pieces, that the copies for this purpose have already caused serious expense, and the intervening time is too short to produce other new works. Besides, only three sacred compositions are to be given, and these under the title of hymns. I do earnestly entreat you, sir, to interest yourself in this matter, as there are always so many difficulties to contend with on similar occasions. Should this permission not be granted, I do assure you that it will be impossible to give a concert at all, and the whole outlay expended on the copying be thrown away. I hope you have not quite forgotten me. I am, sir, with high consideration, yours, BEETHOVEN. 370. TO SCHINDLER. 1824. If you have any information to give me, pray write it down; but seal the note, for which purpose you will find wax and a seal on my table. Let me know where Duport[1] lives, when he is usually to be met with, and whether I could see him alone, or if it is probable that people will be there, and who? I feel far from well. _Portez-vous bien._ I am still hesitating whether to speak to Duport or to write to him, which I cannot do without bitterness. Do not wait dinner for me; I hope you will enjoy it. I do not intend to come, being ill from our bad fare of yesterday. A flask of wine is ready for you. [Footnote 1: Schindler says that on April 24, 1824, he applied to Duport, at that time administrator of the Kärnthnerthor Theatre, in Beethoven’s name, to sanction his giving a grand concert there, allowing him to have the use of the house for the sum of 400 florins C.M. Further, that the conducting of the concert should be intrusted to Umlauf and Schuppanzigh, and the solos to Mesdames Unger and Sonntag, and to the bass singer Preisinger.] 371.[1] TO SCHINDLER. I beg you will come to see me to-morrow, as I have a tale to tell you as sour as vinegar. Duport said yesterday that he had written to me, though I have not yet got his letter, but he expressed his satisfaction, which is best of all. The chief feat however is not yet performed, that which is to be acted in front of the _Proscenium_! [In Beethoven’s writing:] Yours, _from C# below to high F_, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Written by his nephew.] 372. TO SCHINDLER. After six weeks of discussion, here, there, and everywhere, I am fairly boiled, stewed, and roasted. What will be the result of this much-talked-of concert if the prices are not raised? What shall I get in return for all my outlay, as the copying alone costs so much? 373. TO SCHINDLER. At twelve o’clock to-day “in die Birne” [an inn on the Landstrasse]–thirsty and hungry–then to the coffee-house, back again here, and straight to Penzing, or I shall lose the lodging. 374. TO SCHINDLER. When you write to me, write exactly as I do to you, without any formal address or signature–_vita brevis, ars longa_. No necessity for details; only the needful! 375. TO HERR STEINER & CO. Baden, May 27, 1824. P.N.G. [PATERNOSTERGÄSSEL],– Have the goodness to give me a proof of your great complaisance, by using your hand-rostrum (ruler) (not _Rostrum Victoriatum_) to rule 202 lines of music for me, somewhat in the style I now send, and also on equally fine paper, which you must include in your account. Send it, if possible, to-morrow evening by Carl, for I require it. Perhaps plenary indulgence may then be granted. 376. POUR M. DE HASLINGER, GÉNÉRAL MUSICIEN ET GÉNÉRAL-LIEUTENANT. MY DEAR FRIEND,– You would really do me great injustice were you to suppose that negligence prevented my sending you the tickets; I assure you that it was my intention to do so, but I forgot it like many other things. I hope that some other opportunity may occur to enable me to prove my sentiments with regard to you. I am, I assure you, entirely innocent of all that Duport has done, in the same way that it was _he_ who thought fit to represent the Terzet [Op. 116] as new, _not I_. You know too well my love of truth; but it is better to be silent now on the subject, as it is not every one who is aware of the true state of the case, and I, though innocent, might incur blame. I do not at all care for the other proposals Duport makes, as by this concert I have lost both time and money. In haste, your friend, BEETHOVEN. 377. TO STEINER & CO. MY KIND FRIEND,– Be so good as to read the enclosed, and kindly forward it at once to the authorities. Your servant and _amicus_, BEETHOVEN. 378. TO HERR TOBIAS PETER PHILIP HASLINGER. The horn part and the score are shortly to follow. We are immensely indebted to you. Observe the laws. Sing often my Canon in silence,–_per resurrectionem_, &c. Farewell! Your friend, BEETHOVEN. 379. TO HASLINGER. Have the goodness to send me my shoes and my sword. You can have the loan of the “Eglantine” for six days, for which, however, you must give an acknowledgment. Farewell! Yours, BEETHOVEN. 380. TO HASLINGER. Baden, June 12. MY GOOD FRIEND,– Something worth having has been put in your way; so make the most of it. You will no doubt come off with a handsome fee, and all expenses paid. As for the March with Chorus [in the “Ruins of Athens,” Op. 114], you have yet to send me the sheets for final revision, also the Overture in E flat [“To King Stephen,” Op. 117]; the Terzet [Op. 116]; the Elegy [Op. 118]; the Cantata [“_Meeresstille und glückliche Fahrt_,” Op. 112]; and the Opera. Out with them all! or I shall be on very little ceremony, your right having already expired. My liberality alone confers on you a larger sum than you do on me. I want the score of the Cantata for a few days, as I wish to write a kind of recitative for it; mine is so torn that I cannot put it together, so I must have it written out from the parts. Has the Leipzig musical paper yet retracted its lies about the medal I got from the late King of France? I no longer receive the paper, which is a shabby proceeding. If the editor does not rectify the statement, I shall cause him and his consumptive chief to be _harpooned_ in the northern waters among the whales. Even this barbarous Baden is becoming enlightened, and now instead of _gutten Brunn_, people write _guten Brun_. But tell me what are they about in Paternoster Street? I am, with all esteem for yourself, but with none for the barbarian Paternoster-Gässel, Your devoted, _incomparativo_, B—-N. Paternoster-Gässel _primus_ will no doubt, like Mephistopheles, emit fiery flames from his jaws. 381. TO M. DIABELLI. SIR,– Pray forgive my asking you to send me the score of my Mass,[1] being in urgent need of it; but I repeat that no public use is to be made of it until I can let you know _how_ and _when_. It will be at first performed under my direction, with the addition of several new pieces composed expressly for it, which I will with pleasure send to you afterwards. There are certain conventionalities which must be observed, especially as I am so dependent on foreign connections, for Austria does not furnish me with the means of existence, and gives me nothing but vexation. I will soon appoint a day for you to visit Carl. I remain, sir, with the highest esteem, yours, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: This letter seems to be addressed to Diabelli, who in the summer of 1824 begged the loan of the Mass in D for a few days, but neglected to return it.] 382. TO PROBST,–LEIPZIG. Vienna, July 3, 1824 SIR,– Overwhelmed with work and concerts, it is only now in my power to inform you that the works you wished to have are finished and transcribed, and can be delivered at any time to Herr Glöggl [music publisher in Vienna]. I therefore request you will transmit the 100 Viennese ducats to Herr Glöggl, and let me know when you have done so. I must conclude for to-day, and defer the pleasure of writing further till another opportunity. I am, with esteem, yours obediently, BEETHOVEN.[1] [Footnote 1: Probst answered the letter as follows:– “August 18, 1824. “The many gossiping reports about the differences between you and a publisher here in a similar transaction are the cause, I frankly own, of my wishing first to see your manuscript. The piracy in engraving, so universal in Austria, often prevents the German publisher paying the price for a work which it merits; and even at this moment in Vienna, with regard to your compositions [Schindler mentions three songs with pianoforte accompaniment, six _bagatelles_, and a grand overture], I can see that the birds of prey are on the watch to rob me of them under the shelter of the law.” On one of these letters Beethoven writes in pencil, “Do not listen to gossip; I have no time at this moment to enter on the subject, but I have all the proofs in my own hands; more of this hereafter.”] 383. TO T. HASLINGER.[1] MY VERY WORTHY FRIEND,– Have the goodness to send me the Rochlitz article on the Beethoven works, and we will return it to you forthwith by the flying, driving, riding, or migrating post. Yours, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: The _Rochlitz’sche article_ is probably the report in the _A.M. Zeitung_ of the works performed at the grand concert of May 7.] 384. TO HERR SCHOTT,–MAYENCE. 1824. The Overture[1] that you got from my brother was recently performed here, and I received many eulogiums on the occasion. What is all this compared to the grandest of all masters of harmony above! above! above! Rightfully the _Most High_! While here below all is a mere mockery–_Dwarfs_–and the _Most High_!! You shall receive the Quartet with the other works. You are open and candid, qualities which I never before found in publishers, and this pleases me. I say so in writing, but who knows whether it may not soon be in person? I wish you would transmit the sum due for the Quartet to P., as at this moment I require a great deal of money, for I derive everything from foreign sources, and sometimes a delay occurs–caused by myself. [Footnote 1: The Overture to which he alludes is no doubt Op. 124, in C major, _Zur Weihe des Hauses_, published by Schott. It was performed in the great concert of May 23 of this year (1824), which in the estimation of a Beethoven, already absorbed in new great works, might well be termed “recently performed.” Schott himself says the letter is written between July 3 and September 17, 1824.] 385. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. Baden, August 23, 1824. YOUR ROYAL HIGHNESS,– I live–how?–the life of a snail. The unfavorable weather constantly throws me back, and at these baths it is impossible to command one’s natural strength. A few days ago, Nägeli, a musical author and poet of considerable repute, wrote to me from Zurich; he is about to publish 200 poems, and among these some are suitable for musical composition. He urged me much to apply to Y.R.H. to request that you would be graciously pleased to subscribe to this collection. The price is very moderate, 20 groschen, or 1 florin 80 kreutzers. Were Y.R.H. to subscribe for six copies, it would immediately be noised abroad, although I am well aware that my illustrious master does not care for anything of the kind; it will suffice for the present if Y.R.H. will condescend to inform me of your will on the subject. The money can be paid when the copies arrive, probably a couple of months hence. I have conveyed Herr Nägeli’s request, and now I must ask another favor, on his account, from myself. Everything cannot be measured by line and plummet; but Wieland says: “A little book may be well worth a few _groschen_.” Will Y.R.H. therefore honor these poems by permitting your august name to be prefixed to them, as a token of your sympathy for the benefit of this man? the work is not likely to be quite devoid of value. Being convinced of Y.R.H.’s interest in all that is noble and beautiful, I hope I shall not fail in my intercession for Nägeli, and I beg that Y.R.H. will give me a written permission to inform Nägeli that you will be one of his subscribers. I remain, with all dutiful fidelity and devotion, your R. Highness’s obedient servant, BEETHOVEN. 386. TO HIS NEPHEW. Baden, August 29, 1824. MY DEAR YOUNG SCAMP,– How active our _mahogany Holz_ [wood] is! My plans are decided. We will give the present quartet to Artaria, and the last to Peters. You see I have learned something; I now perceive why I first _explored the path_; it was for your sake, that you might find it smooth. My digestion is terribly out of order, and no physician! I wish to have some ready-made pens, so send some in a letter. Don’t write to Peters on Saturday; we had better wait a little, to show him our indifference on the subject. Since yesterday I have only taken some soup, and a couple of eggs, and drank nothing but water; my tongue is discolored; and without medicine and tonics, whatever my farcical doctor may say, my digestion will never improve. The third quartet [in C sharp minor, Op. 131] also contains six movements, and will certainly be finished in ten or twelve days at most. Continue to love me, my dear boy; if I ever cause you pain, it is not from a wish to grieve you, but for your eventual benefit. I now conclude. I embrace you cordially. All I wish is that you should be loving, industrious, and upright. Write to me, my dear son. I regret all the trouble I give you, but it will not go on long. Holz seems inclined to become our friend. I expect a letter soon from [illegible]. Your faithful FATHER. 387. ROUGH DRAFT OF A LETTER TO PETERS. 1824. I wrote to you that a quartet [“and a grand one too” is effaced] is ready for you; as soon, therefore, as you let me know that you will accept it for the 360 florins C.M., or 80 ducats, I will at once forward it to you. My works are now paid at a higher rate than ever; besides, you have only yourself to blame in this affair. Your own letters show what you formerly desired to have, and the works I sent you were _what they ought to have been_ (the numerous pirated editions prove the truth of this); but the Quartet will convince you that, so far from wishing to take my revenge, I now give you what could not possibly be better, were it intended even for my best friend. I beg that you will make no delay, so that I may receive your answer by the next post; otherwise I must forthwith return you the 360 florins C.M. I shall, at all events, be rather in a scrape, for there is a person who wishes to have not only this but another newly finished work of mine, though he does not care to take only one. It is solely because you have waited so long (though you are yourself to blame for this) that I separate the Quartet from the following one, now also completed. (Do you think that the latter ought to be also offered here? but, of course, cunningly and warily: _comme marchand coquin!_) You need have no misgivings that I am sending you something merely to fulfil my promise; no, I assure you on my honor as an artist that you may place me on a level with the lowest of men, if you do not find that it is one of my very best works. 388. TO HANS GEORG NÄGELI,–ZURICH. Baden, September 9, 1824. MY MUCH-VALUED FRIEND,– The Cardinal Archduke is in Vienna, and owing to my health, I am here. I only yesterday received from him a gracious written consent to subscribe to your poems, on account of the services you have rendered to the progress of music. He takes six copies of your work. I will shortly send you the proper address. An anonymous friend is also on the list of subscribers. I mean myself, for as you do me the honor to become my panegyrist, I will on no account allow my name to appear. How gladly would I have subscribed for more copies, but my means are too straitened to do so. The father of an adopted son, (the child of my deceased brother,) I must for his sake think and act for the _future_ as well as for the _present_. I recollect that you previously wrote to me about a subscription; but at that time I was in very bad health, and continued an invalid for more than three years, but now I am better. Send also the complete collection of your lectures direct to the Archduke Rudolph, and, if possible, dedicate them to him; you are certain at all events to receive a present, not a very large one probably, but still better than nothing; put some complimentary expressions in the preface, for he understands music, and it is his chief delight and occupation. I do really regret, knowing his talents, that I cannot devote myself to him as much as formerly. I have made various applications to procure you subscribers, and shall let you know as soon as I receive the answers. I wish you would also send me your lectures, and likewise Sebastian Bach’s five-part Mass, when I will at once remit you the money for both. Pray, do not imagine that I am at all guided by self-interest; I am free from all petty vanity; in godlike Art alone dwells the impulse which gives me strength to sacrifice the best part of my life to the celestial Muse. From childhood my greatest pleasure and felicity consisted in working for others; you may therefore conclude how sincere is my delight in being in any degree of use to you, and in showing you how highly I appreciate all your merits. As one of the votaries of Apollo, I embrace you. Yours cordially, BEETHOVEN. Write to me soon about the Archduke, that I may introduce the subject to his notice; you need take no steps towards seeking permission for the dedication. It will and ought to be a surprise to him. 389. TO HIS NEPHEW. Baden, evening, September 14, 1824. MY DEAR SON,–, Whether it rains heavily to-morrow or not, stifling dust or pouring rain would be equally prejudicial to me. It does grieve me to know that you are so long with this demon; but, pray, strive to keep out of her way. You must give her a letter, written in my name, to the manager of the hospital, in which you must state that she did not come on the 1st, partly because she was unwell, and also from various people having come here to meet me, _Basta cosi_! I send you 40 florins for the singing-master [corépétiteur]. Get a written receipt from him: how many mistakes are thus avoided! and this should be done by every one who pays money for another. Did not Holz bring Rampel’s receipt [the copyist] unasked, and do not others act in the same way? Take the white waistcoat for yourself, and have the other made for me. You can bring the metronome with you; nothing can be done with it. Bring also your linen sheets and two coverlets, and some lead-pencils and patterns; be sure you get the former at the Brandstatt. And now farewell, my dear son; come to my arms as early as you can,–perhaps to-morrow. [The paper is here torn away.] As ever, your faithful FATHER. P.S. All that could be done was to send you by the old woman’s _char à banc_, which, however, including everything, costs 8 florins 36 kreutzers. Do not forget anything, and be careful of your health. 390. TO HERR NÄGELI. Vienna, September 16, 1824. MY ESTEEMED FRIEND,– I gladly comply with your wish that I should arrange the vocal parts of my last Grand Mass for the organ, or piano, for the use of the different choral societies. This I am willing to do, chiefly because these choral associations, by their private and still more by their church festivals, make an unusually profound impression on the multitude, and my chief object in the composition of this Grand Mass was to awaken, and deeply to impress, religious feelings both on singers and hearers. As, however, a copy of this kind and its repeated revision must cause a considerable outlay, I cannot, I fear, ask less than 50 ducats for it, and leave it to you to make inquiries on the subject, so that I may devote my time exclusively to it. I am, with high consideration, Your obedient BEETHOVEN. 391. TO SCHOTT,–MAYENCE. Baden, near Vienna, September 17, 1824. The Quartet [Op. 127, in E flat major] you shall also certainly receive by the middle of October. Overburdened by work, and suffering from bad health, I really have some claim on the indulgence of others. I am here entirely owing to my health, or rather to the want of it, although I already feel better. Apollo and the Muses do not yet intend me to become the prey of the bony Scytheman, as I have yet much to do for you, and much to bequeath which my spirit dictates, and calls on me to complete, before I depart hence for the Elysian fields; for I feel as if I had written scarcely more than a few notes of music. I wish your efforts all possible success in the service of art; it is that and science alone which point the way, and lead us to hope for a higher life. I will write again soon. In haste, your obedient BEETHOVEN. 392. TO HAUSCHKA. Baden, September 23, 1824. MY DEAR AND VALUED FRIEND,– As soon as I arrive in town, I will write Bernard’s Oratorio [see No. 257], and I beg you will also transmit him payment for it. We can discuss when we meet in town what we further require and think necessary, and in the mean-time, I appoint you High and Puissant Intendant of all singing and humming societies, Imperial Violoncello-General, Inspector of the Imperial _Chasse_, as well as Deacon of my gracious master, without house or home, and without a prebendary (like myself). I wish you all these, most faithful servant of my illustrious master, as well as everything else in the world, from which you may select what you like best.[1] That there may be no mistake, I hereby declare that it is our intention to set to music the Bernard Oratorio, the “Sieg des Kreuzes” and speedily to complete the same. Witness this our sign and seal, LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN. 1st P.S. Take care that the venison is not devoured by rats or mice–you understand? Strive for better choice and variety. Yours, as a Christian and in Apollo, B. 2d P.S. As for the little flag on the white tower, we hope soon to see it waving again! [Footnote 1: An allusion to Hauschka’s subserviency to all persons in high Court offices.] 393. TO HERR NÄGELI,–ZURICH. Vienna, November 17, 1824. MY MUCH-VALUED FRIEND,– Deeply absorbed in work, and not sufficiently protected against this late season of the year, I have again been ill; so believe me it was impossible for me to write to you sooner. With regard to your subscription, I have only succeeded in getting one subscriber for two copies, Herr v. Bihler, tutor in the family of His Imperial Highness the Archduke Carl; he tried to get the Archduke also, but failed. I have exerted myself with every one, but, unluckily, people are here actually deluged with things of the same kind. This is all that I can write to you in my hurry. I urged the matter, too, on Haslinger, but in vain; we are really poor here in Austria, and the continued pressure of the war leaves but little for art and science. I will see that the subscriptions are paid, but let me know distinctly where the money is to be sent to. I embrace you in spirit. Always rely on the high esteem of your true friend, BEETHOVEN. 394. TO THE ARCHDUKE RUDOLPH. November 18, 1824. YOUR ROYAL HIGHNESS,– On my return from Baden, illness prevented my waiting on Y.R.H. according to my wish, being prohibited going out; thus yesterday was the first time I dared to venture again into the open air. When your gracious letter arrived, I was confined to bed, and under the influence of sudorifics, my illness having been caused by a chill; so it was impossible for me to rise. I feel sure that Y.R.H is well aware that I never would neglect the respect so properly your due. I shall have the pleasure of waiting on you to-morrow forenoon. Moreover, there will be no lack of opportunity here to awaken the interest Y.R.H. takes in music, which cannot fail to prove so beneficial to art,–ever my refuge, thank God! I remain Y.R.H.’s obedient servant, BEETHOVEN. 395. TO SCHOTT,–MAYENCE. Vienna, November 18, 1824. I regret being obliged to tell you that some little time must yet elapse before I can send off the works. There was not in reality much to revise in the copies; but as I did not pass the summer here, I am obliged to make up for this now, by giving two lessons a day to H.R.H. the Archduke Rudolph. This exhausts me so much that it almost entirely unfits me for all else. Moreover, I cannot live on my income, and my pen is my sole resource; but _no consideration is shown either for my health or my precious time_. I do hope that this may not long continue, when I will at once complete the slight revision required. Some days ago I received a proposal which concerns you also; its purport being that a foreign music publisher was disposed, &c., &c., to form a connection with you, in order to guard against piracy. I at once declined the offer, having had sufficiently painful experience on these matters. (Perhaps this was only a pretext to spy into my affairs!) 396. TO CARL HOLZ. I send you my greetings, and also wish to tell you that I am not going out to-day. I should be glad to see you, perhaps this evening after your office hours. In haste, your friend, BEETHOVEN. I am by no means well. 397. TO CARL HOLZ. MY WORTHY HOLZ–BE NO LONGER HOLZ [WOOD]! The well-beloved government wishes to see me to-day at ten o’clock. I beg you will go in my place; but first call on me, which you can arrange entirely according to your own convenience. I have already written a letter to the _powers that be_, which you can take with you. I much regret being forced to be again so troublesome to you, but my going is out of the question, and the affair must be brought to a close, Yours, BEETHOVEN. 398. TO SCHOTT,–MAYENCE. Vienna, December 17 [Beethoven’s birthday], 1824. I write to say that a week must yet elapse before the works can be dispatched to you. The Archduke only left this yesterday, and much precious time was I obliged to spend with him. I am beloved and highly esteemed by him, _but_–I cannot live on that, and the call from every quarter to remember “that he who has a lamp ought to pour oil into it” finds no response here. As the score ought to be correctly engraved, I must look it over repeatedly myself, for I have no clever copyist at present. Pray, do not think ill of me! _Never_ was I guilty of anything base! 399. March, 1825. MY GOOD FRIENDS,– Each is herewith appointed to his own post, and formally taken into our service, pledging his honor to do his best to distinguish himself, and each to vie with the other in zeal. Every individual cooperating in this performance must subscribe his name to this paper.[1] Schuppanzigh, (_Manu propria._) Weiss. Linke, (M.P.) Confounded violoncello of the great masters. Holz, (M.P.) The _last_, but only as to his signature. [Footnote 1: In reference to the rehearsals of the first production of the E flat major Quartet, Op. 127, in March, 1825.] 400. TO SCHINDLER. The Spring of 1825. I have waited till half-past one o’clock, but as the _caput confusum_ has not come, I know nothing of what is likely to happen. Carl must be off to the University in the Prater; so I am obliged to go, that Carl, who must leave this early, may have his dinner first. I am to be found in the “Wilde Mann” [an inn in the Prater]. To Herr Schindler, _Moravian numskull_.[1] [Footnote 1: Schindler was a Moravian.] 401. TO LINKE, VIOLONCELLIST.[1] DEAR LINKE,– Having heard Herr v. Bocklet very highly spoken of, I think it would be advisable to ask him kindly to play in the trio at your concert. I do not know him myself, or I would have applied to him on your behalf. Always rely on me when it is in my power to serve you. Yours truly, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Bocklet, a pianist in Vienna, tells me that he rehearsed the Trio with Holz and Linke in 1825 or 1826 at Beethoven’s.] 402.[1] TO * * * SIR,– Through the stupidity of my housekeeper your mother was recently sent away from my house, without my having been informed of her visit. I highly disapprove of such incivility, especially as the lady was not even shown into my apartments. The _rudeness_ and _coarseness_ of the persons whom I am so unfortunate as to have in my service are well known to every one; I therefore request your forgiveness. Your obedient servant, L. V. BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: In the New Vienna _Musik Zeitung_ the occasion of this note is thus related:–“In 1825, a well-known artist and _dilettante_ in the composition of music published a book of waltzes, each of these being composed by the most popular and celebrated musicians of the day; as no one declined giving a musical contribution to the editor, the profits being intended to enable him to go to Carlsbad for the benefit of the waters there. The work met with unusual support and sympathy. It then occurred to the editor to apply for a contribution to the great Ludwig van Beethoven, with whom he had been acquainted in former days through his father and grandfather. The great musician at once, in the most gracious and amiable manner, promised to comply with the request, and sent him not only a waltz, but (the only one who did so) also a trio, desiring the editor to send in the course of a month for these works, which would by that time be completed. As the editor was in the mean time taken ill, he was not able to call for the work himself, and was thus obliged to give up this interesting visit. He therefore requested his mother to apply for the waltz, &c., and to express his thanks; but the housekeeper, to whom she gave her name, refused to admit her, saying she could not do so, ‘for her master was in such a crazy mood.’ As at this very moment Beethoven chanced to put his head in at the door, she hurried the lady into a dark room, saying, ‘Hide yourself, as it is quite impossible that anyone can speak to him to-day,’ getting out of the way herself as fast as she could. A couple of days afterwards Beethoven sent the waltz, &c., to the house of the musical editor in question, with the above letter.”] 403. TO F. RIES. Vienna, April 9, 1825. MY DEAR GOOD RIES,– I write only what is most pressing! So far as I can remember in the score of the Symphony [the 9th] that I sent you, in the first hautboy, 242d bar, there stands [Music: F E D] instead of [Music: F E E]. I have carefully revised all the instrumental parts, but those of the brass instruments only partially, though I believe they are tolerably correct. I would already have sent you my score [for performance at the Aix musical festival], but I have still a concert in prospect, if indeed my health admits of it, and this MS. is the only score I possess. I must now soon go to the country, as this is the only season when I profit by it. You will shortly receive the second copy of the “Opferlied;” mark it at once as corrected by myself, that it may not be used along with the one you already possess. It is a fine specimen of the wretched copyists I have had since Schlemmer’s death. It is scarcely possible to rely on a single note. As you have now got all the parts of the _finale_ of the Symphony copied out, I have likewise sent you the score of the choral parts. You can easily score these before the chorus commences, and when the vocal parts begin, it could be contrived, with a little management, to affix the instrumental parts just above the scored vocal parts. It was impossible for me to write all these out at once, and if we had hurried such a copyist, you would have got nothing but mistakes. I send you an Overture in C, 6/8 time, not yet published; you shall have the engraved parts by the next post. A _Kyrie_ and _Gloria_, two of the principal movements (of the solemn Mass in D major), and an Italian vocal duet, are also on their way to you. You will likewise receive a grand march with chorus, well adapted for a musical performance on a great scale, but I think you will find what I have already sent quite sufficient. Farewell! You are now in the regions of the Rhine [Ries at that time lived at Godesberg, near Bonn], which will ever be so dear to me! I wish you and your wife every good that life can bestow! My kindest and best regards to your father, from your friend, BEETHOVEN. 404. TO HERR JENGER,–VIENNA.[1] 1824. MY ESTEEMED FRIEND,– It will give me much pleasure to send you some day soon the score of Matthisson’s “Opferlied.” The whole of it, published and unpublished, is quite at your service. Would that my circumstances permitted me to place at once at your disposal the greater works I have written, before they have been heard. I am, alas! fettered on this point; but it is possible that such an opportunity may hereafter occur, when I shall not fail to take advantage of it. The enclosed letter is for Hofrath v. Kiesewetter. I beg you will be so good as to deliver it, especially as it concerns yourself quite as much as the Herr Hofrath. I am, with high esteem, your devoted friend, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: This note is addressed to Jenger in Vienna, a chancery official and a musical amateur, connoisseur, factotum, and distinguished pianist. The date is not known. The _Opferlied_ he refers to, is undoubtedly the 2d arrangement, Op. 121-b, which according to the Leipzig _A.M. Zeitung_ was performed as Beethoven’s “most recent poetical and musical work,” at the concert in the Royal Redoutensaal, April 4, 1824.] 405. TO SCHOTT. I have much pleasure in herewith contributing to the “Cecilia”[1] and its readers some Canons written by me, as a supplement to a humorous and romantic biography of Herr Tobias Haslinger residing here, which is shortly to appear in three parts. In the _first_ part, Tobias appears as the assistant of the celebrated and solid Kapellmeister Fux, holding the ladder for his _Gradus ad Parnassum_. Being, however, mischievously inclined, he contrives, by shaking and moving the ladder, to cause many who had already climbed up a long way, suddenly to fall down, and break their necks. He now takes leave of this earthly clod and comes to light again in the _second_ part in the time of Albrechtsberger. The already existing Fux, _nota cambiata_, is now dealt with in conjunction with Albrechtsberger. The alternating subjects of the Canon are most fully illustrated. The art of creating musical skeletons is carried to the utmost limit, &c. Tobias begins once more to spin his web as a caterpillar, and comes forth again in the _third_ part, making his third appearance in the world. His half-fledged wings bear him quickly to the Paternostergässel, of which he becomes the Kapellmeister. Having emerged from the school of the _nota cambiata_, he retains only the _cambiata_ and becomes a member of several learned societies, &c. But here are the Canons. On a certain person of the name of Schwencke.[2] [Music: treble clef, key of F major, 3/4 time. Schwen-ke dich, Schwen-ke dich oh-ne Schwän-ke, oh-ne Schwän-ke, oh-ne Schwän-ke, oh-ne Schwän-ke ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ Schwen-ke dich, schwen-ke dich, schwen-ke dich ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷] On a certain person of the name of Hoffmann. [Music: treble clef, key of C, 3/4 time. Hoff-mann! Hoff-mann! Sei ja kein Hof-mann! ja kein Hof-mann! nein, nein ÷ nein ÷ ÷ ÷ ich hei-ße Hoff-mann und bin kein Hof-mann] LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: A periodical published for the musical world, and edited by a society of _savants_, art-critics, and artists; Mayence, B. Schott & Sons. The publishers applied to Beethoven, in the name of the editors, for a contribution to the _Cecilia_.] [Footnote 2: It appears that Kapellmeister Schwencke in Hamburg, in many complimentary and flowery phrases, had requested Beethoven to send him his autograph. Perhaps Beethoven, to whom the sound of certain names appeared comical, alludes here to this Hamburg Kapellmeister Schwencke.] 406. TO LUDWIG RELLSTAB. May 3, 1825. As I was just starting for the country yesterday, I was obliged to make some preparations myself; so unluckily your visit to me was in vain. Forgive me in consideration of my very delicate health. As perhaps I may not see you again, I wish you every possible prosperity. Think of me when writing your poems. Your friend, BEETHOVEN. Convey my affectionate regards and esteem to Zelter,–that faithful prop of true art. Though convalescent, I still feel very weak. Kindly accept the following token of remembrance from Your friend, BEETHOVEN. [Music: treble clef, C-major. Das Schö-ne mit dem Guten.] 407. TO * * * Vienna. SIR,– Being on the point of going into the country, and only very recently recovered from an attack of internal inflammation, I can merely write you a few words. In the passage in the “Opferlied,” 2d strophe, where it runs thus:– [Music: C-clef on bottom line, A major, marked “Solostimme”. E-rde.] I wish it to be written thus:– [Music: E-rde. (with different notes)] 408. TO HIS BROTHER JOHANN. Baden, May 6, 1825. The bell and bell-pulls, &c., &c., are on no account whatever to be left in my former lodging. No proposal was ever made to these people to take any of my things. Indisposition prevented my sending for it, and the locksmith had not come during my stay to take down the bell; otherwise it might have been at once removed and sent to me in town, as they have no right whatever to retain it. Be this as it may, I am quite determined not to leave the bell there, for I require one here, and therefore intend to use the one in question for my purpose, as a similar one would cost me twice as much as in Vienna, bell-pulls being the most expensive things locksmiths have. If necessary, apply at once to the police. The window in my room is precisely in the same state as when I took possession, but I am willing to pay for it, and also for the one in the kitchen,–2 florins 12 kreutzers for the two. The key I will not pay for, as I found none; on the contrary, the door was fastened or nailed up when I came, and remained in the same condition till I left; there never was a key, so of course neither I myself, nor those who preceded me, could make use of one. Perhaps it is intended to make a collection, in which case I am willing to put my hand in my pocket. LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN. 409. TO HERR VON SCHLEMMER.[1] SIR,– It strikes me as very remarkable that Carl cannot be persuaded to go into good society, where he might amuse himself in a creditable manner. This almost leads me to suspect that he possibly finds recreations, both in the evening and at night, in less respectable company. I entreat you to be on your guard as to this, and on no pretext whatever to allow him to leave the house at night, unless you receive a written request from me to that effect, by Carl. He once paid a visit, with my sanction, to Herr Hofrath Breuning. I strongly recommend this matter to your attention; it is far from being indifferent, either to you or to me; so I would once more urge you to practise the greatest vigilance. I am, sir, Your obedient BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: In 1825, his nephew lived with Schlemmer in the Alleengasse, close to the Karlskirche.] 410. TO HIS NEPHEW. Frau Schlemmer is to receive, or has already received, her money by our housekeeper. Some letters must be written to-morrow. Let me know what time would suit you best? Your UNCLE. I left my pocket-handkerchief with you. 411.[1] MY DEAR SON,– I have this moment got your letter. I still feel very weak and solitary, and only read the horrid letter I enclose! I send you 25 florins to buy the books at once, and you can spend the surplus when you require to do so. Pray bring me back Reisser’s note.[2] On Saturday, the 14th of May, I will send a carriage into town to fetch you here; the charge is as yet very reasonable. The old woman is to inquire what hour will suit you best; you can set off at any time before six in the evening, so that you need neglect nothing. Perhaps I may come myself, and then your shirts might be purchased; in which case it would be as well if you were to be at liberty by four o’clock; but if I do not come, which is very possible, drive straight here at five or six o’clock in the evening. You will not thus feel so much fatigued, and you can leave this again on Monday, if nothing is neglected by the delay. You can take the money with you for the Correpetitor. Are you aware that this affair of the Correpetitor, including board and lodging, amounts to 2000 florins a year? I can write no more to-day, I can scarcely guide my pen. Show this letter to Reisser. Your affectionate FATHER. [Footnote 1: I have arranged the following notes to his nephew in their probable succession as to time. Schindler has given some of these in his _Biography_, but quite at random, and disjointed, without any reliable chronological order.] [Footnote 2: Reisser was Vice-Director of the Polytechnic Institution, where the nephew had been placed for some time. Reisser had also undertaken the office of his co-guardian. Beethoven sometimes writes _Reissig_.] 412. TO DR. BRAUNHOFER. Baden, May 13, 1825. MY ESTEEMED FRIEND,– _Doctor._ “How does our patient get on?” _Patient._ “Still in a bad way, feeling weak and irritable, and I think that at last we must have recourse to stronger medicines, and yet not too violent; surely I might now drink white wine with water, for that deleterious beer is quite detestable. My catarrhal condition is indicated by the following symptoms. I spit a good deal of blood, though probably only from the windpipe. I have constant bleeding from the nose, which has been often the case this winter. There can be no doubt that my digestion is terribly weakened, and in fact my whole system, and, so far as I know my own constitution, my strength will never be recruited by its natural powers.” _Doctor._ “I will prescribe for you, and soon, very soon, shall your health be restored.” _Patient._ “How glad I should be to sit down at my writing-table, with some cheerful companions. Reflect on this proposal.” _Finis._ P.S. I will call on you as soon as I come to town, only tell Carl at what hour I am likely to see you. It would be a good plan to give Carl directions what I am to do. (I took the medicine only once, and have lost it.) I am, with esteem and gratitude, Your friend, BEETHOVEN. [Music: Treble clef, C major, 2/2 time. Doctor sperrt das Thor dem Todt: Rote hilft auch aus der Roth. Doctor sperrt das Thor dem Todt: Rote hilft auch aus der Roth.] Written on May 11th, 1825, in Baden, Helenenthal, second floor, Anton’s-Brücke, near Siechenfeld. 413. TO HIS NEPHEW. Baden, May 17. MY DEAR SON,– The weather here is abominable, and the cold greater even than yesterday; so much so that I have scarcely the use of my fingers to write; this is the case, however, only in the mountains, and more especially in Baden. I forgot the chocolate to-day, and am sorry to be obliged to trouble you about it, but all will go better soon. I enclose you 2 florins, to which you must add 15 kreutzers; send it if possible with the post in the afternoon; otherwise I shall have none the day after to-morrow; the people of the house will assist you in this. May God bless you! I begin to write again very tolerably; still, in this most dreary, cold stormy weather, it is almost impossible to have any clear conceptions. Now as ever, Your good and loving FATHER. 414. TO HIS NEPHEW. Noon, 1 o’clock. MY DEAR SON,– I merely wish to let you know that the old woman is not yet returned,–why, I cannot tell. Inquire immediately at Höbel’s in the Kothgasse, whether the Höbel who belongs to this place set off from Vienna to Baden? It is really so distressing to me to depend on such people, that if life did not possess higher charms, it would be utterly insupportable in my eyes. You no doubt got my yesterday’s letter, and the 2 florins for the chocolate. I shall be obliged to drink coffee to-morrow; perhaps after all it is better for me than chocolate, as the prescriptions of this B. [Braunhofer] have been repeatedly wrong. Indeed he seems to me very ignorant, and a blockhead into the bargain; he must have known about the asparagus. Having dined at the inn to-day, I have a threatening of diarrhoea. I have no more white wine, so I must get it from the inn, and such wine too! for which, however, I pay 3 florins! Two days ago the old woman wrote to me that she wished to end her days in an alms-house; perhaps she will not return to me; so be it in God’s name! she will always be a wicked old woman. She ought to make arrangements with the person whom she knows of. She wrote to me in a very different strain from that in which she spoke to you on Sunday, and said “that the people refused to give up the bell-pull.” Who knows whether she may not have some interest in the matter? She went into town yesterday at six o’clock, and I begged her to make haste back here this forenoon; if she still comes, I must go to town the day after to-morrow. Leave a written message to say when I am to see you…. Write me a few lines immediately. How much I regret troubling you, but you must see that I cannot do otherwise…. Your attached FATHER. How distressing to be in such a state here! To Herr Carl van Beethoven, Vienna, Alleengasse 72, Karlskirche, 1ter Étage, at Herr Schlemmer’s. 415. TO HIS NEPHEW. MY DEAR SON,– I sent for the cabinet-maker to-day with the old–witch–to Asinanius'[1] house. Don’t forget the paintings, and the things sent in last summer; at all events look for them. I may perhaps come on Saturday; if not, you must come to me on Sunday. May God watch over you, my dear son. Your attached FATHER. I cannot write much. Send me a few words.[2] [Footnote 1: It was thus Beethoven named his _pseudo_-brother.] [Footnote 2: Underneath is written in pencil by another hand, “I shall be at the usual place at three o’clock, _s’il vous plait_.” The whole appears to be afterwards stroked out.] 416. TO HIS NEPHEW. Do send the chocolate at last by the old woman. If Ramler is not already engaged, he may perhaps drive her over. I become daily thinner, and feel far from well; and no physician, no sympathizing friends! If you can possibly come on Sunday, pray do so; but I have no wish to deprive you of any pleasure, were I only sure that you would spend your Sunday properly away from me. I must strive to wean myself from everything; if I were only secure that my great sacrifices would bring forth worthy fruits! Your attached FATHER. 417. TO HIS NEPHEW. Wednesday, May 17. MY DEAR SON,– The old woman is just come, so you need be under no uneasiness; study assiduously and rise early, as various things may occur to you in the morning, which you could do for me. It cannot be otherwise than becoming in a youth, now in his nineteenth year, to combine his duties towards his benefactor and foster-father with those of his education and progress. I fulfilled my obligations towards my own parents. In haste, Your attached FATHER. The old bell-pull is here. The date of my letter is wrong; it is not May the 17th, but the 18th. 418. TO HIS NEPHEW. May 19. Ask the house agent about a lodging in the Landstrasse, Ungargasse, No. 345, adjoining the Bräuhaus,–four rooms and a kitchen, commanding a view of the adjacent gardens. I hear there are various others too in the Hauptstrasse. Give a gulden to the house agent in the Ungargasse, to promise me the refusal of the lodgings till Saturday, when, if the weather is not too bad, I mean to come on to fetch you. We must decide to-morrow whether it is to be hired from Michaelmas or now. If I do come on Saturday, take care that I find you at home. Your attached FATHER. 419. TO HIS NEPHEW. Say everything that is kind and amiable from me to my esteemed fellow-guardian, Dr. v. Reissig; I feel still too feeble to write to him myself. I hope he will not object to your coming to me here every Saturday evening. You are well aware that I _never abused_ such a permission when you were at Blöchlinger’s [see No. 276]. Besides, I feel sure of your intercession _in support of my request_. Your attached father, BEETHOVEN. 420. TO HIS NEPHEW. Baden, May 23. I have been assured, though as yet it is only a matter of conjecture, that a clandestine intercourse has been renewed between your mother and yourself. Am I doomed again to experience such detestable ingratitude? No! if the tie is to be severed, so be it! By such ingratitude you will incur the hatred of all impartial persons. The expressions my brother made use of yesterday before Dr. Reissig (as he says); and your own with respect to Schönauer (who is naturally adverse to me, the judgment of the Court being the _exact reverse of what he desired_), were such, that I will not mix myself up with such shameful doings! No! never more! If you find the _Pactum_ oppressive, then, in God’s name, I resign you to His holy keeping! I have done my part, and on this score I do not dread appearing before the Highest of all Judges. Do not be afraid to come to me to-morrow; as yet I only _suspect_; God grant that those suspicions _may not prove true_, for to you it would be an incalculable misfortune, with whatever levity my rascally brother, and perhaps your mother also, may treat the matter to the old woman. I shall expect you without fail. 421. TO HIS NEPHEW. Baden, May 31, 1825. MY DEAR SON,– I intend to come to town on Saturday, and to return here either on Sunday evening, or early on Monday. I beg you will therefore ask Dr. Bach [advocate] at what hour I can see him, and also fetch the key from brother Bäcker’s [a brother-in-law of Johann Beethoven’s], to see whether in the room inhabited by my unbrotherly brother, the arrangements are such that I can stay a night there; and if there is clean linen, &c., &c. As Thursday is a holiday, and it is unlikely that you will come here (indeed I do not desire that you should), you may easily execute these two commissions for me. You can let me know the result when I arrive on Saturday. I don’t send you money, for if you want any, you can borrow a gulden at home. Moderation is necessary for young people, and you do not appear to pay sufficient attention to this, as you had _money without my knowledge, nor do I yet know whence it came_. Fine doings! It is not advisable that you should go to the theatre at _present_, on account of the distraction it causes. The 5 florins procured by Dr. Reissig, I will pay off by instalments, punctually every month. So enough of this! Misled as you have been, it would be no bad thing were you at length to cultivate _simplicity and truth_, for my heart has been so deeply wounded by your deceitful conduct, that it is difficult to forget it. Even were I disposed to submit like an ox to so hard a yoke without murmuring, if you pursue the same course towards others, you will never succeed in gaining the love of any one. As God is my witness, I can think of nothing but you, and my contemptible brother, and the detestable family that I am afflicted with. May God vouchsafe to listen to my prayer, for _never_ again can I trust you! Your Father, alas! Yet fortunately not your Father. 422. TO HIS NEPHEW. Baden, June 9, 1825. I wish you at least to come here on Sundays. In vain do I ask for an answer. God help you and me! As ever, Your attached FATHER. I have written to Herr v. Reissig to desire you to come here on Sundays. The _calèche_ leaves his house at six o’clock, from the _Kugel, auf der Wieden_. You have only to work and study a little in advance, to lose nothing. I regret being obliged to cause you this annoyance; you are to return the same afternoon at five o’clock, with the _calèche_. Your place is already paid for; you can shave here in the morning, and a shirt and neckcloth will be ready for you, so that you may arrive at the right time. Farewell. If I reproach you it is not without good cause, and it would be hard to have sacrificed so much, merely to bestow a _commonplace man_ on the world. I hope to see you without fail. If the intrigues are already matured, say so frankly (and naturally), and you will find one who will always be true to the good cause. The lodging A. was again advertised in the paper on Tuesday; could you not have arranged about this? You might at all events have done so through some one else, or by writing, if you were at all indisposed. I should much prefer not moving, if I were not compelled to do so. You know my mode of living here, and it is far worse in this cold stormy weather. My continued solitude only still further enfeebles me, and really my weakness often amounts to a swoon. Oh! do not further grieve me, for the scythe of Death will grant me no long delay! If I could find a good lodging in the Alleengasse, I would at once engage it. 423. Tuesday Morning. MY DEAR SON,– The two patterns, one placed at the top and the other below, each 21 florins, seem to me the best; the landlord can advise you. For the trousers 88–4-1/2. I enclose 62 florins W.W. 30 kreutzers. Give me an exact account of how you spend this money, for it was hard to earn; still it is not worth while, for the sake of a florin a yard, not to select the best material; so choose, or get some one to choose for you, the best of the two at 21 florins. Order the highest quality for your trousers also; remember you ought never to wear your best clothes at home; no matter who comes, you need never be well dressed in the house.[1] The moment you come home change your good clothes, and be at your ease in those set aside for the purpose. Farewell. Your attached FATHER. P.S. The creature went off yesterday and has not returned; we shall see how this turns out. The old beast was determined to be off, being like a restless wild animal devoid of purpose or reason. May Heaven have pity on me! The new cooking began yesterday. [Footnote 1: See Weber’s narrative in his _Biography_, Vol. II. 510. “The square Cyclopean figure was attired in a shabby coat with torn sleeves.”] 424. TO HIS NEPHEW. Baden, June 15. MY DEAR SON,– I hope you received the 62 florins 30 kreutzers. If you wish to order trousers of the same cloth, do so. You probably chose that at 25 florins, and on such occasions the best quality should not be rejected for the sake of a couple of florins. You may also order two pairs of trousers of the gray cloth. You must let me know the amount of the tailor’s bill, &c., &c., which shall be paid by me. “Let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth.” Such is the sentiment of noble-minded men. You have, alas! only yourself to blame for my being forced to draw your attention to this. Do not forget to call on Riess (??). May Aurora not only awaken you but speed your industry. Now for my every-day household matters. The maid came indeed, but is not to remain; in the mean time I have spoken pretty plainly to the old woman, _so far_ as it is possible to speak to such people. But let us say no more of all this bedevilment. My brother _Asinanio_ has written to me. What I find most trying of all is being alone at dinner, and it is really surprising that I can write to you even tolerably from here. Possibly I may come to town on Saturday, and if so you will perhaps drive out here with me at six o’clock in the evening? Now farewell, my darling! deserve this name. Retain what money you require; anything you want shall be purchased for you when I come in. I embrace you, and hope you will be my good, studious, noble son. Now as ever, your attached FATHER. I should like to know that you received the money safely. Did the Correpetitor come? 425. TO HIS NEPHEW. MY DEAR SON,– I send you herewith the 90 florins. Get a written receipt from the landlady to prevent all mistakes afterwards; this is the invariable custom with those still under the control of guardians. My wafers are done; cannot you manage to send me a box in some way or other? Acknowledge the receipt of the money at once. God bless you! Do all you possibly can to rid me of that old demon. Do not involve yourself in any clandestine doings with my brother; above all do nothing clandestine towards me; towards your attached father. Goodnight. Farewell! farewell! The old witch and Satan and I?! 426. TO HIS NEPHEW. I rejoice, my dear son, that you take pleasure in this new sphere, and such being the case you must zealously strive to acquire what is necessary for it. I did not recognize your writing; I indeed look only to the _sense_ and _meaning_, but you must now attain some outward elegance also. If it is too hard a task for you to come here, give it up; but if you can by any possibility do so, I shall rejoice in my desert home to have a feeling heart near me. If you do come, the housekeeper will settle that you leave Vienna at five o’clock, which leaves you ample time for your studies. I embrace you cordially. Your attached FATHER. P.S. Don’t forget to bring the “Morgenblatt” and Ries’s letter.[1] [Footnote 1: A letter from Ries of this date, in the _Fischhof’sche Handschrift_, is of sufficient interest to be given here at full length:– Godesberg, June 9, 1825. Dearest Beethoven,–I returned a few days ago from Aix-la-Chapelle, and feel the greatest pleasure in telling you that your new Symphony [the 9th] was executed with the most extraordinary precision, and received with the greatest applause. It was a hard nut to crack, and the last day I rehearsed the _finale_ alone for three hours; but I in particular, and all the others, were fully rewarded by the performance. It is a work beside which no other can stand, and had you written nothing but this you would have gained immortality. Whither will you lead us? As it will interest you to hear something of the performance, I will now briefly describe it. The orchestra and choruses consisted of 422 persons, and many very distinguished people among them. The first day commenced with a new Symphony of mine, and afterwards Handel’s _Alexander’s Feast_. The second day began with your new Symphony, followed by the _Davide Penitente_ of Mozart, the overture to the _Flaute Magico_, and the _Mount of Olives_. The applause of the public was almost terrific. I had been in Aix-la-Chapelle from the 3d of May on purpose to conduct the rehearsals, and as a mark of the satisfaction and enthusiasm of the public, I was called forward at the close of the performance, when an ode and a laurel crown were presented to me by a lady (a very pretty one too), and at the same moment another poem and a shower of flowers followed from the upper boxes. All was pleasure and contentment, and every one says that this is the finest of the seven Whitsuntide festivals held here. I cannot sufficiently lament that your other music arrived too late to make use of it. It was indeed utterly impossible to do so. I herewith send you, my dear friend, a check for 40 Louis d’or on Heppenmayer & Co. in Vienna, according to our agreement, and beg you will acknowledge the receipt, that I may settle everything relating to Aix-la-Chapelle. I am glad that you have not accepted any engagement in England. If you choose to reside there, you must previously take measures to ensure your finding your account in it. From the Theatre alone Rossini got £2500. If the English wish to do anything at all remarkable for you, they must combine, so that it may be well worth your while to go there. You are sure to receive enough of applause, and marks of homage, but you have had plenty of these during your whole life. May all happiness attend you. Dear Beethoven, yours ever, FERDINAND RIES.] 427. TO HIS NEPHEW. Baden, June 28, 1825. MY DEAR SON,– As in this heat you may perhaps wish to bathe, I send you two more florins. You must be careful to take a written receipt from those to whom you pay money; for that errors do occur is proved by the blue cloth, and the three florins for the looking-glass. You are a thorough Viennese, and although I do not expect you to become a W.W. (depreciated Vienna currency), still it is no disgrace at your age to give an exact account of all that you receive, as no one is considered to be of age till five and twenty, and even if you had property of your own, you would be obliged to account for it to your guardian at your present years. Let us not refer to the past; it would be easy to do so, but only cause me pain; at last it would come to this, “You are indeed a first-rate guardian,” &c. If you had any depth of feeling you would have acted very differently in most things. Now as to my domestic rabble; yesterday the kitchenmaid was off again and got a fresh place; the cause is difficult to discover from my old witch, who is now once more all smiles, and no longer persists in declaring that she has incurred any _loss_ from the weekly bills; what do you think of that? [The last page of this letter is an illegible fragment.] 428. TO HIS NEPHEW. Baden. MY DEAR GOOD CARL,– I have just got your letter this evening, and could not help laughing at it. It was not right in the people at Mayence to have acted thus, but since the thing has occurred, it does not signify. Our epoch requires strong minds to scourge those frivolous, contemptible, malicious beings, repulsive as it is to my feelings to cause pain to any man. Besides, I intended a mere jest, and it was far from my intention to let such a thing be printed.[1] You must ascertain instantly from a magistrate the proper mode of converting the Bank obligations into Rothschild’s Austrian Loan, that you may get the authority from a magistrate (not from the _Court_ of those _pseudo_-guardians!) Be good and honest; you have here an instance how people rejoice when such men are properly estimated. Be my own dear precious son, and imitate my virtues, but not my faults; still, though man is frail, do not at least have worse defects than those of Your sincere and fondly attached FATHER. Write to me about the conversation on Sunday–it is of the _Court, courtly_, so you must be on your guard. Holz did not come to-day; whether he is trustworthy I cannot say. [Footnote 1: There is no doubt that he alludes to the severe castigation of Haslinger in No. 405 and the _canonization_ of the two others. See also No. 440, which shows that there was something amiss with Haslinger.] 429. TO HIS NEPHEW. To-day is Friday, to-morrow Saturday. Here comes _Satanas_. To-day her raging fury and madness have somewhat subsided, but if she applies to you, refer her to me the day after to-morrow. During the whole week I was forced to submit and to suffer like a saint. Avaunt! such dregs of the people! What a reproach to our civilization to stand in need of a class like this, and to have those whom we despise so constantly near us. Go with her to-morrow as formerly to the Carolin Thor about the Seltzer water; if the small bottles are as genuine as the larger ones, order some of them, but I think the larger size are more likely to be the _safest_; _ce dépend de votre esprit, votre distinction_, &c. Now farewell, my dear son; take care to get me the genuine, and _not_ the artificial Seltzer water, and go yourself to see about it, or I might get Heaven knows what! Farewell again, my good fellow; we are well affected towards you, and shall expect you the day after to-morrow at eight o’clock. Breakfast shall be ready for you, if that early meal does not become as usual a late meal. _Ah! au diable avec ces grands coquins de neveux, allez-vous en, soyez mon fils, mon fils bien aimé. Adieu; je vous baise, votre père sincère comme toujours._ 430. TO HIS NEPHEW. The old goose is the bearer of this. She has given you the quills, and you have again told an untruth. Alas! farewell. I await your report about the book. She is going to-day to Katel, so she will have very little time for her stupid blundering. May the Lord one day deliver me from her! _Libera me Domine de illis_, &c. 431.[1] DEAR SON, DEAR BOY,– Do not omit the point about “the happiness.” I know from my experience of the late Lichnowsky, that those so-called great personages do not like to see an artist, who is at all events their equal, prosperous. _Voilà le même cas, votre Altesse_, sometimes in the context V.A. The address “à son Altesse Monseigneur le Prince,” &c., &c. We cannot tell whether he may have that weakness or not. A blank sheet ought to follow with my signature. You might add that he must not regard the newspaper trash, the writers of which, if I chose, would loudly trumpet forth my merits. The Quartet did indeed fail the first time that it was played by Schuppanzigh; for on account of his corpulence he requires more time than formerly to decipher a piece at a glance, and many other circumstances concurred in preventing its success, which were indeed predicted by me; for although Schuppanzigh and two others receive pensions from royal personages [Rasumowsky], their quartet-playing is not what it was when all four were in the habit of constantly playing together. On the other hand, it has been six times performed in the most admirable manner by other artists, and received with the greatest applause; it was played twice over in one evening, and then again after supper. A violinist of the name of Böhm means also to give it at his benefit, and I must now let many others have it. Mention the Grand Quartet in your letter to Peters at Leipzig; lose no time about this, and desire him to send me an early reply. Mischances of this kind cannot well be avoided, and we must appear rather coy. Seal the enclosed letter to my brother and send it to the post. Desire the tailor in the Kärntnerstrasse to get lining for trousers for me, and to make them long and without straps, one pair to be of kerseymere and the other of cloth. The great-coat can be fetched from Wolf’s. The shoemaker’s shop is in the “Stadt” in the Spiegelgasse, in front when coming from the Graben. His name is Magnus Senn, at the Stadthaus, No. 1093. Call on Hönigstein [a banker] and be _candid_, that we may really know _how this wretch has acted_; it would be wise to ascertain this before the letter to Galitzin is sent off. It is probable that something else may be found for you this winter, but we can talk over the matter. Before coming here on Saturday call on Zinbrachen in the Naglergasse about the knives, which you can send at once; the old woman made a fine mess of it! When driving home yesterday I met Clement, Holz, Linke, and Rtschaschek [Rzehatschek] in Neudorf; they had all been to call on me while I was in town. They wish to have the Quartet again. Holz drove straight back here from Neudorf and supped with me in the evening, when I gave him the Quartet to take back with him. The attachment of genuine artists is not to be despised, and cannot be otherwise than gratifying. Let me hear from you as soon as you have spoken with Hönigstein; write the dedication of the Overture in C [Op. 124] to Galitzin. If the H.’s undertake to forward it, give it to them, but look sharp about it. God be with you, my dear son; I shall expect a letter from you without fail. May God bless you and me. The end must soon come of your attached father. Good-by, you scamp! N.B. Do not forget in your letter to Galitzin to mention that the Overture is already announced and about to appear, engraved and dedicated to him. [Footnote 1: He refers to Prince Boris Gallizin and the Quartets he had ordered. The production of the first of them in E flat major had been a failure. See No. 399.] 432. TO HIS NEPHEW. MY DEAR SON,– Send this letter at once to my _pseudo_-brother, and add something yourself. It is impossible to permit this to continue any longer; no soup to-day, no beef, no eggs, and at last _broiled meat_ from the inn! When Holz was with me lately, there was really almost nothing to eat at supper; and such is the woman’s bold and insolent behavior, that I have told her to-day I will not suffer her to remain beyond the end of the month. No more to-day. All that is necessary about the magistrate is for me to write a note authorizing you to draw the money, but it would be as well were you to take the opportunity of asking what you are to do about converting the bank shares into a share in Rothschild’s Loan. I shall say nothing further, except that I always look on you as my dear son, and one who deserves to be so. _Little_ as I require what nourishes the body, as you know, still the present state of things is really too bad, besides being every moment in danger of being poisoned. Farewell! Be careful, my dear son, of your health in this heat; I trust you will continue well. Shun all that may enervate or diminish your youthful energies. Farewell! A pleasant talk together would be far better than all this writing. Ever your loving and attached father, who fondly presses you to his heart. 433. TO HIS NEPHEW. MY DEAR SON,– The enclosed will show you all. Write this letter to Schlesinger. To —- Schlesinger, Berlin, Emporium of Art and Science. You can couch some things in better terms. I think we may calculate on 80 ducats. If indispensable, delay the letter to Galitzin, but be sure to dispatch the one to Schlesinger on Saturday. I suppose you received the packet? I beg you will bring me some shaving-soap, and at least one pair of razors; the man who grinds them gets 2 florins. You will know if anything is to be paid. Now pray practise economy, for you certainly receive too much money. All in vain–a Viennese will always be a Viennese! I rejoiced when I could assist my poor parents; what a contrast are you in your conduct towards me! Thriftless boy, farewell! Your attached FATHER. Bring the newspaper with you. You have a great deal to do this time. You no doubt will write before Sunday. Do not flatter that wretch —-. He is a miserable, weak-minded fellow. I embrace you. My health is _no better_. 434. TO HIS BROTHER JOHANN,–GNEIXENDORF. Baden, July 13, 1825. MY WORTHY BROTHER,– As you have taken such good care of the book, I beg you will take equal care that it be returned to the proprietor here. Another pretty business! As to your wish that I should come to see you, I long ago fully explained myself on that point; so I request that you will never again allude to the subject, for you will find me as immovable as ever. Pray spare me all details, as I am unwilling to repeat what is disagreeable. You are happy, and it is my desire that you should be so; continue thus, for every one is best _in his own sphere_. I only once made use of your lodgings, but the baking-oven nearly made me ill, so I did not go again; as I have now a lodging of my own, it is not probable that I shall even _once_ make use of the room you offer me. When you write, be sure to _seal_ your letters, and address them to the care of Carl, in Vienna, as such letters cost a great deal here. I once more urge you to restore the book belonging to the machinist, _an dem Graben_, for such occurrences are really almost incredible, and place me in no small embarrassment. So the book! the book! to be sent to Carl in Vienna with all possible haste and speed. Farewell, most worthy brother! Yours, LUDWIG. 435. TO HIS NEPHEW. Baden, July 15. MY DEAR SON,– In your letter to Schlesinger don’t forget to ask whether Prince Radziwill is in Berlin. As to the 80 ducats, you can also write that they may be paid in _Conventionsgulden_, at only 4 florins 30 kreutzers to the ducat; but I leave this entirely to yourself, though gold ducats would not be too much from one who has the right of publishing in England and also in France. You must be quite decided too with respect to the four months’ bill. A. Mayseder receives 50 ducats for a set of violin variations! Do not fail to call attention to the fact that my bad health and other circumstances constrain me to look more closely after my interests than formerly. Bargaining is odious to me, but it must be so! What are my feelings when I find myself thus alone among these men! Be sure to forward my letter to my brother, that the book may be restored–what a trick! I should have liked, too, to do all I could to benefit my hearing, and here I should have had time to do so. How melancholy to have such a brother! Alas! alas! Farewell! I embrace you from my heart. Your attached FATHER. P.S. Do not be dilatory, and rise early. If you would rather not, pray do not come on Sunday; but at all events write, though not at present, for if you can come we can discuss all matters together. 436. TO HIS NEPHEW. Baden, July 18, Monday. MY DEAR SON,– You will see from the enclosure all that you wish to know; only observe _moderation_. Fortune crowns my efforts, but do not lay the foundation of misery by mistaken notions; be truthful and exact in the account of your expenses, and give up the theatre for the present. Follow the advice of your guide and father; be counselled by him whose exertions and aspirations have always been directed to your moral welfare, though without neglecting your temporal benefit. This Herr Thal will call on you, and he will also be at Herr Hönigstein’s; you can give him the Overture if you think fit. He is to stay three weeks. You may invite him to dine here. Sunday would be best, as a certain scamp comes on that day at an early hour, in a carriage that I will send for him. Pray show some amiability of manner towards this man; art and science form a link between the noblest spirits, and your future vocation[1] by no means exempts you from this. You might take a _fiacre_ and drive to the copyist’s if you can spare time. With respect to the transcription of the Quartet, you may tell him that I write very differently now, much more legibly than during my illness; this Quartet must be written out twice, and I can send it at once. I have had the offer of a copyist here, but I don’t know what he can do. I should be careful not to be too confidential at first with the _Holz Christi_, or the splinter of the _Holz Christi_. Write to me forthwith. Perhaps the old goose may go to Vienna the day after to-morrow. Farewell! Attend to my advice. Your attached FATHER, Who cordially embraces you. You may possibly go to D—- with this Herr Thal; do not, however, show too much anxiety about the money. [Footnote 1: The nephew had now resolved on a commercial career, and on this account entered the Polytechnic Institution.] 437. TO HIS NEPHEW. MY DEAR SON,– So let it be! Bring G—-‘s letter with you, for I have scarcely read it myself. My _Signor Fratello_ came the day before yesterday with his brother-in-law [see No. 435]–what a contemptible fellow! The old witch, who went almost crazy again yesterday, will bring you the answer about the book from his brother-in-law. If it does not convey a positive certainty on the subject, send this letter at once to the base creature! When Cato exclaimed, with regard to Caesar, “This man and myself!” what can be done in such a case? I don’t send the letter, for it will be time enough a couple of days hence. It is too late to-day. I impress my love, as with a seal, on your affectionate attachment to me. If you are likely to miss your work by coming here, then stay where you are. As ever, your loving and anxious FATHER. Three times over: ________________ |: Come soon! 😐 438. TO THE COPYIST.[1] Read _violino 2do_–the passage in the first _Allegretto_ in the 1st violin–thus:– [Music: Treble clef, sixteenth notes.] &c. So write it in this way; in the first _Allegretto_, mark the signs of expression in all the four parts: [Music: Treble and Bass clefs.] The notes are all right; so do not misunderstand me. Now, my good friend, as to your mode of writing–_obbligatissimo_; but the signs [Music: piano crescendo decrescendo] &c., are shamefully neglected, and often, very often, in the wrong place, which is no doubt owing to haste. For Heaven’s sake impress on Kempel [a copyist] to copy everything just as it stands; look carefully over my present corrections, and you will find all that you have to say to him. When [Music: staccato mark] is put over a note, [Music: staccatissimo mark] is not to take its place, and _vice versa_. It is not the same thing to write [Music: three staccatissimo quarter notes] and [Music: three staccato quarter notes]. The [Music: crescendo] are often purposely placed after the notes. For instance:–[Music: three notes, decrescendo on second note]. The ties to be just as they are now placed. It is not synonymous to write [Music: three notes, slurred] or thus [Music: three notes, slur over first two notes]. Such is our will and pleasure! I have passed no less than the whole forenoon to-day, and yesterday afternoon, in correcting these two pieces, and I am actually quite hoarse from stamping and swearing. In haste, yours, BEETHOVEN. Pray excuse me for to-day, as it is just four o’clock. [The close of this letter has not been deciphered by its possessor, who has traced over the hieroglyphics with a pencil; it reads somewhat to this effect, “to go to Carl at four o’clock. We were much amused,” &c.] [Footnote 1: This letter is evidently written about the same time that the copying of the A minor Quartet (Op. 132) took place, of which the letter treats, and is probably “the enclosure” named in the following note. The corrections, or we ought rather to say revisions, of Beethoven, are all fully and accurately reproduced, at all events in Breitkopf & Härtel’s edition.] 439. TO HIS NEPHEW. Tuesday, August 2. MY DEAR SON,– Send the enclosed to-morrow morning (Wednesday) to the post; as it refers to corrections, _haste is absolutely necessary_. We must have done with this evil old creature! I have scarcely enough to eat, and am forced also to endure the sauciness and insolence of this most malicious old witch–and with such wages too! I think I must ask my _pseudo_-brother to come, and would be glad to engage again the woman from Winter’s, in the Kothgasse, who at least knew how to cook. Write me a few lines to-morrow, and direct here. I send you another florin. Do not neglect your bathing; continue well, and guard against _illness_. Spend your money _on good objects alone_. Be my dear son! What a frightful discord would it be, were you to prove _false_ to me, as many persons maintain that you already are! May God bless you! Your attached FATHER. N.B. Send off the letter to-morrow (Wednesday). I have heard nothing as yet of the knives, and my made pens also begin to fail. 440. TO HIS NEPHEW. Baden, August MY DEAR SON,– I am in mortal anxiety about the Quartet–namely, the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth parts, that Holz took away, while the first bars of the third movement have been left here; the number of these sheets is 13. _I hear nothing of Holz._ I wrote to him yesterday, and he is not usually remiss in writing. What a sad business it will be if he has lost it! He drinks hard, _entre nous_. Tranquillize me on this point as quickly as possible. You can find out Linke’s lodgings from Haslinger; he was here to-day and very friendly, and brought some of the sheets and other things, and begged hard for the new quartets. Never interfere in this kind of business; it can only lead to what is unpleasant. For Heaven’s sake pacify me about the Quartet–a serious loss. The sketch is only written on small fragments of paper, and I could not manage to write out the whole exactly from these. Your attached FATHER. I must remind you that next Sunday and Monday are holidays, so that you may arrange accordingly. On this occasion you could perhaps, when I come in, return with me here on Saturday evening, which would give you the whole of Sunday morning to yourself. 441. TO ZMESKALL. 1825. MY GOOD FRIEND,– I had scarcely got home when I bethought me of the stuff I may have written yesterday. Give the enclosed to Kuhlau; you know all the rest. Write to me as soon as possible, or come here, next Thursday being a holiday, but write beforehand. Ask if the cook understands anything about game, that she may take the command of my game preserves for me. As to Carl, it would be better for him to tell me about it at the _Atrapper_ at _Rosen_. All this _prestissimo_! As for my friendship, think of me always as _Cantum firmum_. Farewell! Ever your friend, BEETHOVEN. 442. TO HERR FRIEDRICH KUHLAU. Baden, September 3, 1825. [Music: Alto clef, B-flat major, 4/4 time. Kuhl nicht lau, nicht lau, Kuhl nicht lau, Kuh-lau nicht lau. Kuhl nicht lau, Kuhl nicht lau, nicht lau. Kuhl nicht lau, Kuhl nicht lau, Kuhl nicht lau.] I must admit that the champagne went a little to my head yesterday, and I learned once more from experience, that such things rather prostrate than promote my energies; for, though able to respond fluently at the moment, still I can no longer recall what I wrote yesterday. Sometimes bear in mind your attached BEETHOVEN. 443. TO HIS NEPHEW. September 6, 1825. MY DEAR SON,– I see perfectly well how troublesome it would be for you all to come here; we must therefore make an appointment to meet every Friday at Schlesinger’s, when I will come to town; for, in case any thing goes amiss, I must be present. This is the best plan, and settles the affair. He was here yesterday, and said that he would pay for the Quintet as soon as you sent it to him. It will be enough if they play the new one only, but you can judge what is best. If they prefer Thursday, I can be present then. Only see that they come to an arrangement as quickly as possible, so that the money may be transmitted to Peters in Leipzig, to whom, however, you must on no account allude. Schlesinger scarcely expects to be still in Vienna on Sunday; haste is therefore necessary. The ducats must be in gold; mention, as a precedent, that others do this. Be sure to write to me by the old woman to-day. All I want is a rehearsal, to see whether corrections are required. Make no delays, and take care that the old woman sets off in good time. The best plan would be to fix where I am to come to in town every Friday for rehearsals. If Schlesinger has brought you the Quartet (the first), pray stand on no ceremony, for it is clear he means to pay. Your letter has this moment come. So Holz is not to be here till Thursday, and who can tell whether even this is certain? Your letter changes everything, as Friday is now decided on. Holz can inform me whether we meet here or in Vienna. Our main point now is with Schlesinger, for we must delay no longer. If he is only waiting for the rehearsal, he certainly shall not have it. He said yesterday that he would not publish the quartets here; I told him it was a matter of entire indifference to me. May God bless you and keep you! Your attached FATHER. 444. TO HIS NEPHEW. September. MY DEAR SON,– Do not forget to give Tobias [Haslinger] the receipt together with the money. The gentleman ought to have come a little sooner; but as the affair stands, you must do as he advises. I do not wish now that you should come to me on the 19th of September. It is better to finish your studies. God has never yet forsaken me, and no doubt some one will be found to close my eyes. The whole thing seems to me to have been some artful collusion, in which my brother (_pseudo_) has played a part. I also know that you have no pleasure now in coming to me–which is only natural, for my atmosphere is too pure for you. Last Sunday you again borrowed 1 florin 15 kreutzers from the housekeeper, from a mean old kitchen wench,–this was already forbidden,–and it is the same in all things. I could have gone on wearing the out-of-doors coat for two years–to be sure I have the shabby custom of putting on an old coat at home–but Herr Carl! What a disgrace it would be! and why should he do so? Herr Ludwig van Beethoven’s money-bags are expressly for this purpose. You had better not come next Sunday, for true harmony and concord can never exist with conduct such as yours. Why such hypocrisy? Avoid it, and you will then become a better man, and not require to be deceitful nor untruthful, which will eventually benefit your moral character. Such is the impression you have made on my mind–for what avail even the most gentle reproofs? They merely serve to embitter you. But do not be uneasy; I shall continue to _care for you_ as much as ever. _What feelings_ were aroused in me when I again found a florin and 15 kreutzers charged in the bill! Do not send any more such flimsy notes, for the housekeeper can see through them in the light. I have just received this letter from Leipzig, but I don’t mean to send the Quartet yet; we can talk of this on Sunday. Three years ago I only asked 40 ducats for a quartet; we must therefore refer to the exact words you have written. Farewell! He who, though he did not give you life, has certainly provided for it, and above all striven to perfect your mental culture, and been more than a father to you, earnestly implores you to pursue steadily the only true path to all that is good and right. Farewell! Bring back the letter with you on Sunday. Your attached and kind FATHER. 445. TO HERR VON SCHLESINGER. Vienna, September 26, 1825. [Music: Tenor clef, F major, 4/4 time. Si non per Por-tus, per mu-ros, per mu-ros, per mu-ros.] My worthy friend, I wish you the loveliest bride! And I take this opportunity of asking you to present my compliments to Herr Marx, in Berlin, and beg him not to be too hard on me, and sometimes to allow me to slip out at the backdoor. Yours, BEETHOVEN. 446. TO HIS NEPHEW. Baden, October 4. MY DEAR SON,– Like the sage Odysseus, I know the best course to take; if you come on Saturday, you need not fear the cold, for a portion of the old window-shutters is still here, with which we can protect ourselves. I hope also to get rid of my cold and catarrh here; at the same time this place is a great risk in my rheumatic condition, for wind, or rather hurricanes, still prevail here. As to Biedermann, you must inquire whether Schlesinger gave him a commission; for if this be not the case, we ought to write at once to Peters. You could scarcely write to me to-day, but I hope to hear from you to-morrow, and to see you positively on Saturday. I wish you never may have cause to feel ashamed of your want of love for me; if I alone suffer, what matters it? I wish and hope that all the pretexts you made here to go into Vienna may prove true. Rest assured that you may at all times expect every possible kindness from me, but can I hope for the same from you? When you see me irritable, ascribe it solely to my great anxiety on your account, for you are exposed to many dangers. I hope at all events to get a letter from you to-morrow; do not cause me uneasiness, but think of my sufferings. I ought not, properly, to have any such apprehensions, but what sorrow have I not already experienced?! As ever, your attached FATHER. Remember that I am all alone here, and subject to sudden illness. [On the outside:] _N’oubliez pas de demander des quittances, et donnez-moi aussi vite que possible des nouvelles._ 447. TO HIS NEPHEW. MY DEAR SON,– Say no more! only come to my arms; not one harsh word shall you hear! For God’s sake do not bring misery on your own head. You shall be received as lovingly as ever. We can discuss in a friendly manner what is to be done and settled as to the future. I pledge my word of honor you shall meet with no reproaches from me, which, indeed, could no longer avail. You need expect only the most affectionate care and assistance from me. Only come! Come to the faithful heart of– Your father, BEETHOVEN. _Volti sub._ Set off the moment you receive this letter. _Si vous ne viendrez pas, vous me tuerez sûrement. Lisez la lettre et restez à la maison chez vous. Venez embrasser votre père, vous vraiment adonné. Soyez assuré que tout cela restera entre nous._ For God’s sake come home to-day, for we cannot tell what risks you run,–hasten,–hasten to me! 448. TO HIS NEPHEW. October 5. DEAR AND MUCH-BELOVED SON,– I have just received your letter. I was a prey to anguish, and resolved to hurry into Vienna myself this very day. God be praised! this is not necessary; follow my advice, and love and peace of mind, as well as worldly happiness, will attend us, and you can then combine an inward and spiritual existence with your outer life. But it is well that the _former_ should be esteemed superior to the _latter_. _Il fait trop froid._ So I am to see you on Saturday? Write to say whether you come early or in the evening, that I may hasten to meet you. I embrace and kiss you a thousand times over, _not my lost, but my new-born son_. I wrote to Schlemmer; do not take it amiss, but my heart is still too full [a piece is here torn away]. Live! and my care of the son _I have found again_ will show only love on the part of your father. [On the cover:] _Ayez la bonté de m’envoyer_ a lucifer-match bottle and matches from Rospini, _ou en portez avec vous, puisque de celle de Kärnthnerthor on ne veut pas faire usage_. 449. TO HIS NEPHEW. _Immediate._ Baden, October 14. I write in the greatest haste to say, that even if it rains, I shall certainly come in to-morrow forenoon; be sure, therefore, that I find you at home. I rejoice at the thoughts of seeing you again, and if you detect any heavy clouds lowering, do not attribute them to deliberate anger, for they will be wholly chased away by your promise to strive more earnestly after the true and pure happiness, based on active exertion. Something hovered before me in my last letter, which though perhaps _not quite justly_ yet called forth a dark mood; this, after all that has passed, was indeed very possible; still who would not rejoice when the transgressor returns to the right path?–and this I hope I shall live to see. I was especially pained by your coming so late on Sunday, and hurrying away again so early. I mean to come in to-morrow with the joiner and to send off these old hags; they are too bad for anything. Until the other housekeeper arrives, I can make use of the joiner. More of this when we meet, and I know you will think I am right. Expect me then to-morrow without fail, whether it rains or not. Your loving FATHER, Who fondly embraces you. 450. TO THE ABBÉ MAXIMILIAN STADLER. February 6, 1826. REVEREND AND HONORED SIR,– You have really done well in rendering justice to the _manes_ of Mozart by your inimitable pamphlet, which so searchingly enters into the matter [the Requiem], and you have earned the gratitude of the lay and the profane, as well as of all who are musical, or have any pretensions to be so. To bring a thing of this kind forward as H.W.[1] has done, a man must either be a great personage, or a nonentity. Be it remembered also that it is said this same person has written a book on composition, and yet has ascribed to Mozart such passages as the following:– [Music: Bass clef] and has added such things as,– [Music: Treble clef, B-flat major. A-gnus de-i pec-ca-ta mun-di.] [Music: Treble clef, B-flat major. Qui tol-lis pec-ca-ta, qui tol-lis pec-ca-ta,] as samples of his own composition! H.W.’s astonishing knowledge of harmony and melody recall the old composers of the Empire,–Sterkel, [illegible,] Kalkbrenner (the father), André, &c. _Requiescant in pace!_ I especially thank you, my dear friend, for the pleasure you have conferred on me by your pamphlet. I have always accounted myself one of Mozart’s greatest admirers, and shall continue to be so to my last breath. I beg, venerable sir, for your blessing, and I am, with sincere esteem and veneration, yours, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Gottfried Weber, the well-known theorist, who was one of those engaged in the dispute as to the genuineness of Mozart’s Requiem.] 451. TO GOTTFRIED WEBER. April 3, 1826. Holz tells me that it is your intention to publish a larger size of the engraving representing Handel’s monument, in St. Peter’s Church in London. This affords me extreme pleasure, independent of the fact that I was the person who suggested this. Accept my thanks beforehand. I am your obedient BEETHOVEN. 452. TO HERR PROBST, MUSIC PUBLISHER,–LEIPZIG. Vienna, June 3, 1826. SIR,– I always consider myself in some degree bound to make you the offer of my compositions when it is possible to do so. I am at this moment more at liberty than usual. I was obliged to give my minor works to those who took the greater ones also, as without the former they refused to accept the latter. So far as I remember, however, you wished to have nothing to do with the greater works. In this view, I offer you an entirely new Quartet for two violins, viola and violoncello; you must not, however, be surprised at my demanding the sum of 80 gold ducats for it. I assure you, upon my honor, that the same sum has been remitted to me for several quartets. I must request you, in any event, to write to me on this point as soon as possible. Should you accept my offer, I beg you will send the money to some bank here, where I can receive it on delivery of the work. If the reverse be the case, I shall equally expect an immediate reply, as other publishers have already made me offers. I have also the following trifles ready, with which I can supply you. A Serenade-congratulatory-Minuet, and an _Entr’acte_, both for a full orchestra,–the two for 20 gold ducats. In the hope of a speedy answer, I am, sir, your obedient BEETHOVEN. 453. TO STEPHAN V. BREUNING.[1] MY DEAR AND MUCH-LOVED STEPHAN,– May our temporary estrangement be forever effaced by the portrait I now send. I know that I have rent your heart. The emotion which you cannot fail now to see in mine has sufficiently punished me for it. There was no malice towards you in my heart, for then I should be no longer worthy of your friendship. It was _passion_ both on _your_ part and on _mine_; but mistrust was rife within me, for people had come between us, unworthy both of _you_ and of _me_. My portrait[2] was long ago intended for you; you knew that it was destined for some one–and to whom could I give it with such warmth of heart as to you, my faithful, good, and noble Stephan? Forgive me for having grieved you; but I did not myself suffer less when I no longer saw you near me. I then first keenly felt how dear you were, and ever will be to my heart. Surely you will once more fly to my arms as you formerly did. [Footnote 1: Schindler places this letter in the summer of 1826, when his nephew attempted self-destruction in Baden, which reduced Beethoven to the most miserable state of mind, and brought afresh to his recollection those dear friends of his youth, whom he seemed almost to have forgotten in the society of Holz and his colleagues. Schindler states that the more immediate cause of this estrangement was Breuning having tried to dissuade him from adopting his nephew. Dr. v. Breuning in Vienna is of opinion that the reunion of the two old friends had already occurred in 1825, or even perhaps at an earlier period. I am not at present capable of finally deciding on this discrepancy, but I believe the latter assertion to be correct.] [Footnote 2: Schindler says, “It was Stieler’s lithograph, which the _maestro_ had previously sent to Dr. Wegeler.” See No. 459.] 454. TO STEPHAN VON BREUNING. MY BELOVED FRIEND,– You are harassed by work, and so am I–besides, I am still far from well. I would have invited you to dinner ere this, but I have been obliged to entertain people whose most highly prized author is _the cook_, and not finding his interesting productions at home, they hunt after them in the kitchens and cellars of others [Holz for instance]. Such society would not be very eligible for you, but all this will soon be altered. In the mean time do not buy Czerny’s “School for the Pianoforte;”[1] for in a day or two I expect to get some information about another. Along with the “Journal des Modes” that I promised to your wife, I also send something for your children. I can always regularly transmit you the journal–you have only to express your wish on any point, for me to comply with it at once. I am, with love and esteem, your friend, BEETHOVEN. I hope we shall soon meet. [Footnote 1: Czerny, _The Vienna Pianoforte Teacher; or, theoretical and practical mode of learning how to play the piano skilfully and beautifully in a short time by a new and easy method_. Vienna: Haslinger. See No. 455.] 455. TO STEPHAN V. BREUNING MY DEAR GOOD FRIEND,– I can at length realize my boast, and send you Clement’s long-promised “Pianoforte School” for Gerhard [Breuning’s eldest son]. If he makes the use of it that I advise, the results cannot fail to be good. I shall see you very shortly now, and cordially embrace you. Your BEETHOVEN. 456.[1] TESTIMONIAL FOR C. HOLZ. Vienna, August 30, 1826. I am happy to give my friend Carl Holz the testimonial he wishes, namely, that I consider him well fitted to write my Biography hereafter, if indeed I may presume to think that this will be desired. I place the most implicit confidence in his faithfully transmitting to posterity what I have imparted to him for this purpose. LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Carl Holz ceded his rights to Dr. Gassner, who however died in 1851 without having completed any biography of Beethoven. In the _maestro’s_ bequest, which Gassner’s widow was so kind as to show me, there was nothing new (at least to me) except two letters included in this collection and a couple of anecdotes. Schindler also states that Beethoven subsequently repented of the authority he had given Holz and declared he did so too hastily.] 457. TO CARL HOLZ. Both the gentlemen were here, but they have been admonished on every side to observe the most strict secrecy with regard to the Order. Haslinger declares that in this respect you are a son of the deceased Papageno. _Prenez garde!_ I told Carl to-day it was definitively settled that he could not quit the hospital except with you or me. I dine at home to-morrow, so I shall be very glad if you can come. As you have no official work to-morrow you might arrive later, but it is very necessary that you should come. _Portez-vous bien, Monsieur terrible amoureux._[1] Your _indeclinable_ friend, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: This letter contains all kinds of dashes and flourishes, which prove that the _maestro_ was in his happiest mood when he wrote it. His nephew was at that time in the hospital, probably owing to his attempt at suicide.] 458. TO THE KING OF PRUSSIA. YOUR MAJESTY,– One of the greatest pieces of good fortune of my life is your Majesty having graciously permitted me respectfully to dedicate my present work [the 9th Symphony] to you. Your Majesty is not only the father of your subjects, but also a patron of art and science; and how much more precious is your gracious permission to me, from being myself so fortunate as to be numbered among your subjects, being a citizen of Bonn. I beg your Majesty will vouchsafe to accept this work as a slender token of the profound admiration with which I regard your virtues. I am, your Majesty’s obedient humble servant, LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN. 459. TO WEGELER. Vienna, October 7, 1826. MY OLD AND BELOVED FRIEND,– I really cannot express the pleasure your letter and that of your Lorchen caused me. An answer speedy as an arrow’s flight ought indeed to have responded, but I am always rather indolent about writing, because I think that the better class of men know me sufficiently without this. I often compose the answer in my head, but when I wish to write it down I generally throw aside the pen, from not being able to write as I feel. I recall all the kindness you have ever shown me; for example, your causing my room to be whitewashed, which was an agreeable surprise to me. It was just the same with all the Breuning family. Our separation was in the usual course of things; each striving to pursue and to attain his object; while at the same time the everlasting and immutable principles of good still held us closely united. I cannot unfortunately write so much to you to-day as I could wish, being confined to bed,[1] so I limit my reply to some points in your letter. You write that in some book I am declared to be the natural son of the late King of Prussia; this was mentioned to me long ago, but I have made it a rule never either to write anything about myself, or to answer anything written by others about me. I therefore gladly devolve on you the duty of making known to the world the respectability of my parents, and especially that of my mother. You write to me about your son. There is no possible doubt that when he comes here he will find a friend and a father in me, and whenever it may be in my power to serve or to assist him, I will gladly do so. I still have the _silhouette_ of your Lorchen, by which you will see how dear to me to this hour are all those who were kind and loving to me in the days of my youth. As to my diploma, I may briefly state that I am an Honorary Member of the Royal Academy of Science in Sweden [see No. 338] and in Amsterdam, and that I have been presented with the Honorary Citizenship of Vienna. A Dr. Spiecker lately took with him to Berlin my last Grand Symphony with Choruses; it is dedicated to the King, and I wrote the dedication with my own hand. I had previously applied at the Embassy for permission to dedicate the work to the King, which has now been accorded.[2] By desire of Dr. Spiecker I gave him the manuscript I had myself corrected, and with my own amendments, to present to the King, as it is to be deposited in the Royal Library. I received a hint at the time about the second class of the Order of the Red Eagle; I do not know what the result may be, for I have never sought such distinctions, though in these days for many reasons they would not be unwelcome to me. Besides, my maxim has always been,–_Nulla dies sine linea_; and if I allow my Muse to slumber, it is only that she may awake with fresh vigor. I hope yet to usher some great works into the world, and then to close my earthly career like an old child somewhere among good people.[3] You will soon receive some music through the Brothers Schott, in Mayence. The portrait which I now send you is indeed an artistic masterpiece, but not the last that has been taken of me. I must tell you further, what I know you will rejoice to hear, with regard to marks of distinction. The late King of France sent me a medal with the inscription, _Donné par le Roi à M. Beethoven_, accompanied by a very polite letter from _le premier gentilhomme du Roi, le Duc de Châtres_. My beloved friend, excuse my writing more to-day, for the remembrance of the past has deeply affected me, and not without many tears have I written this letter. The oftener you write the more pleasure will you confer on me. There can be no question on either side as to our friendship, so farewell. I beg you will embrace your dear children and your Lorchen in my name, and think of me when you do so. May God be with you all. As ever, your attached friend, with sincere esteem, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: On which account this letter is dictated, and only signed by Beethoven, who was at that time at his brother’s house in the country–Gneixendorf, near Krems, on the Danube.] [Footnote 2: In consequence of his application to the King of Prussia to subscribe to his Mass, of which he had sent the MS., Beethoven received the following intimation:– _To the Composer Ludwig van Beethoven._ Berlin, Nov. 25, 1826. “It gave me great pleasure to receive your new work, knowing the acknowledged value of your compositions. I thank you for having sent it to me, and present you with a ring of brilliants, as a token of my sincere appreciation. “FRIEDRICH WILHELM.” Schindler adds that the stones in the ring were false, and casts a suspicion of fraud on the Chancery Director of that day, W—-.] [Footnote 3: It was during those weeks that he wrote the second _Finale_ to the B. flat major Quartet, Op. 130, little anticipating that this was to be his “Swan song.”] 460. TO TOBIAS HASLINGER.[1] [Music: Bass clef. C major. Bester–] No time is left to-day for further words and vocalization. I beg you will at once deliver the enclosed letter. Pray forgive my causing you this trouble; but, as you are the owner of an artistic post-office, it is scarcely possible not to take advantage of this. You will perceive that I am now at Gneixendorf. The name sounds like the breaking of an axletree. The air is healthy. The _memento mori_ must be applied to all else. Most marvellous and best of all Tobiases, we salute you in the name of the arts and poets! I remain yours, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: The music alone and the words “I remain” at the close, are in Beethoven’s writing. The rest is probably written by his nephew, with whom he had been obliged to take refuge in the house of his odious brother near Krems, because the police had intimated to the young delinquent that he must leave Vienna. See No. 435 on the subject of Beethoven’s repugnance to live in his brother’s family circle, whose ignoble wife treated the gray-haired and suffering _maestro_ as badly as possible.] 461. TO TOBIAS HASLINGER. GNEIXENDORF, October 13, 1826. BEST OF ALL TOBIASES,– [Here follow eight bars of music.] We are writing to you from the castle of our _Signor Fratello_. I must again intrude on you by the polite request to post the two enclosed letters without delay. I will repay you for the time I kept the “School for the Pianoforte” and all the other expenses as soon as I return to Vienna. I am staying here longer, owing to the weather being so fine, and also not having gone to the country at all during the summer. A quartet[1] for Schlesinger is already finished; only I don’t know which is the safest way to send it to you, that you may give it to Tendler and Manstein and receive the money in return. Schlesinger will probably not make the remittance in _gold_, but if you can contrive that I should get it, you would very much oblige me, as all my publishers pay me in gold. Besides, my worthy _Tobiasserl_, we stand in need of money, and it is by no means the same thing whether we have money or not. If you get a sight of Holz make sure of him, and nail him at once. The passion of love has so violently assailed him that he has almost taken fire, and some one jestingly wrote that Holz was a son of the deceased Papageno. Most astounding, most admirable, and most _unique_ of all Tobiases, farewell! If not inconvenient, pray write me a few lines here. Is Dr. Spiecker still in Vienna? I am, with highest consideration and fidelity, Yours, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Probably the one in F, Op. 135.] 462. TO CARL HOLZ. Dec. 1826. YOUR OFFICIAL MAJESTY,– I wrote to you on my arrival here a few days ago, but the letter was mislaid; I then became so unwell that I thought it best to stay in bed. I shall therefore be very glad if you will pay me a visit. You will find it less inconvenient, because every one has left Döbling to go to town. I only add, in conclusion,[1] [Music: Bass clef, C major, 3/4 time. Wir ir-ren al-le Samt, Nur je-der ir-ret an-derst.] As ever, your friend, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Here Beethoven’s own writing begins. The slight indisposition that he mentions, in the course of a few days became a serious illness, the result of which was dropsy, and from this the _maestro_ was doomed never to recover. Indeed from that time he never again left his bed.] 463. TO DR. BACH.[1] Vienna, Wednesday, Jan. 3, 1827. MY RESPECTED FRIEND,– I hereby declare, at my decease, my beloved nephew, Carl van Beethoven, sole heir of all my property, and of seven bank shares in particular, as well as any ready money I may be possessed of. If the law prescribes any modifications in this matter, pray endeavor to regulate these as much as possible to his advantage. I appoint you his curator, and beg that, together with Hofrath Breuning, his guardian, you will supply the place of a father to him. God bless you! A thousand thanks for all the love and friendship you have shown towards me. LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: The signature alone is in Beethoven’s writing.] 464. TO WEGELER. Vienna, February 17, 1827. MY OLD AND WORTHY FRIEND,– I received your second letter safely through Breuning. I am still too feeble to answer it, but you may be assured that its contents were most welcome and agreeable to me.[1] My convalescence, if indeed I may call it such, makes very slow progress, and there is reason to suspect that a fourth operation will be necessary, although the medical men have not as yet decided on this. I arm myself with patience, and reflect that all evil leads to some good. I am quite surprised to find from your last letter that you had not received mine. From this one you will see that I wrote to you on the 10th of December last. It is the same with the portrait, as you will perceive from the date, when you get it. “Frau Steffen spake the word:” Michael Steffen insisted on sending them by some private hand; so they have been lying here until this very day, and really it was a hard matter to get them back even now. You will receive the portrait by the post, through the Messrs. Schott, who have also sent you the music. How much is there that I would fain say to you to-day; but I am too weak,[2] so I can only embrace you and your Lorchen in spirit. With true friendship and attachment to you and yours, Your old and faithful friend, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Wegeler had reminded him of Blumenauer, who, after being operated on for dropsy, lived for many years in perfect health. He at the same time suggested to him the plan of going with him in the ensuing summer to one of the Bohemian baths, proposing to travel by a circuitous route to the Upper Rhine, and from thence to Coblenz.] [Footnote 2: Beethoven’s last letter to Wegeler. The signature alone is his.] 465. TO SIR GEORGE SMART,–LONDON. Feb. 22, 1827. I remember that some years ago the Philharmonic Society proposed to give a concert for my benefit. This prompts me to request you, dear sir, to say to the Philharmonic Society that if they be now disposed to renew their offer it would be most welcome to me. Unhappily, since the beginning of December I have been confined to bed by dropsy,–a most wearing malady, the result of which cannot yet be ascertained. As you are already well aware, I live entirely by the produce of my brains, and for a long time to come all idea of writing is out of the question. My salary is in itself so small, that I can scarcely contrive to defray my half-year’s rent out of it. I therefore entreat you kindly to use all your influence for the furtherance of this project,–your generous sentiments towards me convincing me that you will not be offended by my application. I intend also to write to Herr Moscheles on this subject, being persuaded that he will gladly unite with you in promoting my object. I am so weak that I can no longer write, so I only dictate this. I hope, dear sir, that you will soon cheer me by an answer, to say whether I may look forward to the fulfilment of my request. In the mean time, pray receive the assurance of the high esteem with which I always remain, &c., &c. 466. TO HERR MOSCHELES. Vienna, Feb. 22, 1827. DEAR MOSCHELES,– I feel sure that you will not take amiss my troubling you as well as Sir G. Smart (to whom I enclose a letter) with a request. The matter is briefly this. Some years since, the London Philharmonic Society made me the handsome offer to give a concert in my behalf. At that time I was not, God be praised! so situated as to render it necessary for me to take advantage of this generous proposal. Things are, however, very different with me now, as for fully three months past I have been entirely prostrated by that tedious malady, dropsy. Schindler encloses a letter with further details. You have long known my circumstances, and are aware how, and by what, I live: a length of time must elapse before I can attempt to write again, so that, unhappily, I might be reduced to actual want. You have not only an extensive acquaintance in London, but also the greatest influence with the Philharmonic; may I beg you, therefore, to exercise it, so far as you can, in prevailing on the Society to resume their former intention, and to carry it soon into effect. The letter I enclose to Sir Smart is to the same effect, as well as one I already sent to Herr Stumpff.[1] I beg you will yourself give the enclosed letter to Sir Smart, and unite with him and all my friends in London in furthering my object. Your sincere friend, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Stumpff, a Thuringian maker of harps, came to Vienna in 1824, recommended to our _maestro_ by Andreas Streicher in a letter of Sept. 24, in these words:–“The bearer of this is Herr Stumpff, an excellent German, who has lived for thirty-four years in London. The sole reason of his going to Baden is to see you, my revered Beethoven, the man of whom Germany is so proud. Pray receive him in a kind and friendly manner, as beseems the saint to whose shrine the pious pilgrim has made so long a journey.” In 1826 he presented Beethoven with the English edition of Handel’s works in 40 folio volumes, which the _maestro_ constantly studied during his last illness. Gerhard v. Breuning, when a youth of fourteen, either held up the separate volumes for him, or propped them against the wall.] 467. TO SCHINDLER. The end of February, 1827. When we meet we can discuss the mischance that has befallen you. I can send you some person without the smallest inconvenience. Do accept my offer; it is, at least, something. Have you had no letters from Moscheles or Cramer? There will be a fresh occasion for writing on Wednesday, and once more urging my project. If you are still indisposed at that time, one of my people can take the letter, and get a receipt from the post-office. _Vale et fave._ I need not assure you of my sympathy with your misfortune. Pray allow me to supply board for you in the mean time. I offer this from my heart. May Heaven preserve you! Your sincere friend, BEETHOVEN. 468. TO BARON VON PASQUALATI.[1] March 6, 1827. MY MUCH-ESTEEMED OLD FRIEND,– My warmest thanks for the kind present you have sent me for the benefit of my health; as soon as I have found what wine is most suitable for me I will let you know, but not abuse your kindness. I like the _compote_ much, and shall again apply to you for some. Even this costs me an effort. _Sapienti pauca._ Your grateful friend, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Traced in feeble and trembling characters. Some other hand has written on it, “March 6, 1827.”] 469. TO BARON VON PASQUALATI. MY ESTEEMED FRIEND,– I beg you will send me some more of the cherry _compote_, but without lemons, and quite simple. I should also like a light pudding, almost liquid, my worthy cook not being very experienced in invalid diet. I am allowed to drink _champagne_, and I wish you would send me for to-day a champagne glass with it. Now, as to wine, Malfatti wished me to drink moselle, but declared that no genuine moselle could be got here; so he gave me several bottles of _Krumbholzkirchner_,[1] deeming this best for my health, as no really good moselle is to be had. Pray forgive my troubling you, and ascribe it chiefly to my helpless condition. I am, with much esteem, your friend, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Gumpoldskirchner–a celebrated and generous Austrian wine.] 470. TO SIR GEORGE SMART,–LONDON. March 6, 1827. DEAR SIR,– I make no doubt that you have already received through Herr Moscheles my letter of February 22, but as I found your address by chance among my papers, I do not hesitate to write direct to yourself, to urge my request once more on you in the strongest terms. I do not, alas! even up to the present hour, see any prospect of the termination of my terrible malady; on the contrary, my sufferings, and consequently my cares, have only increased. I underwent a fourth operation on the 27th of February, and possibly fate may compel me to submit to this a fifth time, and perhaps oftener. If this goes on, my illness will certainly continue one half the summer, and in that case, what is to become of me? How am I to subsist until I can succeed in arousing my decayed powers, and once more earn my living by my pen? But I do not wish to plague you by fresh complaints; so I only refer you to my letter of the 22d February, and entreat you to use all your influence with the Philharmonic Society to carry now into execution their former proposal of a concert for my benefit. 471. TO BARON VON PASQUALATI. MY WORTHY FRIEND,– I am still confined to my room; be so good, therefore, as to tell me, or rather, I should say, write to me, the name of the person who values this house, and where he is to be found. If you have any Muterhall [?] medicine I beg you will think of your poor Austrian musician and citizen of the guild. BEETHOVEN. 472.[1] TO BARON VON PASQUALATI. March 14, 1827. MY ESTEEMED FRIEND,– Many thanks for the dish you sent me yesterday, which will suffice for to-day also. I am allowed to have game; and the doctor said that fieldfares were very wholesome for me. I only tell you this for information, as I do not want them to-day. Forgive this stupid note, but I am exhausted from a sleepless night. I embrace you, and am, with much esteem, your attached friend. [Footnote 1: In a tremulous hand,–“March 14, 1827.”] 473. TO HERR MOSCHELES. Vienna, March 14, 1827. MY DEAR MOSCHELES,– I recently heard, through Herr Lewisey,[1] that in a letter to him of the 10th February, you had made inquiries as to the state of my health, about which such various rumors have been circulated. Although I cannot possibly doubt that you have by this time received my letter of February 22d, which explains all you wish to know, still I cannot resist thanking you for your sympathy with my sad condition, and again imploring you to attend to the request contained in my first letter. I feel already certain that, in conjunction with Sir Smart and other friends, you are sure to succeed in obtaining a favorable result for me from the Philharmonic Society. I wrote again to Sir Smart also on the subject. I was operated on for the fourth time on the 27th of February, and now symptoms evidently exist which show that I must expect a fifth operation. What is to be done? What is to become of me if this lasts much longer? Mine has indeed been a hard doom; but I resign myself to the decrees of fate, and only constantly pray to God that His holy will may ordain that while thus condemned to suffer death in life, I may be shielded from want. The Almighty will give me strength to endure my lot, however severe and terrible, with resignation to His will. So once more, dear Moscheles, I commend my cause to you, and shall anxiously await your answer, with highest esteem. Hummel is here, and has several times come to see me. Your friend, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Schindler mentions, on Beethoven’s authority, that this gentleman translated Beethoven’s letters to Smart into English, which his nephew had previously done.] 474.[1] TO SCHINDLER.– March 17, 1827. WONDERFUL! WONDERFUL! WONDERFUL!– Both the learned gentlemen are defeated, and I shall be saved solely by Malfatti’s skill! You must come to me for a few minutes without fail this forenoon. Yours, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: Schindler dates this note March 17, 1827, and says that these are the last lines Beethoven ever wrote. They certainly were the last that he wrote to Schindler. On the back of the note, in another writing (probably Schindler’s), the receipt is given in pencil for the bath with hay steeped in it, ordered by Malfatti, which the poor invalid thought had saved his life. The “learned gentlemen” are Dr. Wawruch and the surgeon Seibert, who had made the punctures.] 475. TO MOSCHELES. Vienna, March 18, 1827. No words can express my feelings on reading your letter of the 1st of March. The noble liberality of the Philharmonic Society, which almost anticipated my request, has touched me to my inmost soul.[1] I beg you, therefore, dear Moscheles, to be my organ in conveying to the Society my heartfelt thanks for their generous sympathy and aid. [Say[2] to these worthy men, that if God restores me to health, I shall endeavor to prove the reality of my gratitude by my actions. I therefore leave it to the Society to choose what I am to write for them–a symphony (the 10th) lies fully sketched in my desk, and likewise a new overture and some other things. With regard to the concert the Philharmonic had resolved to give in my behalf, I would entreat them not to abandon their intention. In short, I will strive to fulfil every wish of the Society, and never shall I have begun any work with so much zeal as on this occasion. May Heaven only soon grant me the restoration of my health, and then I will show the noble-hearted English how highly I value their sympathy with my sad fate.] I was compelled at once to draw for the whole sum of 1000 gulden, being on the eve of borrowing money. Your generous conduct can never be forgotten by me, and I hope shortly to convey my thanks to Sir Smart in particular, and to Herr Stumpff. I beg you will deliver the metronomed 9th Symphony to the Society. I enclose the proper markings. Your friend, with high esteem, BEETHOVEN. [Footnote 1: A hundred pounds had been sent at once.] [Footnote 2: In the original the words placed within brackets are dictated by Beethoven himself, and were indeed the last he ever dictated–but they are crossed out.] 476. CODICIL.[1] Vienna, March 23, 1827. I appoint my nephew Carl my sole heir. The capital of my bequest, however, to devolve on his natural or testamentary heirs. LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN.[2] [Footnote 1: See No. 463. Schindler relates:–“This testament contained no restrictions or precautionary measures with regard to his heir-at-law, who, after the legal forms connected with the inheritance were terminated, was entitled to take immediate possession of the whole. The guardian and curator, however, knowing the unexampled levity of the heir, had a valid pretext for raising objections to these testamentary depositions. They therefore suggested to the _maestro_, to alter his intentions in so far as to place his property in trust; his nephew to draw the revenue, and at his death the capital to pass to his direct heirs. Beethoven, however, considered such restraints as too severe on the nephew whom he still so dearly loved in his heart [since December of the previous year the young man had been a cadet in a royal regiment at Iglau, in Moravia], so he remonstrated against this advice; indeed he reproached Hofrath Breuning as the person who had suggested such harsh measures. A note, still extant, written by Breuning to Beethoven, shows the state of matters, in which he still maintains, though in moderate language, the absolute necessity of the above precautions. This mode of argument seemed to make an impression on the _maestro_, who at last promised to yield his own wishes. By his desire, Breuning laid the codicil of three lines before him, and Beethoven at once proceeded to copy it, which was no easy matter for him. When it was finished he exclaimed, ‘There! now I write no more!’ He was not a little surprised to see on the paper the words ‘heirs of his body’ changed into ‘natural heirs.’ Breuning represented to him the disputes to which this destination might give rise. Beethoven replied that the one term was as good as the other, and that it should remain just as it was. _This was his last contradiction._”] [Footnote 2: Next day, at noon, he lost consciousness, and a frightful death-struggle began, which continued till the evening of March 26, 1827, when, during a violent spring storm of thunder and lightning, the sublime _maestro_ paid his last tribute to that humanity for which he had made so many sacrifices in this world, to enter into life everlasting, which, from his life and actions, few could look forward to more hopefully.] INDEX. Academies, concerts given by Beethoven, so called. The grand concerts of the year 1824. Address and appeal to London artists, from Beethoven. Adlersburg, Dr. von, Court advocate and barrister at Vienna, “a most inconsiderate character,” for some time Beethoven’s lawyer. Aesthetical observations on particular subjects. Albrechtsberger, the popular theorist and composer, Kapellmeister at St. Stephen’s in Vienna, for some time, about the year 1795, Beethoven’s instructor in musical composition. Amenda of Courland, afterwards rector in Talsen. “A.M.Z.” _See_ Leipzig “Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung.” André, composer and music publisher in Offenbach on the Maine. Archduke Carl. Arnim, Frau von. _See_ Brentano, Bettina. Artaria, print and music publisher in Vienna. Attorney, power of. Augarten, the well-known park near Vienna, in which morning concerts were frequently given. Augsburg. Austria, Beethoven’s sentiments respecting that country, his second father-land. Bach, Dr. Johann Baptist, Court advocate and barrister, from the year 1816 Beethoven’s lawyer at Vienna. Bach, Johann Sebastian. Baden, near Vienna, a favorite watering-place, to which Beethoven often resorted. Bauer, chief secretary to the Austrian Embassy in London. Baumeister, private secretary to the Archduke Rudolph. Beethoven’s brother Carl, born at Bonn in 1774, instructed in music by Beethoven; afterwards came to Vienna, where he occupied the appointment of cashier in the Government Revenue (died Nov. 15, 1815). His brother Johann, born in 1776, an apothecary, first in Linz, afterwards in Vienna, and at a later period proprietor of Gneixendorf, an estate near Krems, on the Danube; named by Beethoven, “Braineater,” “Pseudo-brother,” “Asinanios,” &c. His brother Ludwig Maria. His father, Johann, son of Ludwig van Beethoven, Kapellmeister to the Elector of Cologne, Court tenor singer at the Electoral Chapel at Bonn, a man possessing no considerable mental endowments, but an excellent musician, and Beethoven’s first instructor in music. Unhappily, he was so addicted to habits of intemperance, that he greatly impoverished his family, the care of which, owing to the father’s recklessness, devolved entirely upon his son Ludwig (died Dec. 1792). His grandfather, Ludwig van Beethoven, Kapellmeister to the Elector of Cologne (died 1774). His mother, Maria Magdalena Kewerich, the wife, first of Leym of Ehrenbreitstein, cook to the Elector of Treves, and afterwards of Johann van Beethoven, in Bonn, Court tenor singer to the Elector of Cologne. She gave birth to her illustrious son Ludwig on Dec. 17, 1770, and died July 17, 1787. His nephew, Carl, son of his brother Carl, Beethoven’s ward from the year 1815. Entered the Blöchlinger Institute, at Vienna, June 22, 1819. Letters to him from Beethoven. His sister-in-law, Johanna, wife of his brother Carl and mother of his nephew, named by Beethoven “The Queen of the Night.” Beethoven’s _Works. In General._ I. _For pianoforte only._ Sonatas of the year 1783. Op. 22. Op. 31. Op. 90. Op. 106. Op. 109. Op. 111. _Variations_. _Bagatelles_. “Allegri di Bravoura.” II. _For pianoforte with obbligato instruments._ For pianoforte and violin:–Sonatas. Sonatas with violoncello. Twelve Variations in F on the Theme from “Figaro,” “Se vuol ballare.” Rondo. Variations with violoncello and violin. for hautboys and horn. Trios. Concertos. Fantasia with chorus. III. _Quartets._ IV. _Instrumental pieces._ Septet. Quintets. Violin Romance. V. _Orchestral music._ Symphonies. The Ninth. Minuet and Interlude. Music for the ballet of “Prometheus.” “Egmont.” “King Stephen.” “The Ruins of Athens.” “Wellington’s Victory at Vittoria.” March to “Tarpeia.” Gratulation Minuet. Marches. Overtures. VI. _Vocal music._ “Adelaide.” “Ah! Perfido.” “Heart, my Heart,” and “Knowest Thou the Land?” “To Hope.” Aria for bass voice with chorus. Terzet on Count Lichnowsky. Canon for Spohr. “The Glorious Moment.” On Mdlle. Milder-Hauptmann. Scotch songs. Canon for Schlesinger; for the Archduke Rudolph; on Tobias Haslinger. Various songs; two grand songs with chorus from Goethe and Matthisson. Choruses. “Empitremate.” Elegy. “Meeresstille und glückliche Fahrt.” Opferlied. Canons; for Rellstab; for Braunhofer; for Kuhlau; for Schlesinger. Terzet. VII. _Operas._ Grillparzer’s “Melusina.” “Fidelio” in Dresden. VIII. _Church music and Oratorios._ “Missa solennis.” Benedict, Julius, in London, a composer, the pupil of C.M. von Weber. Berlin. Bernard, Carl, an author, editor of the “Wiener Zeitschrift.” Bihler, J.N., a special admirer of Beethoven, one of the subscribers to, and the bearer of, the address presented to Beethoven in the year 1824, in which the master was requested again to present himself and his works to the Viennese public. Birchall, music publisher in London. “Birne, zur goldnen,” an eating-house in the Landstrasse, Vienna. Blöchlinger, proprietor of an educational institution at Vienna. Bocklet, Carl Maria, of Prague, pianist in Vienna. Böhm, Joseph, a distinguished concerto violinist, professor at the Vienna Conservatory, and the teacher of Joachim. Bolderini. Bonn, residence of the Elector of Cologne, and Beethoven’s birthplace, which he left in the year 1792, never again to visit. Braunhofer, Dr., for some time Beethoven’s surgeon at Vienna. Breitkopf & Härtel, the well-known book and music publishers in Leipzig. Brentano, Bettina, became Frau von Arnim in 1811. Brentano, Clemens, the poet. Brentano, F.A., merchant at Frankfort, an admirer of Beethoven’s music. _See also_ Tonie. Breuning, Christoph von. Breuning, Dr. Gerhard von, Court physician at Vienna, son of Stephan von Breuning. Breuning, Eleonore von, daughter of Councillor von Breuning, in Bonn, the friend and pupil of Beethoven; in 1802 became the wife of Dr. Wegeler, afterwards consulting physician at Coblenz. Breuning, Frau von, widow of Councillor von Breuning, into whose house Beethoven was received as one of the family, and where he received his first musical impressions. Breuning, Lenz (Lorenz), youngest son of the “Frau Hofrath.” Breuning, Stephan von, of Bonn; came to Vienna in the spring of 1800, where he became councillor, and died in 1827. Browne, Count, of Vienna, an admirer of Beethoven’s music. Brühl, the, a village and favorite pleasure resort near Vienna. Brunswick, Count Franz von, of Pesth, one of Beethoven’s greatest admirers and friends in Vienna. Bonaparte, Ludwig, King of Holland. “Cäcilia, a Journal for the Musical World,” &c. Carl, Archduke. _See_ Archduke Carl. Carlsbad. Cassel. Castlereagh, the well-known English minister. Cherubini. Visited Vienna in 1805. Clement, Franz, born 1784, died 1842, orchestral director at the “Theater an der Wien.” Clementi. Collin, the famous Austrian poet. Cornega, a singer in Vienna commended to Beethoven by Schindler. Court Theatre, Beethoven’s letter to the directors of the. Cramer, John, the celebrated London pianist, also a music publisher. Czerny, Carl, in Vienna, the well known writer of pianoforte studies. Czerny, Joseph, in Vienna. Deafness of Beethoven. De la Motte-Fouqué, the poet of “Undine,” which he had arranged as an Opera libretto for T.A. Hoffmann. Del Rio, Giannatasio, proprietor of an academy at Vienna, under whose care Beethoven placed his nephew Carl from the year 1816 to 1818. Diabelli, Anton, composer and music publisher in Vienna. Döbling, Ober- and Unter-Döbling, near Vienna, Beethoven’s occasional summer residence. Dresden. Drossdick, Baroness Thérèse, to whom Beethoven was greatly attached. Duport, director of the Kärnthnerthor Theatre in the year 1823. Eisenstadt, in Hungary, the residence of Prince Esterhazy, where Beethoven remained on a visit in the years 1794 and 1808. English language, Beethoven’s correspondence in the. Erdödy Countess, in Vienna, one of Beethoven’s best friends. Ertmann, Baroness Dorothea (_née_ Graumann), a friend of Beethoven, and one of the most accomplished pianists in Vienna; she especially excelled in the performance of Beethoven’s compositions. Esterhazy, Prince Paul, son of the protector of Haydn, and himself, at a later period, an ardent admirer of that master. France. Frank, Dr. Frank, Frau, in Vienna. “Frau Schnaps,” Beethoven’s housekeeper during the latter years of his life; called also “The Fast-sailing Frigate” and “The Old Goose.” French language, Beethoven’s correspondence in the. Fries, Count, in Vienna, an admirer of Beethoven’s works. Fux, the well-known old theorist and composer, in Vienna, author of the “Gradus ad Parnassum.” Gallizin, Prince Nikolaus Boris, at St. Petersburg, a zealous friend of art, from whom Beethoven received an order for his last quartet. Gebauer, Franz Xaver, founder of the “Concerts Spirituels” at Vienna. Gerardi, Mdlle. Girowetz, Court musical director at the “Burgtheater.” Giuliani, a celebrated guitar player at Vienna. Gläser, Beethoven’s copyist from the year 1823. Gleichenstein, Baron, of Rothweil, near Freiburg in Breisgau, a friend of Beethoven at Vienna. He left Vienna about the year 1815, and only revisited that city once afterwards, in 1824. Gneixendorf, the estate of Beethoven’s brother Johann, near Krems, on the Danube, which Beethoven visited, accompanied by his nephew, in the autumn of 1826. Goethe. Gratz, in Styria. Grillparzer. Guicciardi, Countess Giulietta, Beethoven’s “immortal beloved.” Hammer-Purgstall, the distinguished Orientalist in Vienna. Handel. Haslinger, Tobias, music publisher at Vienna. Hauschka, Vincenz, Government auditor, a friend of Beethoven. Heiligenstadt, near Vienna, a favorite summer residence of Beethoven, where, among other works, the “Pastoral Symphony” was written by him. Hetzendorf, a favorite suburban residence near Vienna. Hoffmann, Th. Amadeus. Hofmeister, Kapellmeister and music publisher, first in Vienna, and afterwards in company with Kühnel in Leipzig (now Peters’s Bureau de Musique). _See also_ Peters. Holz, Carl, Government official at Vienna, an accomplished violinist, born in 1798; became a member of the Schuppanzigh Quartets in 1824, and afterwards director of the Concerts Spirituels in that capital; a Viennese of somewhat dissolute habits, by whom even the grave master himself was at times unfavorably influenced. Homer, especially the Odyssey, a favorite study of Beethoven. Hönigstein, a banker in Vienna. Hummel, Johann Nepomuk, the celebrated composer and pianist, a pupil of Mozart, and for some time Beethoven’s rival in love matters, having married the sister of the singer Röckel, to whom Beethoven also was much attached (_see also_ Schindler’s “Biography,” i. 189). Hungary, Beethoven there. Imperial Court at Vienna. Imperial High Court of Appeal, letter from Beethoven to the. Jenger, Chancery officer in the Imperial War Office at Vienna, a passionate lover of music. Kalkbrenner. Kandeler, testimonial from Beethoven in favor of. Kanne, F.A., at Vienna, highly appreciated in his day as a poet, composer, and critic, an intimate friend of Beethoven, and occasionally his guest (_see also_ Schindler’s “Biography,” i. 228). Kauka, Dr., Beethoven’s advocate in Prague. Kiesewetter, Councillor von, in Vienna, the popular writer on the science of music, one of the subscribers to the great address presented to Beethoven in February, 1824. Kinsky, Prince Ferdinand, of Bohemia, one of Beethoven’s most devoted patrons in Vienna. Kinsky, Princess. Kirnberger, of Berlin, the well-known theorist. Koch, Barbara, of Bonn, daughter of the landlord of the “Zehrgaden,” the friend of Eleonore von Breuning, an amiable and intelligent lady, at whose house the leading persons of the town were accustomed to assemble; she afterwards became governess to the children of Count Belderbusch, whom she married in 1802. Könneritz, Von, principal director of the Court band and Opera in Dresden. Kraft, Anton, a celebrated violoncello-player in Vienna. Kuhlau, Friedrich, the distinguished flute-player, a great admirer of Beethoven’s music. Kühnel, in Leipzig. _See_ Hofmeister. Laibach, the Philharmonic Society of. Landrecht, Beethoven’s address to the honorable members of the. Leidesdorf, M.J., composer and music publisher in Vienna, a subscriber to the great address presented to Beethoven in 1824. Leipzig “Allgemeine Zeitung,” established in 1798; its remarks at first unfavorable towards Beethoven. Lichnowsky, Count Moritz, brother of Prince Carl Lichnowsky, and, like him, the friend and patron of Beethoven. Schindler, in his “Biography,” i. 241, n., relates as follows:–“The acute perception of the Count led him, on a nearer acquaintance with the work, to surmise that it had been written with some special intentions. On being questioned on this matter, the author replied that he had intended to set the Count’s love-story to music, and that if he needed titles for it, he might write over the first piece, ‘Fight between Head and Heart,’ and over the second, ‘Conversation with the Loved One.’ After the death of his first wife, the Count had fallen deeply in love with a distinguished opera singer, but his friends protested against such an alliance. After a contest of many years’ duration, however, he at last succeeded, in 1816, in removing all hindrances to their union.” Lichnowsky, Prince Carl, a friend and pupil of Mozart, and afterwards a most zealous patron of Beethoven in Vienna (died April 15, 1814). Liechtenstein, Princess, in Vienna, Beethoven’s patroness. Linke, born 1783, a distinguished violoncello player, member of the Rasumowsky Quartets. Lobkowitz, Prince, one of Beethoven’s most zealous patrons in Vienna. London, England, and the English. Luther. Maelzel, mechanician to the Imperial Court of Vienna, the well-known inventor of the metronome. Malchus, a youthful friend of Beethoven in Bonn, in later years Minister of Finance of the kingdom of Westphalia, and afterwards of that of Wirtemberg (died at Stuttgart in 1840). Malfatti, Dr., a celebrated surgeon in Vienna; Beethoven under his treatment in 1814. Marconi, contralto singer in Vienna. Marx, A.B., music director and professor at the University of Berlin; edited, when in his twentieth year, the “Berliner Musikzeitung,” a journal whose publication, unfortunately, lasted but a few years only. Next to T.A. Hofmann, he was the first who fully and thoroughly appreciated Beethoven’s music in all its depth and grandeur, and who manfully and intelligently defended the lofty genius of the master against the base attacks to which it was at times exposed; he has remained until the present day the most efficient representative of the progress of musical art. Matthisson, the poet. Maximilian Franz, youngest brother of the Emperor Joseph II., Elector of Cologne from the year 1785, and one of the noblest and most zealous patrons of the young Beethoven, on whom, in 1785, he conferred the appointment of Court organist, and in 1787, with a view to the further cultivation of his talents, sent him to Vienna, assisting him in every way until the year 1794, at which period his country fell entirely under the dominion of France (died in 1801). Maximilian, Friedrich, Elector of Cologne until the year 1784; the first noble patron of Beethoven, whom he placed under the instruction of the Court organist Von der Eeden, and afterwards, on the death of that musician, under Neefe; as an acknowledgment for which kindness, and in proof of the success which had attended his studies, the young composer, then only eleven years of age, dedicated his first sonatas to his benefactor. Mayseder, the celebrated violinist (died at Vienna in 1863). Meyer, Friedrich Sebastian, a singer (born 1773, died 1835), the husband of Mozart’s eldest sister-in-law, who frequently, even in Beethoven’s presence, made some boastful remark in praise of his deceased relative; such as “My brother-in-law would not have written that!” Metronome, an instrument for measuring tune in music, invented about the year 1815 by Maelzel, of Vienna, and often employed and spoken of by Beethoven. Milder-Hauptmann, Mdlle., the celebrated singer, first in Vienna and afterwards in Berlin. Mödling, a village near Vienna, and Beethoven’s favorite summer residence. Mollo, music publisher in Vienna, afterwards the firm of Steiner & Co., and at a later period that of Haslinger. Mölk, the celebrated abbey on the Danube. Mölker Bastei, the, at Vienna, on several occasions Beethoven’s residence in the house of Baron von Pasqualati (_see also_ Schindler’s “Biography,” i. 187). Moscheles. Mosel, Hofrath Ignaz von, in Vienna, a well-known music writer, and the founder of the Conservatory of Music in that capital. Mozart. Munich. Mythological subjects, reference made to, by Beethoven, who, as it is well known, possessed a considerable acquaintance with ancient history. Nägeli, Hans Georg, the distinguished founder of men’s vocal unions in Switzerland, also a popular composer of vocal music, a music publisher, and, at a later period, educational inspector in Zurich. Napoleon, when General Bonaparte, so greatly admired by Beethoven, that on the occasion of that General’s appearance, the master was incited to compose the “Eroica,” which he dedicated to him (“Napoleon Buonaparte–Luigi van Beethoven”). On hearing, however, of the coronation of his hero as Emperor, he angrily cast aside the intended presentation copy of his work, and refused to send it to him. Neate, Charles, a London artist, and a great admirer of Beethoven, with whom he became acquainted in Vienna in the year 1816. Nussböck, town sequestrator at Vienna, for some time the guardian of Beethoven’s nephew. Nussdorf, a favorite summer residence on the Danube, near Vienna. Oliva, a philologist and friend of Beethoven. According to Schindler (“Biography,” i. 228), he repaired to St. Petersburg in 1817, in which city he settled as professor of German literature; Schindler is, however, mistaken in the date which he has given. Oppersdorf, Count Franz von, Beethoven’s friend and patron. Pachler-Koschak, Marie, of Gratz, to whom Beethoven was warmly attached. Papageno. Paris. Parry, Captain, wrote on the music of the Esquimaux. Pasqualati, Baron von, merchant in Vienna, an ardent admirer of Beethoven, and his constant benefactor. In 1813 Beethoven again occupied apartments appropriated to his use by the Baron at his residence on the Mölker Bastei, and remained there until 1816. Penzing, a village near Vienna, a favorite summer residence. Peters, C.F., “Bureau de Musique” in Leipzig (_see also_ Hofmeister). Peters, councillor of Prince Lobkowitz at Vienna, a friend of Beethoven. Philharmonic Society in London. In Laibach. Pianoforte, Beethoven’s remarks concerning the. Pilat, editor of the “Austrian Observer.” Plutarch. Portraits of Beethoven. Potter, Cipriani, pianist in London. Prague. Prince Regent, the, afterwards George IV. of England. Probst, music publisher in Leipzig. Prussia. Punto (_alias_ Stich) a celebrated horn player, to whom Beethoven was mainly indebted for his knowledge of that instrument (died 1804). “Queen of the Night.” _See_ Beethoven’s sister-in-law. Radziwill, Prince, at Berlin, a devoted patron of music and the composer of music to “Faust.” Rampel, Beethoven’s copyist about the year 1824. Rasumowsky, Count, afterwards Prince, Russian ambassador at Vienna, an ardent lover of music. Recke, Elise von der, the well-known poetess. Reisser, vice-director of the Polytechnic Institution at Vienna, co-guardian of Beethoven’s nephew in the year 1825. Religious and moral sentiments on particular subjects. Rellstab, Ludwig, a writer and poet, for many years editor of the “Vossische Zeitung,” in Berlin. Ries, Ferdinand, son of the preceding, a pupil of Beethoven and a distinguished composer. Quitted Vienna in 1805, and, with the exception of a short residence there, on his return from Russia in the autumn of 1808, never again returned to that capital (Schindler, i. 227). Ries, Franz, Court musician to the Elector of Cologne, a helpful friend to Beethoven (born 1755). Rochlitz, Friedrich, the well-known writer on the science of music, and for nearly twenty-five years editor of the Leipzig “Allgemeine Musikzeitung,” a man who, notwithstanding his entire lack of historical acumen and his limited acquaintance with the technicalities of music, did very much towards liberating the art from its mechanical condition, and promoting its intellectual appreciation by the public. He was in Vienna in the year 1822, where he became personally acquainted with Beethoven, but never fully appreciated the genius of the master,–a circumstance which Beethoven himself most deeply felt, even after the retirement of Rochlitz from the editorship of that journal, and which formed the subject of many ironical remarks on the part of Beethoven respecting these representatives of the so-called Old-German national composers. Röckel, singer of the part of Florestan in Vienna in 1806, still living at Bath, in England. Rode, the celebrated violinist; came to Vienna in the winter of 1812-13, where he became acquainted with Beethoven. Rudolph, Archduke, youngest brother of the Emperor Franz, born 1788, died 1831, a passionate lover of music, and himself a composer; he became Beethoven’s pupil in 1808, and in 1819 Cardinal-Archbishop of Olmütz. Russia. Rzehatschek, in Vienna. Salieri, Kapellmeister at Vienna, a contemporary and rival of Haydn and Mozart, for some time Beethoven’s instructor in the dramatic style. Salomon, J.P., of Bonn, the celebrated violinist, until the year 1782 director of the concerts of Prince Heinrich of Prussia; he afterwards came to London, where he became chiefly instrumental in the introduction of German music into that capital; as is well known, it was owing to him also that J. Haydn was induced to visit England. Sarastro. Sartorius, royal censor at Vienna (_see also_ Schindler’s “Biography,” ii. 69). Saxony. _See also_ Dresden. Schade, Dr., advocate at Augsburg, a helpful friend of the young Beethoven. Schenk, the well-known composer of the “Village Barber,” for some time Beethoven’s instructor in Vienna (died 1836). Schiller. Schindler, Anton, of Moravia, Beethoven’s sincere friend and biographer (born 1790, died 1864); he became acquainted with Beethoven towards the end of March, 1814. Schlemmer, for many years Beethoven’s copyist until 1823. Schlemmer, a gentleman living in the Alleengasse, auf der Wieden, in whose house Beethoven placed his nephew Carl (not to be confounded with the copyist of the same name). Schlesinger, Moritz, music publisher in Berlin and Paris. Schmidt, Dr., army surgeon in Vienna. Schoberlechner, Franz, pianist. Scholz, music director in Warmbrunn. Schönauer, Dr., Court advocate and barrister at Vienna, appointed by Beethoven’s brother Carl testamentary trustee to his nephew–an intriguing lawsuit-pettifogger. Schott, music publisher in Mayence. Schröder, Wilhelmine, the great singer. Schuppanzigh, Ignaz, born 1776, died 1830, the celebrated violinist, whose extraordinary corpulence was a frequent subject of Beethoven’s witticisms; he was, however, the first who fully appreciated Beethoven’s music for stringed instruments, which he performed in a masterly manner. Resided in Russia from 1816 to 1823. Schweiger, Joseph Freiherr von, chamberlain to the Archduke Rudolph. Schweizer, Ed. Friedrich von, chamberlain to the Archduke Anton, an admirer of Beethoven’s music and subscriber to the address of February 1824. Sebald, Auguste, the singer. Seibert, Dr., surgeon in Vienna, Beethoven’s operator. Seyfried, Ignaz Ritter von, the well-known composer, publisher of the spurious edition of “Studies by Ludwig van Beethoven,” Kapellmeister in Vienna. Shakespeare, deeply read and greatly admired by Beethoven. Siboni, a distinguished tenorist in Vienna. Sight, Beethoven’s weakness of. Simrock, Court musician (horn player) to the Elector of Cologne, and music publisher in Bonn, a friend of Beethoven’s early days. His son, the present proprietor of the business in Bonn, at Vienna in the summer of 1816. Sketch by Beethoven. Smart, Sir George, music publisher in London, a great admirer of Beethoven’s music. Smetana, Dr., surgeon at Vienna; gained considerable popularity by his treatment of deafness. “Society of Friends to Music in the Austrian States” at Vienna. Sonntag, Henriette, the celebrated singer. Spiecker. Dr., of Berlin. Spohr. Stadler, Abbé Maximilian (born 1748, died 1833), a composer, and the friend of Mozart; an opponent of the Beethoven school of music (_see_ Schindler’s “Biography,” i. 80; ii. 109). Standenheim, a celebrated physician in Vienna. Stein, pianoforte manufacturer at Vienna, brother of Frau Nanette Streicher. Steiner, S.A., music publisher in Vienna, succeeded by T. Haslinger. Sterkel, Franz Xaver, a pleasing pianist and composer, whom Beethoven visited at Aschaffenburg in 1791, and greatly astonished by his pianoforte playing. Stoll, a young poet at Vienna. Streicher, Andreas, the well-known friend of Schiller’s early days. He married, when in his nineteenth year, Nanette Stein, only daughter of the celebrated pianoforte manufacturer at Augsburg, whom he took with him to Vienna, where he first became teacher of the pianoforte, and afterwards, by the assistance of his wife, who had made herself acquainted with her father’s art, founder of the celebrated Streicher pianoforte manufactory. Schindler, in his “Biography,” i. 187, speaks of the interest taken by Frau Streicher in Beethoven’s domestic matters. Stumpff, harp manufacturer in London, an admirer of Beethoven’s works. Swedish Academy of Music. Theatres: Josephstadt; Kärnthnerthor; “An der Wien.” Tiedge, the poet of “Urania,” and also of the song “An die Hoffnung,” so much admired by Beethoven, and several times set to music by him. Tonie, Antonie, of Birkenstock, daughter of a family in Vienna from which Beethoven received great kindness from the first period of his residence in that capital, and in which, in the year 1810, Bettina lived, who afterwards became the wife of B.A. Brentano, a merchant in Frankfort, to whom Beethoven was greatly indebted. Töplitz, in Bohemia. Trautmannsdorf, Prince, High Chamberlain. Travels and travelling projects of Beethoven. _See also_ London. Treitschke, stage poet at Vienna. Unger, the celebrated singer. University, the, of Vienna. Ursulines, convent of the, at Gratz, in Styria, music supplied by Beethoven in aid of. Varenna, Kammerprocurator at Gratz. Varnhagen von Ense. Vering, Dr., army surgeon at Vienna. Vienna, Beethoven’s settled residence from the year 1792, of which, however, he never spoke favorably. Wawruch, Dr., clinical professor, Beethoven’s last surgeon. Weber, Carl Maria von. Weber, Gottfried, theorist and composer. Wegeler, Dr., of Bonn, an early friend of Beethoven. Weigl, Joseph, composer of the “Swiss Family,” Kapellmeister at Vienna. Weinmüller, singer at the Kärnthnerthor Theatre. Weiss, tenor player at Vienna. Westphalia, Beethoven offered the appointment of Kapellmeister to the King of, in 1808. Wieden, a suburb of Vienna, on several occasions Beethoven’s residence. Wieland. Wills, Beethoven’s. Wolf, Dr., advocate in Prague. Zelter, the song composer and friend of Goethe, director of the Academy of Vocal Music at Berlin. Zmeskall von Domanowecz, Court secretary at Vienna, one of Beethoven’s earliest friends in the Imperial city, a good violoncello player and also a composer. Zulehner, music publisher at Mayence. Zurich. 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